Hackettstown, New Jersey
Hackettstown is a town in Warren County, in the state of New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 9,724, reflecting a decline of 679 from the 10,403 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,283 from the 8,120 counted in the 1990 Census; the town is located in the easternmost region of the Lehigh Valley. Hackettstown was incorporated as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 9, 1853, from portions of Independence Township. Portions of territory were exchanged with Mansfield Township in 1857, 1860, 1872 and 1875. Hackettstown houses the headquarters of Mars Chocolate USA, the American division of Mars, makers of Milky Way, Mars, M&M's, Twix and Snickers candy bars, as well as pet foods, human foods and non-confectionery snack foods, it is believed that Hackettstown was named after Samuel Hackett, an early settler and large landowner. Hackett is said to have "contributed liberally to the liquid refreshments on the christening of a new hotel, in order to secure the name which, before this, had been Helms' Mills or Musconetcong".
Hackettstown was named #72 of the top 100 towns in the United States to Live and Work In by Money Magazine in 2005. William Johnson was a prime mover in getting the town incorporated in 1853, he and his brother George were successful merchants in the town beginning in 1839 when they began operating the W. L. & G. W Johnson dry good store; the two men were active in community affairs. George was a member of First Presbyterian Church, a director of the Hackettstown National Bank, a member of the Hackettstown Water Board. Both men were involved in the establishment of the Union Cemetery. In 1886, Tillie Smith, an 18-year-old kitchen worker from a poverty-stricken family, was raped and left lying in an open field on the campus of the Centenary Collegiate Institute, where she worked. A janitor at the school named James Titus was tried and convicted of the rape and murder, based on circumstantial evidence and public opinion shaped by yellow journalism. Titus was sentenced to hang, but he signed a confession and served 19 years of hard labor and lived from 1904 to 1952 in Hackettstown, among many of the same residents who championed his conviction.
In 1925, a train wreck in the town killed about 50 people and injured about 50 others en route to Hoboken, New Jersey from Chicago. The derailment involved a Lackawanna Railroad train and occurred on Rockport Road in the early morning at 3:30AM; the event made national stands as the deadliest event in Warren County history. In 1977, a mass shooting occurred in the town when a 20-year-old former U. S. Marine named Emil Pierre Benoist, a graduate of Hackettstown High School and killed six people and took random shots at passing cars over the course of about four hours before turning his sniper rifle on himself. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town had a total area of 3.712 square miles, including 3.607 square miles of land and 0.105 square miles of water. The town is located in a valley along the banks of the Musconetcong River. Upper Pohatcong Mountain extends northeast of Washington 6 mi. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the town include Warren Furnace.
Hackettstown borders the townships of Washington to the southeast, Mansfield to the southwest, Allamuchy to the north, Mount Olive to the northeast, Independence to the west. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 9,724 people, 3,575 households, 2,255.825 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,696.1 per square mile. There were 3,755 housing units at an average density of 1,041.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.08% White, 2.46% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 4.97% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 5.19% from other races, 2.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.16% of the population. There were 3,575 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.09. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.3% under the age of 18, 14.5% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.3 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $62,215 and the median family income was $82,216. Males had a median income of $51,489 versus $41,822 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $29,433. About 4.4% of families and 7.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 10,403 people, 4,134 households, 2,530 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,809.5 people per square mile. There were 4,347 housing units at an average density of 1,174.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of t
The Raritan River is a major river of central New Jersey in the United States. Its watershed drains much of the mountainous area of the central part of the state, emptying into the Raritan Bay on the Atlantic Ocean. Geologists assert that the lower Raritan provided the course of the mouth of the Hudson River 6,000 years ago. Following the end of the last ice age, the Narrows had not yet been formed and the Hudson flowed along the Watchung Mountains to present-day Bound Brook followed the course of the Raritan eastward into Lower New York Bay; the river forms at the confluence of the North and South Branches just west of Somerville at the border of Bridgewater and Hillsborough Townships. It flows for 16 mi before slowing in tidewater at New Brunswick, its estuary extends 14 mi more entering the western end of Raritan Bay at South Amboy; the river has served an important water transportation route since the Pre-Columbian era. The name Raritan is applied to the Raritan people, an Algonquian tribe that inhabited Staten Island, near the river's mouth.
In colonial days, the river allowed the development of early industry around New Brunswick, as well as the transportation of agricultural materials from central New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War, the river provided a means for troop conveyance; the construction of the Delaware and Raritan Canal along the right bank of the river provided a critical link between New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on the Delaware River. Comprehensive measures have been taken to increase the water quality; these actions have benefited the fish population which include largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, catfish, chain pickerel, american eels and yellow perch. Pike can be found in relative abundance in some portions of the river like Califon. An occasional Musky has been taken out of the Raritan as well; the tidal portions of the river host migratory salt water species such as striped bass, winter flounder and bluefish. Efforts to restore anadromous fish populations have been made, done by removing many of the obsolete dams and the constructing dam bypass infrastructure.
This will result in restoring shad, striped bass, sturgeon populations in the river. Many nesting birds and water fowl make their homes along the length of the river. Crustaceans such as blue claw crab, fiddler crabs and green crabs are found in the tidal sections of the river. Crayfish can be found farther upstream; the river is used for recreational boating, including use by the rowing team of Rutgers University in New Brunswick. The river is featured in the title of Rutgers' alma mater, On the Banks of the Old Raritan, its flooding is mentioned in the song; the musical 1776 mentions troops bathing in the Raritan River. Near its mouth, the river is spanned by a New Jersey Transit railroad bridge which carries the North Jersey Coast Line. S. Route 9; the Raritan River is an important source of drinking water for the central portion of New Jersey. Two water purification plants, operated by New Jersey American Water, are located where the Raritan River and its largest tributary meet just east of Manville, New Jersey.
At times of drought and low water flow rates, the flow rate in the Raritan River is enhanced by planned discharges from the Round Valley Reservoir and Spruce Run Reservoir, both of which are located close to the South Branch of the Raritan River in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, are connected to the river via outflow pipes/channels. The water levels are boosted so downstream water purification facilities will have adequate water supplies in times of drought; the Raritan River has persistent flooding problems when excessive rain from storms affects the river basin. The flooding problems affect the town of Bound Brook, built on a natural flood plain at the junction of several tributaries, Manville, which has a large neighborhood known as Lost Valley that lies on the floodplain between the Raritan River and its largest tributary river, known as the Millstone River. Other towns in the Raritan River basin experience flooding to a lesser degree. Record flooding in the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd in September 1999 flood crest, 14 ft above flood stage) caused renewed interest in a flood control project called the Green Brook Flood Control Project, designed to protect Bound Brook from a 150-year flood.
In August 2011, record flooding occurred once again. This problem was exacerbated by well-above average rainfall that fell in the weeks before the storm hit, spurred completion of the Army Corps of Engineers flood control project; as of 2015, the current status of this project is: The R2 levee system is functionally complete – The R2 Levee System is designed to provide Bound Brook with protection from a 150-year flood level. The levee is built to the height of the raised Talmage Avenue Bridge. Closure gates along Raritan are functionally complete – The gate closures across the New Jersey Transit railroad tracks on the western side of Bound Brook and at the South Main Street railroad underpass that leads to Queens Bridge have been completed and are used to keep flood waters out of Bound Brook; the new Talmadge Avenue Bridge that connects Bound Brook and Bridgewater, New Jersey is functionally complete. The replaceme
High Bridge, New Jersey
High Bridge is a borough in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 3,648, reflecting a decline of 128 from the 3,776 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 110 from the 3,886 counted in the 1990 Census. High Bridge was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 29, 1871, from portions of Clinton Township and Lebanon Township. On February 19, 1898, the borough of High Bridge was incorporated from portions of the township, with the remainder returned to Clinton and Lebanon Townships five days later; the borough is located on the South Branch of the Raritan River in the north central part of Hunterdon County. Water from the South Branch was a valuable power source for one of the first ironworks in the United States, established in the 1740s by William Allen and Joseph Turner of Philadelphia. Allen was the mayor of Philadelphia, a Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, a prominent landowner in New Jersey.
In 1859, the Central Railroad of New Jersey began a five-year construction project of a 112-foot-high, 1,300-foot-long bridge across the river from which structure the locality took its name. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.431 square miles, including 2.389 square miles of land and 0.042 square miles of water. It is drained by the South Branch of the Raritan River. High Bridge borders the Hunterdon County municipalities of Lebanon Township. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Jericho Hill, Pierce Heights and Silverthorn; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,648 people, 1,418 households, 1,003.944 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,526.9 per square mile. There were 1,481 housing units at an average density of 619.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 93.17% White, 1.32% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 3.18% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.74% from other races, 1.37% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.00% of the population. There were 1,418 households out of which 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families. 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.06. In the borough, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 32.3% from 45 to 64, 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.9 years. For every 100 females there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 101.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $90,037 and the median family income was $108,148. Males had a median income of $77,500 versus $47,936 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $40,866.
About 0.0% of families and 0.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 3,776 people, 1,428 households, 1,051 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,566.0 people per square mile. There were 1,478 housing units at an average density of 613.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.24% White, 0.79% African American, 0.34% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.12% of the population. There were 1,428 households out of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.4% were non-families. 20.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the borough the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 36.4% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 6.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $68,719, the median income for a family was $75,357. Males had a median income of $56,607 versus $35,450 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $29,276. About 1.9% of families and 3.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.9% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. High Bridge has a downtown, home to eateries and professionals. Circa Restaurant, at the center of Main Street, has received acclaim from a variety of sources including a food editor from The New York Times who proclaimed, "Circa is the kind of place I wish were in my town."The businesses are collectively marketed by the High Bridge Business Association, which assists its member businesses through co-operative advertising, press releases and other benefits.
High Bridge serves as the southern terminus of a rail trail, created out of the former Central Railroad of New Jersey High Bridge Branch. The trail is main
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Somerset County, New Jersey
Somerset County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 335,432, a 3.7% increase from the 2010 United States Census, making it the 13th most populous of the state's 21 counties. Somerset County is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, its county seat is Somerville. The most populous place was Franklin Township, with 62,300 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Hillsborough Township, covered 55.00 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $86,468, the second highest in New Jersey and ranked 25th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Somerset County, as of the 2000 Census, was the seventh wealthiest county in the United States by median household income at $76,933, fourth in median family income at $90,655 and ranked seventh by per capita income at $37,970; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 11th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009.
In 2012, 49.8 percent of Somerset County residents were college graduates, the highest percentage in the state. Somerset County was ranked number 3 of 21 NJ counties as one of the healthiest counties in New Jersey, according to an annual report by County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. Somerset County was created on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. Somerset County is one of America's oldest counties, is named after the English county of Somerset; the area was first settled in 1681, in the vicinity of Bound Brook, the county was established by charter on May 22, 1688. Most of the early residents were Dutch. General George Washington and his troops marched through the county on several occasions and slept in many of the homes located throughout the area. Somerset County played an important part during both World War I and World War II with weapons depots and the manufacturing of the army's woolen blankets. For much of its history, Somerset County was an agricultural county. In the late 19th century, the Somerset Hills area of Somerset County became a popular country home for wealthy industrialists.
The area is still the home of wealthy pharmaceutical industrialists. In 1917, Somerset County, in cooperation with Rutgers University, hired its first agricultural agent to connect local farmers with expert advice; the Rutgers Cooperative Extension of Somerset County, located in Bridgewater, serves residents in the areas of agriculture and natural resources, 4-H youth development and family and community health sciences. In the 1960s, townships that were once agricultural were transformed into suburban communities. Examples include Bridgewater Township and the Watchung Hills communities of Watchung, Green Brook and Warren Township; this growth was aided by the development of the county's strong pharmaceutical and technology presence. Warren Township used to be considered "the greenest place in New Jersey." More there has been an influx of New York City commuters who use NJ Transit's Raritan Valley Line and Gladstone Branch or use Interstate 78. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 304.86 square miles, including 301.81 square miles of land and 3.04 square miles of water.
The high point is on Mine Mountain in Bernardsville, at 860 feet above sea level. The lowest point is just above sea level on the Raritan River at the Middlesex County line. Somerset County borders the following counties: Morris County, New Jersey – north Union County, New Jersey – east Middlesex County, New Jersey – southeast Mercer County, New Jersey – south Hunterdon County, New Jersey – west In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Somerville have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −16 °F was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in August 1955. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.84 inches in February to 4.83 inches in July. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 323,444 people, 117,759 households, 84,668.721 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,071.7 per square mile. There were 123,127 housing units at an average density of 408 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 70.06% White, 8.95% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 14.11% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.13% from other races, 2.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.01% of the population. There were 117,759 households out of which 35.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.8% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.22. In the county, the population was spread out with 25% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.2 years. For every 100 females there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.8 males. At the 2000 United States Census there were 297,490 people, 108,984 households and 78,359 families residing in the county.
The population density was 976 per square mile (377/
Hunterdon County, New Jersey
Hunterdon County is a county located in the western section of the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 125,059, making it the state's 18th-most populous county, representing a 2.6% decrease from the 128,349 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, in turn increasing by 6,360 from the 121,989 counted in the 2000 Census, retaining its position as the state's 14th-most populous county. The percentage increase in population of 13.2% between 1990 and 2000 was the largest in New Jersey triple the statewide increase of 4.5%, the absolute increase in residents was the third highest. Its county seat is Flemington. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $80,759, the third-highest in New Jersey and ranked 33rd of 3,113 counties in the United States; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 19th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. Hunterdon County is noted for having the second-lowest level of child poverty of any county in the United States.
It is part of the Newark-Union, NJ-PA Metropolitan Division of the New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. However, some portions of the county include themselves as part of the Delaware Valley, though Hunterdon County is not included in that area. Hunterdon County was established on March 11, 1714, separating from Burlington County, at which time it included all of present-day Morris and Warren counties; the rolling hills and rich soils which produce bountiful agricultural crops drew Native American tribes and Europeans to the area. Around 500 million years ago, a chain of volcanic islands shaped like an arch collided with proto North America and rode over the top of the North American plate; the rock from the islands created the highlands of Hunterdon County as there was a shallow sea where Hunterdon County is now located. Around four hundred million B. C. a small continent, long and thin, collided with proto North America. This collision created compression.
The Paleozoic sediment of shale and sandstone faulted. The heat allowed the igneous rock to bend, thus Hunterdon County was born; the African plate which collided with North America created more folding and faulting in the southern Appalachians. The African and North America plates tore and drifted away from each other; the Wisconsin glacier that entered into New Jersey around 21,000 BCE and melted around 13,000 BCE did not reach Hunterdon County. However, there are glacial outwash deposits from streams and rivers that flowed from the glacier southward depositing rock and sediment. Hunterdon County has two geophysical provinces; the first is the Highlands, the western section of the county. The other is the Piedmont, the eastern and southern section of the county; the Highlands account for one third of the area and the Piedmont accounts for two thirds of the county. The Highlands are part of the Reading Prong. Limestone and shale over igneous rock comprise the Highlands; the Piedmont includes the Hunterdon Plateau and the Raritan Valley Lowlands which are 150 to 300 feet above sea level.
The Piedmont is made up of sandstone. Paleo Indians moved into Hunterdon County between 12,000 BCE and 11,000 BCE; the area was warming due to climate change. The Wisconsin Glacier in Warren and Sussex County was retreating northward; the area was that of Taiga/Boreal forests. Paleo Indians traveled in small groups in search of game and edible plants, they used spears made of jasper or black chert. Their camp sites are difficult to find. Native Americans moved into the area but the time they arrived is unknown. Most have come from the Mississippi River area. Many tribes of the Delaware Nation lived in Hunterdon County along the Delaware River and in the Flemington area; these tribes were agricultural in nature, growing corn and squash. Those that lived along the South Branch of the Raritan River farmed. There was a Native American trail. Land purchases from Native Americans occurred from 1688 to 1758. Large land purchases from Native Americans occurred in 1703, 1709 and 1710. Over 150,000 acres were bought with metal knives and pots, blankets, barrels of rum or hard cider, guns and shot.
This allowed for European settlers to enter into Hunterdon County in the early 18th century. After 1760, nearly all Native Americans left New Jersey and relocated to eastern Canada or the Mississippi River area; the first European settlers were Col. John Reading who settled in Reading Township in 1704 and John Holcombe who settled in Lambertville in 1705. Hunterdon County was separated from Burlington County on March 11, 1714. At that time Hunterdon County was large, going from Assunpink Creek near Trenton to the New York State line which at that time was about 10 miles north of Port Jervis, New York. Hunterdon County was named for a colonial governor of New Jersey. Language changes over time and location, so by stemming of, a → lenition of the name of his family seat of "Hunterston" in Ayrshire, the name "Hunterdon" was derived. On March 15, 1739, Morris County was separated from Hunterdon County; the boundary between Hunterdon and Somerset counties is evidence of the old Keith Line which separated the provinces of West Jersey and East Jersey.
Hunterdon County was reduced in area on February 22, 1838, with the formation of Mercer County from portion
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti