A reporting mark is an alphabetic code of one to four letters used to identify owners or lessees of rolling stock and other equipment used on certain railroad networks. In North America the mark, which consists of an alphabetic code of one to four letters, is stenciled on each piece of equipment, along with a one- to six-digit number; this information is used to uniquely identify every such rail car or locomotive, thus allowing it to be tracked by the railroad they are traveling over, which shares the information with other railroads and customers. The Association of American Railroads assigns marks to all carriers, under authority granted by the U. S. Surface Transportation Board, Transport Canada, Mexican Government. Under current practice, the first letter must match the initial letter of the railroad name; as it acts as a Standard Carrier Alpha Code, the reporting mark cannot conflict with codes in use by other nonrail carriers. Marks ending with the letter "X" are assigned to companies or individuals who own railcars, but are not operating railroads.
In another example, the reporting mark for state-funded Amtrak services in California is CDTX because the state transportation agency owns the equipment used in these services. This may apply to commuter rail, for example Metrolink in Southern California uses the reporting mark SCAX because the equipment is owned by the Southern California Regional Rail Authority—which owns the Metrolink system—even though it is operated by Amtrak; this is why the reporting mark for CSX Transportation, an operating railroad, is CSXT instead of CSX. Private freight car owners in Mexico were issued, up until around 1990, reporting marks ending in two X's to signify that their cars followed different regulations than their American counterparts and so their viability for interchange service was impaired; this resulted in five-letter reporting marks, an option not otherwise allowed by the AAR. Companies owning trailers used in trailer-on-flatcar service are assigned marks ending with the letter "Z", the National Motor Freight Traffic Association, which maintains the list of Standard Carrier Alpha Codes, assigns marks ending in U to owners of intermodal containers.
The standard ISO 6346 covers identifiers for intermodal containers. When the owner of a reporting mark is taken over by another company, the old mark becomes the property of the new company. For example, when the Union Pacific Railroad acquired the Chicago and North Western Railway in the 1990s, it retained the CNW mark rather than repaint all acquired equipment; some companies own several marks that are used to identify different classes of cars, such as boxcars or gondolas. If the acquiring company discontinues the name or mark of the acquired company, the discontinued mark is referred to as a "fallen flag" railway. Long-disused marks are revived by the companies which now own them. For example, in recent years, the Union Pacific Railroad has begun to use the mark CMO on newly built covered hoppers and five-bay coal hoppers. CMO belonged to a predecessor of the CNW, which passed it on to them, from which the UP inherited it. During the breakup of Conrail, the long-retired marks of the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad were temporarily brought back and applied to much of Conrail's fleet to signify which cars and locomotives were to go to CSX and which to Norfolk Southern.
Some of these cars still retain their temporary NYC marks. Because of its size, this list has been split into subpages based on the first letter of the reporting mark. Railinc, a subsidiary of the AAR, maintains the active reporting marks for the North American rail industry. Railinc offers a free online look-up of reporting marks and other industry reference files through the Railinc's Freight Rail 411 website. A railway vehicle must be registered in a national vehicle register using a 12-digit number derived from the old UIC system of vehicle numbering; the number contains the register country in the fourth digit. The keeper of a vehicle is indicated with a company abbreviation of maximum five letters, called Vehicle Keeper Marking which must be registered with OTIF and ERA and is unique throughout Europe and parts of Asia and Northern Africa; the VKM must not contain special digits. The VKM is preceded by a hyphen; some examples: When a vehicle is sold it will not be transferred to another register.
The Czech railways bought large numbers of coaches from ÖBB. The number remained the same but the VKM changed from A-ÖBB to A-ČD; the UIC introduced a uniform numbering system for their members based on a 12-digit number known as UIC number. The third and fourth digit of the number indicated the owner, or more the keeper of the vehicle, thus each UIC member got a two-digit owner code. With the introduction of national vehicle registers this code became a country code; some vehicles had to be renumbered as a consequence. The Swiss company BLS Lötschbergbahn had the owner code 63; when their vehicles were registered, they got numbers with the country code 85 for Switzerland and the VKM BLS. Example for an "Einheitswagen" delivered in 1957: delivered as BLS B 831 renumbered with UIC number 50 63 20-33 801-5 rebuilt 1991 and renumberd 50
IND Culver Line
The IND Culver Line is a rapid transit line of the B Division of the New York City Subway, extending from Downtown Brooklyn south to Coney Island, New York City, United States. The line is named after Andrew Culver, who built the original Culver Line that preceded the current subway line; the local tracks of the Culver Line are served by the F service, as well as the G between Bergen Street and Church Avenue. The express tracks north of Church Avenue have not been used since 1976, while the peak-direction express track between Ditmas Avenue and Avenue X has not seen regular service since 1987; the line starts at an interlocking north of Jay Street–MetroTech, where Culver Line trains can access the IND Sixth Avenue Line or IND Eighth Avenue Line, south to Church Avenue in Kensington, the line is a four-track subway, though it rises to cross over the Gowanus Canal on the only above-ground structure on the original Independent Subway System. In Kensington, a ramp allows the line to rise onto a three-track elevated structure built by the City for operation by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company as part of the Dual Contracts.
When this ramp was opened in 1954, the older route from Kensington northwest to Sunset Park remained as the Culver Shuttle until it was closed in 1975. The final portion of the line in Coney Island is on the lower level of a double-decked elevated structure, with the BMT Brighton Line above; the elevated part of the Culver Line south of Church Avenue, operated as part of the BMT division until 1954, now carries only the F, a former IND service, is chained and signaled as part of the IND. However, BMT radio frequency B1 is used on the elevated portion south of Church Avenue; the following services use part or all of the IND Culver Line: The Culver Line is served by the F as a local for its entire length. The portion of the route from Bergen Street south to Church Avenue is served by the G Brooklyn–Queens Crosstown service. Both routes run at all times. There are two express tracks on the northern part of the route and one on the southern, with express stations distributed along the line. However, express service has only operated once on the line from 1968 to 1987.
Restoration of express service has been thwarted by budget shortages, passenger opposition, a serious signal fire at Bergen Street in 1999. The issue came to a head in June 2007, when a petition for express service reached 2,600 signatures and gained media attention; the Culver Line underwent repairs from 2009 until early 2013, during which the express tracks were replaced and rehabilitated which may facilitate future express service. The subway portion of the IND Culver Line was designated the Brooklyn Line but has been called the Smith Street Line, Church Avenue Line, South Brooklyn Line, various other names; the express tracks beneath Prospect Park are sometimes referred to as the Prospect Park Line. The line begins at the four-tracked Jay Street–MetroTech station, where the IND Sixth Avenue and Eighth Avenue lines interchange and continue as the Culver and Fulton Street lines respectively. Running under Smith Street south of the station, the Culver tracks split into local and express tracks, with the two express tracks ramping down to the lower level of Bergen Street, while the local tracks merge with the IND Crosstown Line tracks from Hoyt-Schermerhorn Street before entering the upper level.
Between Jay Street and Bergen Street, the line passes under both the IRT Eastern Parkway Line and the Fulton Line tracks curving east into Hoyt-Schermerhorn Street, requiring a deeper tunnel and extensive ventilation systems. At Carroll Street, the express tracks ramp up to rejoin the local tracks, all four tracks rise onto the Culver Viaduct, curving onto Ninth Street. East of Fourth Avenue station towards Park Slope, the tracks become a subway once again. Past 7th Avenue, the local tracks diverge, curving south to 15th Street and Prospect Park West, while the express tracks take a direct route beneath Prospect Park; this is one of two places in the subway where the express tracks diverge from the local tracks, the other being on the IND Queens Boulevard Line between 65th Street and 36th Street. The express tracks rejoin the right-of-way at Terrace Place and Prospect Avenue, running on a lower level under Prospect Avenue and Fort Hamilton Parkway near the Prospect Park Parade Grounds rise up as the line curves onto McDonald Avenue.
The line parallels the route of the original Culver Line surface railroad into Church Avenue station, the last stop of the original IND service. A single track in both directions, connecting from the local and express tracks in each direction, ramps down to the four-track Church Avenue Yard, used as a relay and storage facility for G trains; the four mainline tracks ascend to the Culver Ramp on McDonald Avenue between Cortelyou Road and Avenue C, which connects the subway portion of the IND Culver Line with the former BMT Culver Line elevated structure. Despite being a part of the IND Division, the Culver elevated portion is controlled by BMT radio dispatch, so train operators change between the IND and BMT radio frequencies at this point; the northern section of the Culver Line is a four-track line underground except for Smith–Ninth Streets and Fourth Avenue stations. The two stations sit on a massive one-mile long steel and concrete viaduct which spans the Gowanus Canal between 9th and 10th Streets.
This structure is now referred to as the Culver Viaduct or Culver Line Viaduct, the only portion of the original IND subway to be elevated, the only section other than the now-demolished World's Fair Railroad to be outdoors. The viaduct was constructed due to the depth of the canal, due to the topography of the Park Slope neighbo
Ocean Parkway (Brooklyn)
Ocean Parkway is a 4.86-mile boulevard in the west-central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is inventoried by the New York State Department of Transportation as New York State Route 908H, an unsigned reference route. Ocean Parkway extends over a distance of about five miles, running north to south from Machate Circle at the southwestern corner of Prospect Park to the Atlantic Ocean waterfront at Brighton Beach. However, only the 4.86-mile section south of Church Avenue is designated as an unsigned reference route by the NYSDOT. The parkway runs parallel to Coney Island Avenue, an important commercial avenue several blocks to the east, it consists of a central bidirectional avenue of seven lanes, two small parallel side streets, two medians with trees and pedestrian paths. The west median, part of the Brooklyn–Queens Greenway has a bike path. Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux suggested Ocean Parkway to Brooklyn park commissioners in reports prepared during the 1860s, they drew up a plan for the parkway, inspired by boulevards in Paris.
In 1868 the land was acquired by the City of Brooklyn. The resulting parkway is similar to Eastern Parkway, with a central roadway, complementary grassy median-pedestrian path, commercial road on the periphery, with a total width of 210 feet. Trees, playing tables, benches line the pedestrian path and boulevard; the parkway begins at Park Circle at the southern entrance of Prospect Park, passes through Windsor Terrace and what is present-day Kensington. The Prospect Expressway, built in the 1950s, replaced the northernmost half-mile of the parkway, as a result of actions by local activist Arline Bronzaft, the parkway was designated a landmark by the city in 1975 to prevent any additional alterations; the pedestrian path was split in 1894 to create the first bike path in the United States. Around 1900, homes were constructed along the perimeter of the parkway, during World War I, many mansions were built. Buyers came to Ocean Parkway from Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn Heights, Bushwick. In the 1920s, apartment complexes and one- and two-family homes were constructed.
Apartments began to replace older homes in the vicinity of the parkway after World War II. Horse racing took place on the parkway until 1908; until the parkway zoning was changed and restoration was carried out in the 1970s, bridle paths existed as well. The bridle paths were on the eastern side of Ocean Parkway. Although one can still rent horses at the nearby Kensington Stables, the bridle paths on Ocean Parkway have since been paved over and are no longer in use. In 2016 an overhaul of traffic regulations at major intersections was proposed, including traffic signals for service roads; the regulations were unpopular among residents, but have gone into effect at Kings Highway and Avenue J. The project is expected to finish in the autumn of 2017; the entire route is in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. New York Roads portal NYC Parks and Recreation Ocean Parkway Page "Traffic Comes to a Halt, a Kitten Is Saved", New York Times, January 25, 2016
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Interstate 278 is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in New Jersey and New York in the United States. The road runs 35.62 miles from U. S. Route 1/9 in Linden, New Jersey, to the Bruckner Interchange in the New York City borough of the Bronx; the majority of I-278 is in New York City, where it serves as a partial beltway and passes through all five of the city's boroughs. I-278 follows several freeways, including the Union Freeway in New Jersey. I-278 crosses multiple bridges, including the Goethals, Verrazzano-Narrows and Triborough Bridges. I-278 was opened in pieces from the 1930s through the 1960s; some of its completed segments predated the Interstate Highway System and are thus not up to standards, portions of I-278 have been upgraded over the years. In New York, the various parts of I-278 were planned by Robert Moses, an urban planner in New York City; the segments proposed. Despite its number, I-278 does not connect to I-78. There were once plans to extend I-278 west to I-78 east of the Route 24 interchange in Springfield, New Jersey.
This was canceled because of opposition from the communities along the route. The segment that does exist in New Jersey was opened in 1969. There were plans to extend I-78 east across Manhattan and into Brooklyn via the Williamsburg Bridge. Two segments of I-278 have had different route number designations planned or designated for it. I-87 was once planned to follow the segment of I-278 between the Williamsburg Bridge and the Major Deegan Expressway, but this became a part of I-278. Additionally, the Bruckner Expressway portion of I-278 had been designated with different route numbers. At first, it was to be I-895 between the Sheridan Expressway and I-678 past there. I-278 was planned to follow the Bruckner Expressway and the Sheridan Expressway to I-95 before the current numbering took place by 1970, with I-895 designated onto the Sheridan Expressway; the New Jersey segment of I-278 begins in Linden, Union County at the junction with US 1 and US 9, where it merges into the southbound direction of that road.
The freeway heads east and carries two lanes in each direction, with the eastbound direction widening to three lanes. I-278 runs between urban residential areas to the north and the Bayway Refinery to the south as it continues into Elizabeth. In this area, the road meets Route 439 and the New Jersey Turnpike at the only intermediate interchange that I-278 has in New Jersey; this short length is sometimes called the Union Freeway. After the New Jersey Turnpike, I-278 turns southeast and crosses the Arthur Kill on the six-lane Goethals Bridge to Staten Island, a borough of New York City; this bridge is maintained by the Port Authority of New Jersey. Upon coming onto Staten Island, I-278 becomes the Staten Island Expressway. After the Goethals Bridge, the highway has a toll plaza serving the bridge. At this point, the freeway becomes eight lanes and maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation, coming to an exit for Western Avenue and Forest Avenue before reaching a directional interchange with New York State Route 440.
NY 440 forms a concurrency with I-278 and the road heads into residential neighborhoods. The road carries four lanes eastbound and three lanes westbound as it comes to the exit serving Richmond Avenue. After, NY 440 splits from the Staten Island Expressway at a large interchange, heading north on the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Expressway; this interchange provides access to Victory Boulevard. East of this point, the expressway gains a bus lane in each direction; the six-lane I-278 turns to the east past this point, with Gannon Avenue serving as a frontage road, reaches the Bradley Avenue exit. The next interchange the Staten Island Expressway is with Todt Hill Slosson Avenue; this exchange was the original terminal of the bus lane in each direction that serves as a high-occupancy vehicle lane, built in 2005. After Todt Hill Road, I-278 runs through a wooded area where it comes to an incomplete interchange, to be the northern terminus of the Richmond Parkway; the road continues back into residential areas and comes to an interchange serving Clove Road and Richmond Road.
The next interchange the freeway has is with Hylan Boulevard. A short distance the Staten Island Expressway comes to a large interchange that serves Lily Pond Road and Bay Street. After, I-278 reaches the former toll plaza for the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, where electronic toll collection is in effect for the westbound lanes. Following the toll plaza area, I-278 goes onto the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge linking to Brooklyn over the Narrows; this bridge, maintained by the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, has six lanes on the lower level and seven lanes on the upper level which includes 1 HOV Lane. In addition to local traffic on Staten Island, the expressway provides the most direct route from Brooklyn and Long Island to New Jersey, it is known throughout the New York area as one of the most congested roads in the city. After the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, I-278 continues into Brooklyn on the Gowanus Expressw
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
BMT Fourth Avenue Line
The BMT Fourth Avenue Line is a rapid transit line of the New York City Subway running under Fourth Avenue in Brooklyn. The line is served by the D, N, R at all times, a few rush-hour W trains; the R and W run local while the D and N run express at all times except late nights, when they run local. The line was built by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and is now internally operated as part of the New York City Subway's B Division; the underground line starts as a two-track line in Downtown Brooklyn west of Court Street, connecting to the BMT Broadway Line and BMT Nassau Street Line in Manhattan via the Montague Street Tunnel under the East River. It travels east under Montague and Willoughby Streets to DeKalb Avenue, where it turns southeast under Flatbush Avenue. At DeKalb Avenue, the express tracks, which continue from the Manhattan Bridge to the northwest, split off from the BMT Brighton Line and join the Fourth Avenue Line. At Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center, the line curves southwest under Fourth Avenue to the end of the line at Bay Ridge–95th Street.
Going south from Atlantic Avenue, the BMT West End Line splits from both the local and express tracks south of 36th Street, while the express tracks continue as the BMT Sea Beach Line south of 59th Street. Fourth Avenue never had a streetcar line or elevated railway due to the provisions of the assessment charged to neighboring property owners when the street was widened. Construction of the line was only undertaken because of the efforts of the local communities. After the line was opened, development resulting from the line's construction transformed communities such as Dyker Heights, Fort Hamilton and Bay Ridge. One station, Myrtle Avenue, was abandoned in 1956 as part of the reconfiguration of the busy DeKalb Avenue Junction. Coming south from DeKalb Avenue and off of Fulton Street, the four-track line runs under Fourth Avenue to just past 59th Street. South of 36th Street, the West End Line the New Utrecht Avenue elevated line, branches off eastwards, running to its terminus at Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue.
Until 1954, the BMT Culver Line branched off from here, replaced by the Culver Shuttle until 1975, when it was discontinued. At 64th Street, after the Sea Beach Line branches off eastwards towards Coney Island via an open-cut right-of-way, the line becomes two-tracked and continues under Fourth Avenue to its terminus at Bay Ridge–95th Street. While this section of the line was built with two tracks, there are provisions to add two additional express tracks between 59th and 85th Streets if the need arises. In its upper section, the line serves Brooklyn Heights and Downtown Brooklyn; the central section serves Park Slope east of Fourth Avenue, on the west side, Boerum Hill Gowanus. In its lower section, it serves the communities of Fort Hamilton; the following services use the Fourth Avenue Line: The line carries the Fourth Avenue R service on the local tracks and the Sea Beach N and West End D services on the express tracks. During weekdays, three local N trains per day, in each direction, are designated as W. Manhattan-bound from DeKalb Avenue, the local tracks run via the Montague Street Tunnel to Lower Manhattan, serving either Whitehall Street on the BMT Broadway Line or Broad Street on the BMT Nassau Street Line.
The express tracks go to Manhattan via the Manhattan Bridge to either the BMT Broadway Line's Canal Street express station or the IND Sixth Avenue Line's Grand Street station. Transportation to the area was first provided in 1889 with the establishment of the 39th Street Ferry, which connected the area to Manhattan. Between 1888 and 1893, a new elevated line was opened along Fifth Avenue; the line terminated at 27th Street where people could transfer to horse cars. In 1892, the first trolley line was built in Brooklyn, starting at the ferry and running via Second Avenue to 65th Street, via Third Avenue; the Fifth Avenue Elevated was extended to Third Avenue and 65th Street. A building boom in South Brooklyn started in about 1902 and 1903. Thousands of people started coming from other places. In 1905 and 1906 realty values increased by about 100 percent, land values increased; this growth was spurred by the promise of improved transportation access. The improved transportation access transformed the community from an isolated farm community to a center of industrial and commercial life.
The Fourth Avenue Line was built as part of the Dual Contracts. It replaced the parallel elements of an old, now long-ago-demolished elevated system running above Fifth Avenue and Third Avenue. In 1902, a committee of the West End Board of Trade announced their support for a subway line from the Battery to Coney Island via Atlantic or Hamilton Avenues in front of the Rapid Transit Commission. On April 10, 1905, a citizens' committee was created to aid the creation of the subway line. In 1906, the plan for the Fourth Avenue subway included a spur via 86th Street running through Dyker Heights and Bensonhurst. At this time the spur was not authorized, but at the time it was viewed as a necessary part of the transportation plan for the area; the line was planned as a four-track line from Dean Street to Fort Hamilton, before being fed by a subway line going under the East River, by a line over the Manhattan Bridge. An additional two-track spur was to begin at 37th Street before running under private property and 38th Street, before connecting with the South Brooklyn Railway.
An additional two-track spur would branch off between 63rd and 64th Streets before connecting with the Sea Beach Railway. South