A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile nose trunk. Tapirs inhabit jungle and forest regions of South America, Central America, Southeast Asia; the five extant species of tapirs, all of the family Tapiridae and the genus Tapirus, are the Brazilian tapir, the Malayan tapir, the Baird's tapir, the kabomani tapir and the mountain tapir. The four species that have been evaluated are all classified on the IUCN Red List as Endangered or Vulnerable; the tapirs have a number of extinct relatives in the superfamily Tapiroidea. The closest extant relatives of the tapirs are the other odd-toed ungulates, which include horses, donkeys and rhinoceroses. Five extant species within one extant genus are recognised. Four are in Central and South America, while the fifth is in Asia.: Baird's tapir, Tapirus bairdii South American tapir, Tapirus terrestris Little black tapir, Tapirus kabomani Mountain tapir, Tapirus pinchaque Malayan tapir, Tapirus indicus Tapirus augustus † Tapirus californicus † Tapirus copei † Tapirus cristatellus † Tapirus greslebini † Tapirus johnsoni † Tapirus lundeliusi † Tapirus merriami † Tapirus mesopotamicus † Tapirus oliverasi † Tapirus polkensis † Tapirus rioplatensis † Tapirus rondoniensis † Tapirus tarijensis † Tapirus veroensis † Tapirus webbi † Size varies between types, but most tapirs are about 2 m long, stand about 1 m high at the shoulder, weigh between 150 and 300 kg.
Their coats are short and range in color from reddish brown, to grey, to nearly black, with the notable exceptions of the Malayan tapir, which has a white, saddle-shaped marking on its back, the mountain tapir, which has longer, woolly fur. All tapirs have oval, white-tipped ears, protruding rumps with stubby tails, splayed, hooved toes, with four toes on the front feet and three on the hind feet, which help them to walk on muddy and soft ground. Baby tapirs of all types have striped-and-spotted coats for camouflage. Females have a single pair of mammary glands, males have long penises relative to their body size; the proboscis of the tapir is a flexible organ, able to move in all directions, allowing the animals to grab foliage that would otherwise be out of reach. Tapirs exhibit the flehmen response, a posture in which they raise their snouts and show their teeth to detect scents; this response is exhibited by bulls sniffing for signs of other males or females in oestrus in the area. The length of the proboscis varies among species.
The evolution of tapir probosces, made up entirely of soft tissues rather than bony internal structures, gives the Tapiridae skull a unique form in comparison to other perissodactyls, with a larger sagittal crest, orbits positioned more rostrally, a posteriorly telescoped cranium, a more elongated and retracted nasoincisive incisure. Tapirs have brachyodont, or that lack cementum, their dental formula is: Totaling 42 to 44 teeth, this dentition is closer to that of equids, which may differ by one less canine, than their other perissodactyl relatives, rhinoceroses. Their incisors are chisel-shaped, with the third large, conical upper incisor separated by a short gap from the smaller canine. A much longer gap is found between the premolars, the first of which may be absent. Tapirs are lophodonts, their cheek teeth have distinct lophs between protocones, paracones and hypocones. Tapirs have brown eyes with a bluish cast to them, identified as corneal cloudiness, a condition most found in Malayan tapirs.
The exact etiology is unknown, but the cloudiness may be caused by excessive exposure to light or by trauma. However, the tapir's sensitive ears and strong sense of smell help to compensate for deficiencies in vision. Tapirs are hindgut fermenters that ferment digested food in a large cecum. Young tapirs reach sexual maturity between three and five years of age, with females maturing earlier than males. Under good conditions, a healthy female tapir can reproduce every two years; the natural lifespan of a tapir is about 25 to 30 years, both in zoos. Apart from mothers and their young offspring, tapirs lead exclusively solitary lives. Although they live in dryland forests, tapirs with access to rivers spend a good deal of time in and underwater, feeding on soft vegetation, taking refuge from predators, cooling off during hot periods. Tapirs near a water source will swim, sink to the bottom, walk along the riverbed to feed, have been known to submerge themselves under water to allow small fish to pick parasites off their bulky bodies.
Along with freshwater lounging, tapirs wallow in mud pits, which help to keep them cool and free of insects. In the wild, the tapir's diet consists of fruit and leaves young, tender growth. Tapirs will spend many of their waking hours foraging along well-worn trails, snout
The Malayan tapir called the Asian tapir or Indian tapir, is the largest of the five species of tapir and the only one native to Asia. The scientific name refers to the species' natural habitat. In the Malay language, the tapir is referred to as cipan, tenuk or badak tampung; the animal is identified by its markings, most notably the light-colored patch that extends from its shoulders to its rear end. The rest of its hair is black, except for the tips of its ears, which, as with other tapirs, are rimmed with white; this pattern is for camouflage. Malayan tapirs grow to between 1.8 and 2.5 m in length, not counting a stubby tail of only 5 to 10 cm in length, stand 90 to 110 cm tall. They weigh between 250 and 320 kg, although some adults can weigh up to 540 kg; the females are larger than the males. Like the other types of tapir, they have long, flexible proboscises, they have four three toes on each back foot. The Malayan tapir has rather excellent hearing and sense of smell, they have a large sagittal crest, a bone running along the middle of the skull, necessary for muscle attachment.
They have unusually positioned orbits, an unusually shaped cranium with the frontal bones elevated, a retracted nasal incision. All of these modifications to the normal mammal skull are, of course, to make room for the proboscis; this proboscis caused a retraction of bones and cartilage in the face during the evolution of the tapir, caused the loss of some cartilages, facial muscles, the bony wall of the nasal chamber. Malayan tapirs have poor eyesight, making them rely on their excellent sense of smell and hearing to go about in their everyday lives, they have beady eyes with brown irises on either side of their faces. Their eyes are covered in a blue haze, corneal cloudiness thought to be caused by repetitive exposure to light. Corneal cloudiness is a condition; the cornea is necessary for the transmitting and focusing of outside light as it enters the eye, cloudiness can cause vision loss. This causes the Malayan tapir to have inadequate vision, both on land and in water, where they spend the majority of their time.
As these tapirs are most active at night and since they have poor eyesight, it is harder for them to search for food and avoid predators in the dark. A small number of melanistic Malayan tapirs have been observed. In 1924, an all-black tapir was sent to Rotterdam Zoo and was classified as a subspecies called Tapirus indicus brevetianus after its discoverer, Captain K. Brevet. In 2000, two melanistic tapirs were observed during a study of tigers in the Jerangau Forest Reserve in Malaysia; the cause of this variation may be a genetic abnormality similar to that of black panthers that appear in populations of spotted leopards or spotted jaguars. However and until, more T. i. brevetianus individuals can be studied, the precise explanation for the trait will remain unknown. The gestation period of the Malayan tapir is about 390–395 days, after which a single offspring, weighing around 15 pounds, is born. Malayan tapirs are the largest of the five tapir species at birth and grow more than their congeners.
Young tapirs of all species have brown hair with white stripes and spots, a pattern that enables them to hide in the dappled light of the forest. This baby coat fades into adult coloration between seven months after birth. Weaning occurs between six and eight months of age, at which time the babies are nearly full-grown, the animals reach sexual maturity around age three. Breeding occurs in April, May or June, females produce one calf every two years. Malayan tapirs can live up to 30 years, both in captivity. Malayan tapirs are solitary creatures, marking out large tracts of land as their territory, though these areas overlap with those of other individuals. Tapirs mark out their territories by spraying urine on plants, they follow distinct paths, which they have bulldozed through the undergrowth. Herbivorous, the animal forages for the tender shoots and leaves of more than 115 species of plants, moving through the forest and pausing to eat and note the scents left behind by other tapirs in the area.
However, when threatened or frightened, the tapir can run despite its considerable bulk, can defend itself with its strong jaws and sharp teeth. Malayan tapirs communicate with high-pitched whistles, they prefer to live near water and bathe and swim, they are able to climb steep slopes. Tapirs are active at night, though they are not nocturnal, they tend to eat soon after sunset or before sunrise, they will nap in the middle of the night. This behavior characterizes them as crepuscular animals; the Malayan tapir was once found throughout the tropical lowland rainforests of Southeast Asia, including Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam. However, its numbers have decreased in recent years, today, like all tapirs, it is in danger of extinction; because of their size, tapirs have few natural predators, reports of killings by tigers are scarce. The main threat to the Malayan tapirs is human activity, including deforestation for agricultu
The green anaconda known as common anaconda or common water boa, is a non-venomous boa species found in South America. It is one of the longest known extant snake species; the term anaconda refers to this species, though the term could apply to other members of the genus Eunectes. The green anaconda's scientific name is derived from the Greek εὐνήκτης, meaning "good swimmer", the Latin murinus, meaning "of mice", for being thought to prey on mice. "The name first was from the Sinhala language of Sri Lanka Ceylon, that in 1869, the Englishman John Ray wrote of "anacandaia of the Ceylonese, i.e. he that crushes the limbs of the buffaloes and yoke beasts." For more than one hundred years the name was applied to a snake from Ceylon, but in the nineteenth-century experts began to use it for a snake residing in the Amazon basin. The green anaconda is the world's heaviest and one of the world's longest snakes, reaching 5.21 m long. More typical mature specimens can range up to 5 m, with the females, at around a mean length of 4.6 m, being much larger in adulthood than the male, which averages around 3 m.
Weights are less well studied, though will range from 30 to 70 kg in an average-range adult. It is the largest snake native to the Americas. Although it is shorter than the reticulated python, it is far more robust: the bulk of a 4.5 m green anaconda would be comparable to a 7.4 m reticulated python. Eunectes murinus is the heaviest extant species of snake or squamate in the world only rivaled by the Komodo dragon. Reports of anacondas 35–40 feet or longer exist, but such claims need to be regarded with caution, as no specimens of such lengths have been deposited in a museum and hard evidence is lacking. A $50,000 cash reward is offered for anyone who can catch an anaconda 30 ft or longer, but the prize has not been claimed yet; the longest verified specimen encountered by Dr. Jesús Antonio Rivas, who had examined thousands of anacondas, was a female measuring 5.21 m long and weighing 97.5 kg. The color pattern consists of olive green background overlaid with black blotches along the length of the body.
The head is narrow compared to the body with distinctive orange-yellow striping on either side. The eyes are set high on the head, allowing the snake to see out of the water while swimming without exposing its body; the remote location of the snake's habitat has made locating and returning specimens difficult. Transporting large specimens to museums before substantial decay, is difficult. Skins can stretch increasing the snake's size by more than 50% if stretched during the tanning process. Reports without physical proof are considered dubious if from nonscientists, as such individuals may at worst be more interested in promoting themselves or telling a good tale, or at the least may not be sufficiently trained in proper measurement methods. Observational reports of animals which were not captured are more dubious, as trained scientists substantially overestimate the size of anacondas prior to capture. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, this species has been subject to the most extreme size exaggerations of any living animal.
At the same time, it is difficult to argue a maximum possible or plausible size, because anacondas are known to continue to grow throughout their lives. Older reports, in particular, could include individuals which, in times of less pressure from humans, lived longer lives and thus reached greater sizes. Numerous historical accounts of green anacondas are reported of improbable sizes. Several zoologists note rumors of snakes beyond 30 or 40 feet long, but in each case, their direct observations were limited to snakes of 20 feet in length. Numerous estimates and second-hand accounts abound but are considered unreliable. To prove the point of overestimating, in Guyana in 1937, zoologist Alpheus Hyatt Verrill asked the expedition team he was with to estimate the length of a large, curled-up anaconda on a rock; the team's guesses ran from 6.1 to 18.3 m. All specimens in excess of 6 m, including a much publicized specimen of 11.36 m in length, have no voucher specimens, including skins or bones. The skin of one specimen, stretched to 10 m, has been preserved in the Instituto Butantan in São Paulo and is reported to have come from an anaconda of 7.6 m in length.
In one of the most reliable accounts, a geologist killed a large anaconda and measured it using a four-meter rod, reporting it as three rods long. While in Colombia in 1978, herpetologist William W. Lamar had an encounter with a large female specimen which measured 7.5 m and was estimated to weigh between 136 and 180 kg. In 1962, W. L. Schurz claimed to have measured a snake in Brazil of 8.46 m with a maximum girth of 112 cm. One female measuring 7.9 m in length, shot in 1963 in Nariva Swamp, contained a 1.5-m caiman. A specimen of 7.3 m with a weight of 149 kg, was caught at the mouth of the Kassikaityu River in Guyana, having
Paraguay the Republic of Paraguay, is a country of South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, Bolivia to the northwest. Although it is one of the only two landlocked countries in South America, the country has coasts and ports on the Paraguay and Paraná rivers that give exit to the Atlantic Ocean through the Paraná-Paraguay Waterway. Due to its central location in South America, it is sometimes referred to as Corazón de Sudamérica. Spanish conquistadores arrived in 1524 after navigating northwards from the Río de la Plata to the Paraná River, up the Paraguay River. In 1537, they established the city of Asunción, the first capital of the Governorate of Paraguay and Río de la Plata. Paraguay was the epicenter of the Jesuit Missions, where the Guaraní people were educated and introduced to Christianity and European culture under the direction of the Society of Jesus in Jesuit reductions during the 17th century. However, after the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish territories in 1767, Paraguay became a peripheral colony, with few urban centers and settlers.
Following independence from Spain at the beginning of the 19th century, Paraguay was ruled by a series of authoritarian governments who implemented nationalist and protectionist policies. This period ended with the disastrous Paraguayan War, during which Paraguay lost at least 50% of its prewar population and around 25–33% of its territory to the Triple Alliance of Argentina and Uruguay. In the 20th century, Paraguay faced another major international conflict – the Chaco War – against Bolivia, from which the Paraguayans emerged victorious. Afterwards, the country entered a period of military dictatorships, ending with the 35 year regime of Alfredo Stroessner that lasted until he was toppled in 1989 by an internal military coup; this marked the beginning of the "democratic era" of Paraguay. With around 7 million inhabitants, Paraguay is a founding member of Mercosur, an original member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Lima Group; the city of Luque, in Asuncion's Metropolitan Area, is the seat of the CONMEBOL.
The Guarani culture is influential and more than 90% of the people speak different forms of the Guarani language on top of Spanish. Paraguayans are known for being a happy and easy-living people and many times the country topped the "world's happiest place" charts because of the "positive experiences" lived and expressed by the population; the indigenous Guaraní had been living in eastern Paraguay for at least a millennium before the arrival of the Spanish. Western Paraguay, the Gran Chaco, was inhabited by nomads of whom the Guaycuru peoples were the most prominent; the Paraguay River was the dividing line between the agricultural Guarani people to the east and the nomadic and semi-nomadic people to the west in the Gran Chaco. The Guarcuru nomads were known for their warrior traditions and were not pacified until the late 19th century; these indigenous tribes belonged to five distinct language families, which were the bases of their major divisions. Differing language speaking groups were competitive over resources and territories.
They were further divided into tribes by speaking languages in branches of these families. Today 17 separate ethnolinguistic groups remain; the first Europeans in the area were Spanish explorers in 1516. The Spanish explorer Juan de Salazar de Espinosa founded the settlement of Asunción on 15 August 1537; the city became the center of a Spanish colonial province of Paraguay. An attempt to create an autonomous Christian Indian nation was undertaken by Jesuit missions and settlements in this part of South America in the eighteenth century, which included portions of Uruguay and Brazil, they developed Jesuit reductions to bring Guarani populations together at Spanish missions and protect them from virtual slavery by Spanish settlers and Portuguese slave raiders, the Bandeirantes. In addition to seeking their conversion to Christianity. Catholicism in Paraguay was influenced by the indigenous peoples; the reducciones flourished in eastern Paraguay for about 150 years, until the expulsion of the Jesuits by the Spanish Crown in 1767.
The ruins of two 18th-century Jesuit Missions of La Santísima Trinidad de Paraná and Jesús de Tavarangue have been designated as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. In western Paraguay Spanish settlement and Christianity were resisted by the nomadic Guaycuru and other nomads from the 16th century onward. Most of these peoples were absorbed into the mestizo population in the 19th centuries. Paraguay overthrew the local Spanish administration on 14 May 1811. Paraguay's first dictator was José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia who ruled Paraguay from 1814 until his death in 1840, with little outside contact or influence, he intended to create a utopian society based on the French theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Social Contract. Rodríguez de Francia established new laws that reduced the powers of the Catholic church and the cabinet, forbade colonial citizens from marrying one another and allowed them to marry only blacks, mulattoes or natives, in order to break the power of colonial-era elites and to create a mixed-race or mestizo society.
He cut off the rest of South America. Because of Francia's restrictions of freedom, Fulgencio Yegros and several other Independence-era
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, of an average height of about 4,000 m; the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, separated by intermediate depressions; the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau; these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, the Wet Andes. The Andes Mountains are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia; the highest mountain outside Asia, Argentina's Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level.
The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m; the Andes are part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The etymology of the word Andes has been debated; the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. The Andes can be divided into three sections: The Southern Andes in Chile. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes; the term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel", meaning "rope".
The Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Leeward Antilles islands Aruba and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates; the Andes are a Mesozoic–Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific region. The Andes are the result of tectonic plate processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate, it is the result of a convergent plate boundary between the Nazca Plate and the South American Plate The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.
To the east, the Andes range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes share a long boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru-Chile trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography; the Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of oroclines; the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point, the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile and Argentina; the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.
The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau and according to Isacks the orocline is related to crustal shortening. The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow". Further south lies the Maipo Orocline or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S. Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline; the western rim of the South American Plate has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes began with the events of the Triassic when Pangaea began the break up that resulted in developing several rifts; the development continued through the Jurassic Period. It was during the Cretaceous Period that the Andes began to take their present form, by the uplifting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east.
The rise of the Andes has not been constant, as different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone al
Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals associated with land use rights. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, poaching was performed by impoverished peasants for subsistence purposes and a supplement for meager diets. Poaching was as well set against the hunting privileges of territorial rulers. By contrast, stealing domestic animals classifies as theft, not as poaching. Since the 1980s, the term "poaching" has referred to the illegal harvesting of wild plant species. In agricultural terms, the term'poaching' is applied to the loss of soils or grass by the damaging action of feet of livestock which can affect availability of productive land, water pollution through increased runoff and welfare issues for cattle. Austria and Germany refer to poaching not as intrusion in third party hunting rights. While Germanic law allowed any free man including peasants to hunt on the commons, Roman law restricted hunting to the rulers. In Medieval Europe feudal territory rulers from the king downward tried to enforce exclusive rights of the nobility to hunt and fish on the lands they ruled.
Poaching was deemed a serious crime punishable by imprisonment, but the enforcement was comparably weak until the 16th century. Peasants were still able to continue small game hunting, but the right of the nobility to hunt was restricted in the 16th century and transferred to land ownership; the development of modern hunting rights is connected to the comparably modern idea of exclusive private property of land. In the 17th and 18th centuries the restrictions on hunting and shooting rights on private property were being enforced by gamekeepers and foresters, they denied shared usages of forests, e.g. resin collection and wood pasture and the peasant's right to hunt and fish. However, comparably easy access to rifles allowed peasants and servants to poach by end of the 18th century; the low quality of guns made it necessary to approach to the game as close as 30 m. For example, poachers in the Salzburg region were men around 30 years of age, not yet married and alone on their illegal trade. Hunting was used in the 18th century as a theatrical demonstration of aristocratic rule of the land and had a strong impact on land use patterns as well.
Poaching in so far interfered not only with property rights but clashed symbolically with the power of the nobility. During the years between 1830 and 1848 poaching and poaching related deaths increased in Bavaria; the revolution of 1848 was interpreted as a general allowance for poaching in Bavaria. The reform of hunting law in 1849 reduced legal hunting to rich land owners and the bourgeoisie able to pay the hunting fees and led to disappointment and ongoing praise of poachers among the people; some of the frontier region, where smuggling was important, showed strong resistance. In 1849, the Bavarian military forces were asked to occupy a number of municipalities on the frontier to Austria. Both, in Wallgau and in Lackenhäuser, each household had to feed and accommodate one soldier for a month as part of a military mission to quell the uproar; the people of Lackenhäuser had had several skirmishes about poached deer with Austrian foresters and military, were known as well armed pertly poachers.
Poaching, like smuggling, has a long counter-cultural history. The verb poach is derived from the Middle English word pocchen meaning bagged, enclosed in a bag. Poaching was dispassionately reported for England in "Pleas of the Forest", transgressions of the rigid Anglo-Norman Forest Law. William the Conqueror, a great lover of hunting and enforced a system of forest law; this operated outside the common law, served to protect game animals and their forest habitat from hunting by the common people of England and reserved hunting rights for the new French-speaking Anglo-Norman aristocracy. Henceforth hunting of game in royal forests by commoners or in other words poaching, was invariably punishable by death by hanging. In 1087, a poem called "The Rime of King William" contained in the Peterborough Chronicle, expressed English indignation at the severe new laws. Poaching was romanticised in literature from the time of the ballads of Robin Hood, as an aspect of the "greenwood" of Merry England; the widespread acceptance of this common criminal activity is encapsulated in the observation Non est inquirendum, unde venit venison, made by Guillaume Budé in his Traitte de la vénerie.
However, the English nobility and land owners were in the long term successful in enforcing the modern concept of property, expressed e.g. in the enclosures of common land and in the Highland Clearances, which were both forced displacement of people from traditional land tenancies and erstwhile common land. The 19th century saw the rise of acts of legislation, such as the Night Poaching Act 1828 and Game Act 1831 in the United Kingdom, various laws elsewhere. In North America, the blatant defiance of the laws by poachers escalated to armed conflicts with law authorities, including the Oyster Wars of the Chesapeake Bay, the joint US-British Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations of 1891 over the hunting of seals. Violations of hunting laws and regulations concerning wildlife management, local or international wildlife conservation schemes constitute wildlife crimes that are punishable; the following violations
Museum of Osteology
The Museum of Osteology, located in Oklahoma City, United States, North America, is a private museum devoted to the study of bones and skeletons. This museum displays over 350 skeletons from animal species from animals all over the world. With another 7000 specimens as part of the collection, but not on display, this is the largest held collection of osteological specimens in the world; the museum focuses on the form and function of the skeletal system with numerous educational and taxonomic displays featuring all five vertebrate classes. The collections housed by the Museum of Osteology are the result of over 40 years of collecting by Jay Villemarette; the collections consist of 7,000 specimens representing over 2,500 species of mammals, reptiles and fish. The museum was established by Jay Villemarette, founder of the company Skulls Unlimited International, Inc., located next to the museum. Construction on the museum began in 2004 and opened to the public on October 1, 2010. In 2015, the Museum of Osteology opened a second location, Skeletons: Museum of Osteology, at the I-Drive 360 entertainment complex in Orlando, Florida.
This location is cited as the largest skeleton museum in America with over 500 skeletons on display. Official website Museum of Osteology on AdventureRoad.com Destination Information & Travel Planning