Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Kasaragod District is one of the 14 districts in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Kasaragod became part of Kannur district following the reorganisation of states due to predominance of Malayalam speakers. Kasaragod was declared as a district on 24 May 1984. To its south lies Kannur District, to the South east and north are bordered by districts of Karnataka state Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada respectively. All along its east, it is walled by the Western Ghats while along the west, the Laccadive Sea borders it; the district, covering an area of around 1992 km2, has a population of 1,307,375 and has four taluks, Kasaragod, Hosdurg and Manjeshwaram Taluk. It has three municipalities namely Kasaragod, Nileshwar and 38 Grama panchayats. Kasaragod was known to the Arabs by the name Harkwillia. Many Arab travelers who visited Kerala between the 9th and the 14th centuries visited Kasaragod, an important trade centre then. Duarte Borbosa, the Portuguese traveler who visited Kumbla, near Kasaragod in 1514, recorded rice being exported for coir to Maldives.
Kasaragod was part of the kumbala Kingdom in which there were 64 Tulu villages. When the Vijayanagara empire attacked Kasaragod, it was still under the Kolathiri Raja who had Nileshwaram as one of his capitals. During the decline of the Vijayanagara empire, the administration of this area was vested with Ikkeri Nayakas. At the onset of collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, Venkappa Nayaka declared independence to Ikkery. Kumbla and Bekal are considered to be the chain of forts constructed or renovated by Shivappa Nayaka. Francis Buccanan, the family doctor of Arthur Wellesley, visited Kasargod in 1800. In his travelogue, he recorded information on places like Athiraparambu, Nileshwaram, Bekal and Manjeshwaram. Hosdurg and Vellarikundu is part of Kolathunadu and Kasaragod and Manjeshwaram is in the Tulunadu region. In 1763, Hyder Ali conquered the capital of the Ikkery Naiks, his son Tippu Sultan conquered much of Malabar. As per the Sreerangapattanam Treaty of 1792, Tippu surrendered Malabar, except Kanara to the British.
The British got Kanara only after the death of Tippu Sultan. It is said. Before the formation of Kerala, Kasaragod was a part of erstwhile South Canara district of Madras Presidency. Kasaragod became part of Kannur district following the reorganisation of states and formation of Kerala in 1 November 1956. Kasaragod was declared as a district in the year 1984; the district is the northernmost district of the State of Kerala. Kasaragod is located at 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5. It has an average elevation of 19 metres. Ranipuram or Madathumala peak is the highest peak in the Kasargod district of Kerala, it is located in the Ranipuram Wildlife Sanctuary. According to the 2011 census Kasaragod district has a population of 1,307,375 equal to the nation of Mauritius or the US state of New Hampshire; this gives it a ranking of 375th in India. The district has a population density of 654 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 8.18%. Kasaragod has a sex ratio of 1079 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 89.85%.
Ten AIDS related deaths were reported in the Kasaragod district within a short period of two months in 2016. In terms of general healthcare, kasaragod is comparable to any other district in Kerala. Kasaragod North Kasaragod Taluk Kasaragod East Kuniyan River List of educational institutions in Kasaragod District Official District Website
The Billava, Biruveru people are an ethnic group of India. They are found traditionally in Coastal Karnataka and engaged in toddy tapping and other activities, they have used both missionary education and Sri Narayana Guru's reform movement to upgrade themselves. L. K. Ananthakrishna Iyer recounted the community's belief that billava means bowmen and that it "applied to the castemen who were employed as soldiers by the native rulers of the district". Edgar Thurston had reached a similar conclusion in 1909; the Billavas are first recorded in inscriptions dating from the fifteenth century AD but Amitav Ghosh notes that "... this is an indication of their lack of social power. The earliest epigraphy for the Tuluva Bunt community dates to around 400 years earlier. There is a complex linguistic environment in Tulu Nadu, the area of India to which the Billavas trace their origin. A compact geographic area, Tulu Nadu lies on the coastal belt of Karnataka and Kerala and has natural boundaries in the form of the Arabian Sea, the hills of the Western Ghats and the rivers Suvarna and Chandragiri.
It includes the South Canara district of Karnataka and the Kasaragod area of Kerala, which were united for administrative purposes within the Madras Presidency. Although many languages and dialects are traditionally to be found there—for example, Kannada and Marathi—it is the first two of these that are common throughout, of those two it is Tulu that gave rise to the region's name. Traditionally, Kannada is used in formal situations such as education, while Tulu is the lingua franca used in everyday communication. Tulu is more accepted as the primary language in the north of the Tulu Nadu region, with the areas south of the Netravati river demonstrating a more traditional, although diminishing, distinction between that language and the situations in which Kannada is to be preferred. A form of the Tulu language known as Common Tulu has been identified, this is spreading as an accepted standard for formal communication. Although four versions of it exist, based on geographic demarcations and the concentration of various caste groups within those areas, that version, more known as Northern Common Tulu is superseding the other three dialects.
As of 1998 the Brahmin community use Common Tulu only to speak with those outside their own caste, while communities such as the Bunts and Gouds use it and the tribal communities are abandoning their own dialects in favour of it. William Logan's work Manual of Malabar, a publication of the British Raj period, recognised the Billavas as being the largest single community in South Canara, representing nearly 20 per cent of that district's population; the Billavas practised the matrilineal system of inheritance known as Aliya Santana. Ghosh describes that this system entailed that "men transmit their immovable property, not to their own children, but matrilineally, to their sister's children." Iyer described the rules regarding marriage as A Billava does not marry his sister's daughter or mother's sister's daughter. He can marry maternal uncle's daughter. Two sisters can be taken in marriage or at different times. Two brothers can marry two sisters. Marriage of widows was permitted but the wedding ritual in such cases was simplified.
An amended version of the ceremony was used for situations where an illegitimate child might otherwise result: the father had to marry the pregnant woman in such circumstances. Women were considered to be ritually polluted at the time of their first menstrual cycle and during the period of pregnancy and childbirth; the Billava dead are cremated, although burial occurs in some places, there is a ritual pollution period observed at this time also. The Billava community is one of a few in India that practice posthumous marriage. Others that do so include the Badagas and the Todas. All of the Tuluva castes who participate in Bhuta worship have loose family groupings known as balis; these groups are referred to as "septs", are similar to the Brahmin gotras except that their membership is based on matrilineal rather than patrilineal descent. Iyer noted 16 balis within the Billava community. Thurston said of these exogamous Billava groups that "There is a popular belief that these are sub-divisions of the twenty balis which ought to exist according to the Aliya Santana system."
The Billavas were among the many communities to be excluded from the Hindu temples of Brahmins and they traditionally worship spirits in a practice known as Bhuta Kola. S. D. L. Alagodi wrote in 2006 of the South Canara population that "Among the Hindus, a little over ten per cent are brahmins, all the others, though nominally Hindus, are propitiators or worshippers of tutelary deities and bhutas or demons."The venues for Bhuta Kola are temple structures called Bhutasthana or Garidi as well as numerous shrines. The officiators at worship are a subcaste of Billavas, known as Poojary, their practices are known as pooja. Iyer noted that families have a place set aside in their home for the worship of a particular Bhuta and that the worship in this situation is called Bhuta Nema. Iyer, who considered the most prevalent of the Billava Bhutas to be the twin heroes Koti and Chennayya described the spirits as being of people who when living had... acquired a more than usual local reputation whether for good or evil, or had met with a sudden or violent death.
In addition to these, there are demons of the ju
Tanjore District (Madras Presidency)
Tanjore District was one of the districts in the eastwhile Madras Presidency of British India. It covered the area of the present-day districts of Thanjavur and Nagapattinam and the Aranthangi taluk of Pudukkottai District in Tamil Nadu. Apart from being a bedrock of Hindu orthodoxy, Tanjore was a centre of Chola cultural heritage and one of the richest and most prosperous districts in Madras Presidency. Tanjore district was constituted in 1799 when the Thanjavur Maratha ruler Serfoji II ceded most of his kingdom to the British East India Company in return for his restitution on the throne. Tanjore district, situated on the Cauvery Delta, is one of the richest rice-growing regions in South India, it was scarcely affected by famines such as the Great Famine of 1876–78. The Tanjore District was bounded by the districts of South Arcot in the north, Trichinopoly to the west and south and the Pudukkottai State and Madura and Ramnad districts to the south-east; the Kollidam River formed the long northern boundary with South Arcot.
The Bay of Bengal bounded it on the east. The district was made of four well-marked physical tracts - the fertile plains to the north between the Kollidam and the Kaveri known as the "Old Delta", irrigated by the rivers through a system of anaicuts and comprising the whole of the taluks of Shiyali and Kumbakonam, the northern part of Mannargudi and Nannilam and the eastern part of Tanjore taluk. There were two inhabited islands situated within the confines of the district - those of Devicottah situated at the mouth of the Kollidam and Vinayagateru near Kumbakonam. Most of the landholdings in Tanjore District were inam or mirasdari land, the district had the largest proportion of land under mirasdars. There were few large zamindaris, like Gandharvakottai and Konur situated near the Pudukkottai border, Ukkadai and Poondi, all of them ruled by descendants of Kallar chieftains to whom they were givens as fiefs by the Thanjavur Nayak or Thanjavur Maratha kings, but the bulk of land was held by mirasdars who leased it on regular tenures to pannaiyals or tenants who in turn cultivated the land with the help of labourers.
Tanjore District was inhabited at least since the first millennium B. C. and was the traditional homeland of the Chola Dynasty. The Early Cholas ruled Tanjore from the 3rd century B. C. to the 3rd century A. D; the town of Poompuhar or Kaveripoompattinam served as an important port trading with Rome. Following the Kalabhra interregnum, Tanjore recovered its past glory under the Pallavas and reached the zenith of its prosperity under the Medieval Cholas and Later Cholas. In the 13th century, Tanjore was annexed by the Pandyas who were defeated by Malik Kafur. Tanjore was ruled for brief periods by the Delhi Sultanate and the Madurai Sultanate, till the 15th century, when it was conquered by the Vijayanagar kings under whom it recovered much of its glory. Tanjore was a part of the Vijayanagar Empire and its successors, the Madurai Nayaks and the Thanjavur Nayaks, until 1674, when it was conquered by Venkoji a brother of Chattrapathi Shivaji, who founded the Thanjavur Maratha kingdom; the British East India Company began to play a major part in the affairs of the region from 1749 onwards.
In the 1760s and 1770s, the Thanjavur Maratha ruler, the Nawab of Carnatic and other major powers of the region were brought under the British sphere of influence. In 1799, the British East India Company assisted the deposed Thanjavur Maratha king Serfoji II in regaining his throne. In return for British assistance, Serfoji II retained his hold over Tanjore city and ceded the rest of his kingdom to the British East India Company. Tanjore city was annexed by the British as per the Doctrine of Lapse in 1855 on the death of his son Shivaji without a surviving male heir. Tanjore District was created in about 1800, its limits the same as that of the preceding Thanjavur Maratha kingdom. Tanjore District covered a total area of 9,600 square kilometres, it had a population of 2,245,029 in 1901. The population density was 234 inhabitants per square kilometre; as per the 1901 census statistics, Tanjore was the fifth most populous district in the Madras Presidency and the second most densely populated after Madras city.
It had the third highest adult literacy rate in the Presidency after Madras and Nilgiris, second highest male literacy rate after Madras city and the seventh highest female literacy rate. According to the 1901 census, 91 percent of the population was Hindu, 5 percent Muslim and 4 percent Christian. Among Hindus, Vanniyars, Kallars, Pallars and Brahmins were the most numerous. Kallars were found in the western part of Tanjore and Pattukkottai taluks. Tanjore had the third highest Brahmin population in the Madras Presidency after South Canara and Ganjam and the highest among the Tamil-speaking districts. Most of the Muslims were Marakkayars or Labbais and concentrated in Kumbakonam taluk where they formed th
Dakshina Kannada is a district in the state of Karnataka in India. Sheltered by the Western Ghats on the east and surrounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, Dakshina Kannada receives abundant rainfall during the monsoon, it is bordered by Udupi District to the north, Chikmagalur district to the northeast, Hassan District to the east, Kodagu to the southeast and Kasaragod District in Kerala to the south. The district has three agro-climatic divisions: Coastal region consisting of Mangalore and Mulki taluks Intermediate area consisting of Moodabidri Bantwal, Malnad region consisting of Belthangady, Puttur and Sullia taluks; the district has two revenue subdivisions -- Puttur. Mangalore city is the district headquarters of Dakshina Kannada. According to the 2011 census of India, Dakshina Kannada district had a population of 2,083,625; the district comprises nine talukas: Mangalore, Puttur, Belthangady, Moodabidri and Mulki. It used to include seven northern talukas, but these were separated in August 1997 to form Udupi district.
Dakshina Kannada and Kasaragod are called Tulu Nadu. Important city and towns in Dakshina Kannada include Mangalore, Bantwal, Sullia, Moodabidri, Uppinangady, Kadaba, Venur, Dharmasthala and Subramanya; the district is known for beaches, red clay roof tiles, cashew nut and its products, education and cuisine. The Alupas ruled the erstwhile Dakshina Kannada region between the 8th and 14th century CE. Before 1860, Dakshina Kannada was part of a district called Kanara, under a single administration in the Madras Presidency. In 1860, the British split the area into South Kanara and North Kanara, the former being retained in the Madras Presidency, while the latter was made a part of Bombay Presidency in 1862. Kundapur taluk was earlier included in North Kanara but was re-included in South Kanara. During the Reorganisation of States in 1956, Kasaragod was split and transferred to the newly created Kerala state and Dakshina Kannada was transferred to Mysore state. South Canara was a district under the British empire which included the present Dakshina Kannada, Kasaragod districts and Aminidivi islands.
Canara district was bifurcated in 1859 to form South Canara. Dakshina Kannada became a district of Mysore State in 1956, renamed Karnataka in 1973. Kasaragod became a district of Kerala during the Re-organization of States and Aminidivi islands became a part of Lakshadweep; the Udupi district was formed from the northern taluks of Dakshina Kannada in 1997. The Karnataka Government, for the purpose of administration, split the greater Dakshina Kannada district into Udupi and present day Dakshina Kannada districts on 15 August 1997. Three taluks of the former district — Udupi and Kundapura — formed the new Udupi district. According to the 2011 census Dakshina Kannada has a population of 2,089,649 equal to the nation of Macedonia or the US state of New Mexico; this gives it a ranking of 220th in India. The district has a population density of 457 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 9.8%. Dakshina Kannada has a sex ratio of 1018 females for every 1000 males and a literacy rate of 88.62%.
The literacy rate of Mangalore city is 94%. According to the 2011 Indian Census, the district ranks second in per capita income, second in HDI, first in literacy and third in sex ratio among all districts in Karnataka. Tuluvas, distributed among the Billava, Bunt, Tulu Gowda and Devadiga communities, are the largest ethnic group in the district; the Konkani people, Holeyas, the hill-tribes, Mangalorean Catholics and Arebhashe Gowdas comprise rest of the population. The Brahmins belong chiefly to the Shivalli, Havyaka, Chitpavan and Kota sub-sections; the major languages spoken in Dakshina Kannada are Tulu, Kannada, Are Bhashe, Deccani Urdu, Beary Bhashe and Malayalam. The district geography consists of Western Ghats in the east; the soil is lateritic type, characterised by high iron and aluminium content. The major rivers are Netravathi, Gurupura, Nandini or Pavanje and Payaswini. At Uppinangadi, the Netravathi and Kumaradhara rivers meet; this event is called "Sangam". Near Mangalore, an estuary is formed by the union of the rivers Netravathi and the Gurupura which merge into the Arabian Sea.
The topography of the district is plain up to 30 km inside the coast and changes to undulating hilly terrain towards the east in the Western Ghats. Teak and rosewood trees are found in the hilly areas towards the east; the Geological Survey of India has identified this district as a moderately earthquake-prone region and categorised it in the Seismic III Zone. In rural Dakshina Kannada, houses are in the midst of a farm field or plantations of coconut or arecanut, separated by a few hundred metres. Shirlalu village, with a maximum elevation of 1,115 m, is the highest point in Dakshina Kannada. In Dakshina Kannada and secondary education have reached every section of the society. A host of educational institutes offering courses in Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing and Catering, Law and Management are in
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
District magistrate (India)
A district magistrate abbreviated to DM, is an Indian Administrative Service officer, the senior most executive magistrate and chief in charge of general administration of a district in India. Since district magistrates are responsible for collection of land revenue in the district, the post is referred to as the district collector, as the office-bearer works under the supervision of a divisional commissioner, the post is known as deputy commissioner. District administration in India is a legacy of the British Raj. District collectors were members of the Indian Civil Service and were charged with supervising general administration in the district. Warren Hastings introduced the office of the district collector in 1772. Sir George Campbell, lieutenant-governor of Bengal from 1871-1874, intended "to render the heads of districts no longer the drudges of many departments and masters of none, but in fact the general controlling authority over all departments in each district."The office of a collector during the British Raj held multiple responsibilities – as collector, he was the head of the revenue organization, charged with registration and partition of holdings.
As district magistrate, he exercised general supervision over the inferior courts and in particular, directed the police work. The office was meant to achieve the "peculiar purpose" of collecting revenue and of keeping the peace; the superintendent of police, inspector general of jails, the surgeon general, the divisional forest officer and the chief engineer had to inform the collector of every activity in their departments. Until the part of the nineteenth century, no native was eligible to become a district collector, but with the introduction of open competitive examinations for the Indian Civil Service, the office was opened to natives. Anandaram Baruah, an eminent scholar of Sanskrit and the sixth Indian and the first Assamese ICS officer, became the third Indian to be appointed a district magistrate, the first two being Romesh Chandra Dutt and Sripad Babaji Thakur respectively; the district continued to be the unit of administration after India gained independence in 1947. The role of the district collector remained unchanged, except for the separation of most judicial powers to judicial officers of the district.
With the promulgation of the National Extension Services and Community Development Programme by the Nehru government in 1952, the district collector was entrusted with the additional responsibility of implementing the Government of India's development programs in the district. They are posted by the state government, from among the pool of Indian Administrative Service officers, who either are on Level 11, Level 12 or Level 13 of the Pay Matrix, in the state; the members of the IAS are either directly recruited by the Union Public Service Commission, promoted from State Civil Service or nominated from Non-State Civil Service. The direct recruits are posted as collectors after five to six years of service, whereas the promoted members from state civil services occupy this post after promotion to the IAS, which happens after two decades of service. A district magistrate and collector is transferred to and from the post by the state government; the office bearer is of the rank of deputy secretary or director in Government of India.
The responsibilities assigned to a district magistrate vary from state to state, but district collectors are entrusted with a wide range of duties in the jurisdiction of the district involving the following: As district magistrate Conducts criminal court of executive magistrate. Maintenance of law and order. Supervision of the police and jails. Supervision of subordinate executive conduct magisterial inquiries. Hearing cases under the preventive section of the Criminal Procedure Code. Supervision of jails and certification of execution of capital sentences. Authorising parole orders to inmates. Granting arms and ammunition licence under Arms Act. Prepares panel of names for appointment of public prosecutors and additional public prosecutors with consultation with session judge in district. Disaster management during natural calamities such as floods, famines or epidemics. Crisis management during riots or external aggression; as district collectorConducts revenue court. Arbitrator of land acquisition, its assessment and collection of land revenue.
Collection of income tax dues, excise duties, irrigation dues and its arrears. Registration of Property documents, sale deeds, power of attorneys, share certificates etc. Issue various kinds of statutory certificates including SC/ST, OBC & EWC, Nationality, Marriage etc; as deputy commissioner/district commissioner Reports to divisional commissioner on all matters. A district magistrate is assisted by some IAS and PCS for carrying out day-to-day work in various fields:- Additional district magistrate D, E and R. City magistrate and additional city magistrates Sub-divisional magistrates and other executive magistrates. Other officers from other departments at the district level report to him/her