South African Class 13 4-8-0TT

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CSAR Class E 4-8-0TT
South African Class 13 4-8-0TT
SAR Class 13 (4-8-0).jpg
SAR Class 13, c. 1912
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer Natal Government Railways
(G.W. Reid)
Builder Dübs and Company
Neilson, Reid and Company
Central South African Railways
Serial number Dübs 4086-4087, 4089-4098
Neilson, Reid 6197-6205, 6207-6212, 6214-6215
Model Converted Reid Tenwheeler
Build date 1904
Total produced 29
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte 4-8-0TT (Mastodon)
 • UIC 2'Dn2t
Driver 2nd coupled axle
Gauge 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge
Leading dia. 25 34 in (654 mm)
Coupled dia. 45 in (1,143 mm)
Wheelbase 43 ft 12 in (13,119 mm)
 • Engine 21 ft 4 in (6,502 mm)
 • Leading 5 ft 4 in (1,626 mm)
 • Coupled 12 ft 6 in (3,810 mm)
Length:
 • Over couplers 50 ft 8 14 in (15,450 mm)
Height 12 ft 6 in (3,810 mm)
Frame type Plate
Axle load 13 LT 16 cwt (14,020 kg)
 • Leading 8 LT 17 cwt (8,992 kg)
 • 1st coupled 12 LT 7 cwt (12,550 kg)
 • 2nd coupled 12 LT 16 cwt (13,010 kg)
 • 3rd coupled 12 LT 16 cwt (13,010 kg)
 • 4th coupled 13 LT 16 cwt (14,020 kg)
Adhesive weight 51 LT 15 cwt (52,580 kg)
Loco weight 60 LT 12 cwt (61,570 kg)
Tender type 3-axle or 2-axle bogies
Fuel type Coal
Water cap 1,880 imp gal (8,550 l) engine
Firebox type Round-top
 • Firegrate area 21 sq ft (2.0 m2)
Boiler:
 • Pitch 6 ft 10 in (2,083 mm)
 • Diameter 4 ft 7 78 in (1,419 mm)
 • Tube plates 10 ft 4 in (3,150 mm)
 • Small tubes 287: 1 34 in (44 mm)
Boiler pressure 175 psi (1,207 kPa)
Safety valve Ramsbottom
Heating surface 1,494 sq ft (138.8 m2)
 • Tubes 1,359 sq ft (126.3 m2)
 • Firebox 135 sq ft (12.5 m2)
Cylinders Two
Cylinder size 19 in (483 mm) bore
27 in (686 mm) stroke
Valve gear Allan
Couplers Johnston link-and-pin
AAR knuckle (1930s)
Performance figures
Tractive effort 28,430 lbf (126.5 kN) @ 75%
Career
Operators Imperial Military Railways
Central South African Railways
South African Railways
Class CSAR Class E, SAR Class 13
Number in class 29
Numbers 1310–1338
Nicknames Walloper
Delivered 1904
First run 1904
Withdrawn 1961
The leading coupled axle had flangeless wheels

The South African Railways Class 13 4-8-0TT of 1905 was a steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in Transvaal.

In 1902, towards the end of the Second Boer War, the Imperial Military Railways placed 35 4-10-2 tank locomotives in service, built to the specifications of the Reid Tenwheeler of the Natal Government Railways. At the end of the war, these locomotives came onto the roster of the Central South African Railways and were designated Class E. All but six of them were subsequently converted to 4-8-0 tank-and-tender locomotives. In 1912, when these converted locomotives came onto the South African Railways roster, they were designated Class 13.[1][2][3][4]

Manufacturers[edit]

G.W. Reid

The requirement for a tank locomotive which could haul at least one-and-a-half times as much as a Dübs A 4-8-2T locomotive on the Natal Government Railways (NGR) mainline, resulted in the design of a 4-10-2 tank locomotive by George W. Reid, Locomotive Superintendent of the NGR at the end of the 19th century. On the NGR, the locomotive type became known as the Reid Tenwheeler, later designated the NGR Class C.[1][3]

In 1902, during the Second Boer War, the Imperial Military Railways (IMR) placed orders for 35 locomotives of the NGR's Reid Tenwheeler type. To ensure rapid delivery, the order was split between Dübs and Company, who delivered the locomotives in the number range from 220 to 234, and Neilson, Reid and Company, who delivered the locomotives in the number range from 235 to 254, all in 1902.[1][5][6]

Service[edit]

Imperial Military Railways[edit]

In comparison to the NGR version, the IMR locomotives were more ornate. In true military tradition, the domes, chimney caps and boiler bands were of polished brass. A weatherboard was affixed to the coal bunker to offer better protection to the crew while travelling bunker forward. The practice of polished brasswork was followed on all new IMR locomotives and was continued even after the railways became the Central South African Railways (CSAR) at the end of the war.[5]

Central South African Railways[edit]

After the war, the Reid Tenwheeler locomotives were designated Class E on the CSAR. P.A. Hyde, Chief Locomotive Superintendent of the CSAR, found them to have an inadequate coal and water supply for trips of any length and decided to convert 29 of them to 4-8-0 Mastodon type tank-and-tender engines, beginning in 1904. The trailing bissel bogie, the fifth pair of coupled wheels and the coal bunker were removed, the main frame was shortened and three- or four-axle tenders from various withdrawn or obsolete locomotives were attached. This increased the coal and water capacities which resulted in a considerable increase in the operating range of the locomotive. Since it was now able to be used without a water tank attached, it could still haul the same load as before, used less oil and was no longer prone to derailment while reversing. Crews found the locomotive more comfortable to work than the tank version.[1][4][5][7]

South African Railways[edit]

When the Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, the three Colonial government railways (Cape Government Railways, NGR and CSAR) were united under a single administration to control and administer the railways, ports and harbours of the Union. Although the South African Railways and Harbours came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways were only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912.[2][8]

In 1912, these locomotives were designated Class 13 on the South African Railways (SAR) and renumbered in the range from 1310 to 1338. The Class 13 was used for a variety of minor tasks, almost exclusively in the Witwatersrand area. They were popular with their drivers and were nicknamed Wallopers. The last of the Class was withdrawn in 1961.[2][5][3]

Industrial[edit]

After withdrawal, several were sold to South African mines, where some were modified once again. A few of them remained in service on the mines well into the 1980s.[3]

Works numbers[edit]

The builders, works numbers, rebuilding and renumbering of all 35 original 4-10-2T locomotives are listed in the table.[2]

Illustration[edit]

One of these locomotives, SAR no. 1313, warrants special mention, having served in four different configurations. It started out on the IMR as a 4-10-2T Reid Tenwheeler type and was then converted by the CSAR, first to a 4-8-2T Mountain type and then to a 4-8-0TT Mastodon type, before being inherited by the SAR. Finally, in mine service, its side tanks were removed to convert it to a regular 4-8-0 tender locomotive.[5]

The main picture shows a Class 13 in tank-and-tender configuration, c. 1912. The following pictures show Class 13 no. 1337 with its side tanks removed to convert it to a regular 4-8-0 configuration while in mine service.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1944). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter III - Natal Government Railways. (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, June 1944. pp. 424-425.
  2. ^ a b c d Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued by the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Office, Pretoria, January 1912, pp. 9, 12, 15, 44-45 (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum, R.3125-6/9/11-1000)
  3. ^ a b c d Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 32, 56. ISBN 0869772112. 
  4. ^ a b South African Railways and Harbours Locomotive Diagram Book, 2'0" & 3'6" Gauge Steam Locomotives, 15 August 1941, pp21 & 21A, as amended
  5. ^ a b c d e Holland, D.F. (1971). Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways. 1: 1859–1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 92–94, 123–124, 134–135. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0. 
  6. ^ Neilson, Reid works list, compiled by Austrian locomotive historian Bernhard Schmeiser
  7. ^ Espitalier, T.J.; Day, W.A.J. (1945). The Locomotive in South Africa - A Brief History of Railway Development. Chapter VI - Imperial Military Railways and C.S.A.R. (Continued). South African Railways and Harbours Magazine, January 1945. pp. 15-16.
  8. ^ The South African Railways - Historical Survey. Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd., Published c. 1978, p. 25.