South Australian House of Assembly

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House of Assembly
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Founded 1857
Leadership
Michael Atkinson, Labor
Since 5 February 2013
Frances Bedford, Labor
Since 6 May 2014
Structure
Seats 47
SA House of Assembly Diagram.svg
Political groups
Government
     Labor (23)

Opposition
     Liberal (19)

Crossbench
     Independent (5)
Elections
Full preferential voting
Meeting place
South Australian House of Assembly.JPG
House of Assembly Chamber,
Parliament House, Adelaide,
South Australia, Australia
Website
SA House of Assembly

The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia, the other is the Legislative Council. It sits in Parliament House in the state capital, Adelaide, the fourth-term South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party has been in government since the 2002 election.

The 47-seat house consists of 23 Labor, 19 Liberal and 5 independents. Following the 2014 election, the lower house consisted of 23 Labor, 22 Liberal and 2 independents, Geoff Brock and Bob Such. Martin Hamilton-Smith became an independent shortly after the election, reducing the Liberals to 21 seats. Both Hamilton-Smith and fellow independent Brock are in cabinet and provide confidence and supply while retaining the right to vote on conscience. Labor went from minority to majority government when Nat Cook won the 2014 Fisher by-election which was triggered by the death of Bob Such. Despite this, the Jay Weatherill Labor government kept crossbench MPs Brock and Hamilton-Smith in cabinet, giving the government a 26 to 21 parliamentary majority.[1] Frances Bedford resigned from Labor and became an independent on 28 March 2017 after Jack Snelling was endorsed for Florey pre-selection as a result of the major electoral redistribution ahead of the 2018 election. As with the rest of the crossbench, Bedford will continue to provide confidence and supply support to the incumbent Labor government.[2] Duncan McFetridge resigned from the Liberals and moved to the crossbench as an independent in May 2017 after losing party endorsement for Morphett pre-selection.[3] Troy Bell resigned from the Liberals and moved to the crossbench as an independent in August 2017 due to criminal financial allegations.[4]

Overview[edit]

The House of Assembly was created in 1857, when South Australia attained self-government, the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, which was appointed by the Governor.

In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, and the first to allow women to stand for election.[5]

From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts, commonly known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members, the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, and 46 members from 1915 to 1938. In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts.

The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: currently 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas, these seats are intended to represent approximately the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election approximately every four years, the most recent election was held on 15 March 2014.

Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly, the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, and their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios, as Australian MPs almost always vote along party lines, almost all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.

As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had originally been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942.

While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation, as a result, Adelaide accounts for has 72% (34 of 47) of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area frequently deciding election outcomes, at the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote (2PP) was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal.[6]

Election result summaries[edit]

House of Assembly chamber circa 1928.

Current distribution of seats[edit]

Party Seats held
2014 2014–current
Australian Labor Party 23 23
 
Liberal Party of Australia 19 19
 
Independents 5 5
 
  • 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fisher by-election win for Labor gives Weatherill Government majority in SA: ABC 13 December 2014
  2. ^ "Bedford bombshell "won't make much difference", Jay insists". InDaily. 29 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  3. ^ "Duncan McFetridge quits Liberal Party after Morphett preselection loss". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017. 
  4. ^ Mount Gambier MP Troy Bell resigns from Liberal Party, vows to fight theft charges: ABC 17 August 2017
  5. ^ Women’s Suffrage Petition 1894: parliament.sa.gov.au
  6. ^ Metropolitan 2PP correctly calculated by adding raw metro 2PP vote numbers from the 34 metro seats, both Labor and Liberal, then dividing Labor's raw metro 2PP vote from the total, which revealed a Labor metropolitan 2PP of 51.54%. Obtained raw metro 2PP vote numbers from ECSA 2014 election statistics, ECSA 2014 Heysen election and ABC 2014 Fisher by-election.

External links[edit]