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South Atlantic Anomaly

The South Atlantic Anomaly is an area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, dipping down to an altitude of 200 kilometres. This leads to an increased flux of energetic particles in this region and exposes orbiting satellites to higher-than-usual levels of radiation; the effect is caused by the non-concentricity of its magnetic dipole. The SAA is the near-Earth region where the Earth's magnetic field is weakest relative to an idealized Earth-centered dipole field; the area of the SAA is confined by the intensity of Earth's magnetic field at less than 32,000 nanotesla at sea level, which corresponds to the dipolar magnetic field at ionospheric altitudes. However, the field itself varies in intensity as a gradient; the Van Allen radiation belts are symmetrical about the Earth's magnetic axis, tilted with respect to the Earth's rotational axis by an angle of 11°. The intersection between the magnetic and rotation axes of the Earth is located not at the Earth's center, but some 450 to 500 km away.

Because of this asymmetry, the inner Van Allen belt is closest to the Earth's surface over the south Atlantic Ocean where it dips down to 200 km in altitude, farthest from the Earth's surface over the north Pacific Ocean. If Earth's magnetism is represented by a bar magnet of small size but strong intensity, the SAA variation can be illustrated by placing the magnet not in the plane of the Equator, but some small distance North, shifted more or less in the direction of Singapore; as a result, over northern South America and the south Atlantic, near Singapore's antipodal point, the magnetic field is weak, resulting in a lower repulsion to trapped particles of the radiation belts there, as a result these particles reach deeper into the upper atmosphere than they otherwise would. The shape of the SAA changes over time. Since its initial discovery in 1958, the southern limits of the SAA have remained constant while a long-term expansion has been measured to the northwest, the north, the northeast, the east.

Additionally, the shape and particle density of the SAA varies on a diurnal basis, with greatest particle density corresponding to local noon. At an altitude of 500 km, the SAA spans from −50° to 0° geographic latitude and from −90° to +40° longitude; the highest intensity portion of the SAA drifts to the west at a speed of about 0.3° per year, is noticeable in the references listed below. The drift rate of the SAA is close to the rotation differential between the Earth's core and its surface, estimated to be between 0.3° and 0.5° per year. Current literature suggests that a slow weakening of the geomagnetic field is one of several causes for the changes in the borders of the SAA since its discovery; as the geomagnetic field continues to weaken, the inner Van Allen belt gets closer to the Earth, with a commensurate enlargement of the SAA at given altitudes. The South Atlantic Anomaly is of great significance to astronomical satellites and other spacecraft that orbit the Earth at several hundred kilometers altitude.

The International Space Station, orbiting with an inclination of 51.6°, requires extra shielding to deal with this problem. The Hubble Space Telescope does not take observations while passing through the SAA. Astronauts are affected by this region, said to be the cause of peculiar "shooting stars" seen in the visual field of astronauts, an effect termed the cosmic ray visual phenomena. Passing through the South Atlantic Anomaly is thought to be the reason for the failures of the Globalstar network's satellites in 2007; the PAMELA experiment, while passing through the SAA, detected antiproton levels that were orders of magnitude higher than expected. This suggests the Van Allen belt confines antiparticles produced by the interaction of the Earth's upper atmosphere with cosmic rays. NASA has reported that modern laptops have crashed when Space Shuttle flights passed through the anomaly. In October 2012, the SpaceX CRS-1 Dragon spacecraft attached to the International Space Station experienced a transient problem as it passed through the anomaly.

The SAA is believed to have started a series of events leading to the destruction of the Hitomi, Japan's most powerful X-ray observatory. The anomaly transiently disabled a direction-finding mechanism, causing the satellite to rely on gyroscopes that were not working properly, after which it spun itself apart. Geomagnetic reversal Geomagnetic storm Operation Argus Space weather "Magnetic mysteries of Earth's Core". BBC News. Section "Magnetic flip" contains a video showing the growth and movement of the South Atlantic Anomaly over the last 400 years

John Spillane

John Spillane is a singer-songwriter from Cork, Ireland. He graduated from University College Cork in English. Spillane grew up in a family of five boys, he was educated in Coláiste Bishopstown. Raised by his mother, she influenced his musical nature and taught him a variety of Cork songs including "The Banks of My Own Lovely Lee" and "The Lonely Woods of Upton". A shy child who shunned the spotlight, he got his first guitar at the age of fifteen and joined his first band in school; when he first began his main influences derived from artists like the Beatles, Neil Young and Bob Dylan. His beginnings were more rock than anything else. "When I started out with rock bands, I sang in an American accent. I heard real Americans sing the blues and it made me feel like a fraud. Since the most important thing for me is to be true to who I am and where I come from." After finishing the leaving cert he took a hiatus to work as a clerk in the Bank of Ireland, but his old band lured him back to his real calling, music.

He toured around Ireland playing rock music. It all fell apart according to Spillane but it was no matter as at that point he had realised that trad was what he wanted to immerse himself in and began his career as a professional musician at the age of 20. In Spillane's early career he was involved with several bands but most notably were Nomos and The Stargazers. Taken under the wing of renowned whistle player Noel Shine, Spillane spent several years playing with the local jazz vocal group The Stargazers, it was at this time he studied in UCC obtaining a degree in English. It was in 1992; the band was made up of concertina player Niall Vallely, Donegal fiddler Liz Doherty, bodhrán player Frank Torpey, Gerry McKee on mandocello and bouzouki. Spillane played acoustic guitar and fretless electric bass while contributing songs to the group. Together they toured the world and produces two albums Set You Free and I Won't Be Afraid Anymore. Spillane left to pursue a solo career. Spillane is an advocate of the resurgence of the Irish language having released two albums entirely in Irish.

The first being a collaboration with Irish poet Louis de Paor under the pseudonym "The Gaelic Hit Factory". The album of the same name was critically acclaimed and Spillane and De Paor combined their talents to win the Realta Irish song contest two years in a row; the second being the recent double platinum selling album Irish Songs We Learned at School, recorded with students from a school in Ballincollig and features thirteen traditional Irish songs. Spillane is noted to have followed the release with a school tour to promote the Irish language through music to young people. A song from the album was featured on the 2013 compilation album Larry Kirwan's Celtic Invasion. In October 2007 asked by TG4, Spillane filmed a twelve-day musical visit to Senegal in West Africa, it was part of a series called Ceoilchuairt which sent different musicians to different parts of the world to interact with musicians from different cultures and learn from them. An excerpt from his journal describes an experience from that trip: "Another day found us on the Isle de Goréé, the chief station for the deportation of slaves from West Africa to the Americas.

A World Heritage Site and a museum to the appalling history of man's inhumanity to man. "If all the sea were ink, all the sky were made of paper, there would not be enough ink or paper to write down the human suffering caused by the Slave Trade." The show itself was repeated due to its popularity and Spillane has since collaborated with TG4 on a documentary about emigration. Spillane's home page Spillane's MySpace page

Daniel Garlitsky

Daniel Garlitsky is a Russian violinist and conductor. Daniel Garlitsky is descendant of a lineage of pedagogues, his grandfather, Mikhail Garlitsky, was the founder of the "Step by step" violin method. His father, winner of the Paganini competition, served as concertmaster of the Moscow Virtuosi orchestra and of the London Philharmonic Orchestra. Born in Moscow, Daniel Garlitsky began his musical studies at the "Specialised Gnessin School of Music" at the age of 6. Having settled in France in the early 90s, he continued his tuition at the Lyon Conservatory and, graduating with highest distinctions. In 1999, Daniel Garlitsky became a student of the prestigious Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris. Eager to broaden his musical knowledge, Garlitsky has followed classes of harmony, orchestration and Indian music, he graduated cum laude and was awarded a special prize for outstanding performance given during his final recital. For over two decades, Daniel Garlitsky has been performing a wide variety kind of music worldwide.

As a soloist, he has shared the stage with such orchestras as the Hamburg Philharmonic, Wurttemberg Philharmonic, Kanagawa State Orchestra, Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment, Vienna Chamber Orchestra and many others. He has performed under the baton of such conductors as Vladimir Jurowski, Mishiyoshi Inoue, Dmitry Sitkovetsky and Christoph Eberle, his chamber music partners have included Gidon Kremer, Maria Joao Pires, Oleg Maisenberg, Augustin Dumay, Antoine Tamestit, amongst others. Daniel Garlitsky has been invited to guest lead European top class orchestras such as " Residentie Orkest ", Hamburger Symphoniker, Münchner Rundfunkorchester, Liege Philharmonic and Strasbourg Philharmonic. Daniel Garlitsky's wide repertoire ranges from early baroque, that he performs on period instruments, to 21st century compositions. During his career, Daniel Garlitsky has performed and premiered works by French composers as well as internationally renowned composers such as John Addams, Philip Glass, Arvo Pärt, Giya Kancheli and Mark O'Connor, amongst others.

Always willing to break borders between different forms of art, Garlitsky has worked with the acclaimed choreographer John Neumeier and the Hamburg Ballet. In " Orpheus ", Daniel Garlitsky has portrayed the mirror of the title role, performing works by Biber and Stravinsky on stage, he has performed Philip Glass's violin concerto n°2 for the ballet "Renku". In 2014, Daniel Garlitsky revived the " Tchaïkovky String Quartet " taking over as its 1st violin during the Baltic States Tour. In the 1930s, the same position was held by Mikhaïl. Education has always been an important part in Daniel Garlitsky's life, he teaches the violin at the Paris Conservatory and is invited to give lectures and master classes in Europe and Asia. Furthermore, Daniel Garlitsky is invited to coach, conduct or perform with youth orchestras such as Collegio Moderno, Orchesterzentrum NWR, Orchestre Français des Jeunes. In 2007, Daniel Garlitsky has led and conducted the Kremerata Baltica Chamber Orchestra, performing in Europe and Japan.

Aside from being an accomplished performer and pedagogue, Mr Garlitsky is a skilled composer and arranger. During the past 10 years, Daniel Garlitsky has been approached by different film directors and has composed and recorded various soundtracks including an original score for On love a short film by an award writer/director Eugene Izraylit, based on a poem by Joseph Brodsky. Mr Garlitsky has recorded the soundtrack of Au temps de Maupassant, a French TV-series and has coached actors to portray violinists. Daniel Garlitsky has arranged tracks for the Russian rock musician Boris Grebenshchikov. Daniel Garlitsky plays an 18th-century Italian violin labeled Joseph Guarnerius, filius Andreæ and a French violin made for him in 2003 by Jacques Fustier. Material taken from the external links below Official website

Pablo Cruise (album)

Pablo Cruise is the debut album by the California soft rock group Pablo Cruise, released in 1975. Side One "Island Woman" - 5:02 "Denny" - 3:01 "Sleeping Dogs" - 3:52 "What Does it Take" - 4:51 "Rock'N' Roller" - 5:21Side Two "Not Tonight" - 3:01 "In My Own Quiet Way" - 4:15 "Ocean Breeze" - 12:24 David Jenkins: Acoustic Guitar, Electric Guitar, Vocals Steve Price: Percussion, Drums Bud Cockrell: Bass, Vocals Cory Lerios: Piano, Backing VocalsAdditional musicians Michael Utley: Organ Bobbye Hall Porter: additional percussion on "Island Woman" and "Denny" Michael James Jackson: Producer Larry Forkner: Engineer Norm Kinney: Engineer, Remixing Russ Landau: Project Coordinator David Paich: Arranger, Keyboards, String Arrangements

John Dawkins (South Australian politician)

John Samuel Letts Dawkins is a South Australian politician, a Member of the South Australian Legislative Council, representing the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia. Dawkins is the Premier's Advocate for Suicide Prevention in the Marshall Government, he was first elected to an eight-year term in the Legislative Council at the 1997 election. He was re-elected for a second eight-year term at the 2006 election, a third eight-year term at the 2014 election. Before his entry into SA politics, Dawkins was an Electorate Officer to former Senator and Howard Government Minister. Nick Minchin, former Foreign Minister and Liberal Party Leader. Neil Andrew AO, he has been a member and supporter of many and varied community clubs and organisations, including the Returned and Services League of Australia, sporting and agricultural bodies. Dawkins was a son of the Hon. Maynard Boyd Dawkins MBE, a sheep breeder of Gawler River, former member of Local Government and Member of the South Australian Legislative Council for the Liberal Party from 1962 to 1982.

A cousin of the same name, the Hon. John Dawkins AO, was a politician from the Australian Labor Party and was the federal Treasurer of Australia from 1991 to 1993. Parliament Profile

This Is a Recording (Lily Tomlin album)

This Is a Recording is a comedy album released in 1971 by American actress-comedian Lily Tomlin. The album consists of comic sketches of Tomlin in her most famous character, the nosy and sharp-tongued telephone operator; the album's tracks include monologues in which Ernestine tangles over the phone with Joan Crawford, Gore Vidal, Martha Mitchell, J. Edgar Hoover, it was recorded live at the intimate Ice House in California. The album, Tomlin's first, won her a Grammy Award for Best Comedy Recording. Tomlin became the first woman to win this award for a solo recording The album peaked at #15 on the Billboard Hot 200 albums list, the highest charting solo comedy album by a woman on the chart. "Alexander Graham Bell" "Mr. Veedle" "The Marriage Counselor" "Joan Crawford" "Obscene Phone Call" "The Repairman" "The Bordello" "Strike" "Peeved" "Ernestine" "The Pageant" "The F. B. I." "The Mafia and the Pope" "Mrs. Mitchell" "Awards Dinner" "Boswick 9" "I. B. M."