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South Carolina General Assembly

The South Carolina General Assembly called the South Carolina Legislature, is the state legislature of the U. S. state of South Carolina. The legislature is bicameral and consists of the lower South Carolina House of Representatives and the upper South Carolina Senate. Altogether, the General Assembly consists of 170 members; the legislature convenes at the State House in Columbia. Prior to the 1964 federal Reynolds v. Sims decision by the U. S. Supreme Court, the House of Representatives was apportioned so that each county had a number of representatives based on population, with each county guaranteed at least one Representative, while each county had one Senator. Moreover, each county's General Assembly delegation doubled as its county council, as the state constitution made no provision for local government. Reynolds v. Sims caused district lines to cross county lines, causing legislators to be on multiple county councils; this led to the passage of the Home Rule Act of 1975, which created county councils that were independent of the General Assembly.

However, the General Assembly still retains considerable authority over local government. As a result, the legislature still devotes considerable time to local matters, county legislative delegations still handle many matters that are handled by county governments in the rest of the country. There are 124 members of the South Carolina House of Representatives, who are elected every two years, the South Carolina Senate has 46 members, elected every four years concurrent to the Presidential election. For both houses, there are no term limits; the General Assembly meets in joint session to elect judges, with all 170 members having an equal vote in such elections. South Carolina State House South Carolina House of Representatives South Carolina Senate South Carolina Code of Laws South Carolina Legislature Online

2017 Healthy Ageing Tour

The 2017 Healthy Ageing Tour was a women's cycle stage race, being held in the Netherlands from 4 to 8 April 2018. The 2017 edition of the race was the seventh running of the Healthy Ageing Tour, being held with a UCI rating of 2.1. In the 2017 Healthy Ageing Tour, six different jerseys were awarded. For the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage, allowing time bonuses for the first three finishers at intermediate sprints and at the finish of mass-start stages, the leader received a yellow jersey; this classification was considered the most important of the 2018 Healthy Ageing Tour, the winner of the classification was considered the winner of the race. Additionally, there was a points classification, which awarded a green jersey. In the points classification, cyclists received points for finishing in the top 15 in a stage. For winning a stage, a rider earned 25 points, with 20 for second, 16 for third, 14 for fourth, 12 for fifth, 10 for sixth with a point fewer per place down to a single point for 15th place.

The third classification was the sprints classification, the leader of, awarded an orange jersey. In the sprints classification, riders received points for finishing in the top three at intermediate sprint points during each stage; the fourth jersey represented the young rider classification, marked by a white jersey. This was decided in the same way as the general classification, but only riders born after 1 January 1996 were eligible to be ranked in the classification. Other jerseys were awarded to the best club rider amongst the amateur riders, for the most courageous rider showing fighting spirit. There was a classification for teams, in which the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added together. 2017 in women's road cycling Official website

Muhammad Zaidan

Muhammad Zaidan known as Abu Abbas AH-boo ə-BAHSS or Muhammad Abbas, was the founder and a leader of the Palestine Liberation Front Organization. Zaidan was born in 1948 in Safed, though other sources state that he was born in a Syrian refugee camp, he studied at the Damascus University where he joined the radical, pro-Syrian Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command under Ahmed Jibril in 1968. In 1977, major disagreements arose between the PFLP-GC, the Palestine Liberation Organization, other Palestinian factions based in Lebanon. Zaidan, who opposed Syrian involvement in the Lebanese war, left the PFLP-GC and created the PLF with Talaat Yaacoub, which split into three separate factions. Zaydan's faction of the PLF, the largest of the three, moved its headquarters to Tunisia. Since its inception in 1977, the Abbas-led PLF was a member of the Palestine Liberation Organization and received support from both the PLO and Yasser Arafat's Fatah movement. Unlike the PFLP-GC, the PLF has supported peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians.

Zaidan was elected to the Executive Committee of the PLO in 1984 and represented the Palestinian National Council in 1989 during peace negotiations with Israel. Although Zaidan was wanted by Israel for his involvement in guerrilla attacks against Israel throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, Israel allowed him to travel in the Gaza Strip throughout the 1990s because he supported the peace negotiations. One notable attack by the PLF under Zaidan's leadership resulted in the deaths of Danny Haran and his two daughters and Yael in April 1979 in their Nahariya, Israel home by Samir Kuntar. Throughout the 1980s, the PLF launched attacks on both civilian and military targets in the north of Israel, across the Lebanese border. In 1985 he masterminded the hijacking of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro. During the hijacking, 69-year-old wheelchair-bound American Jewish passenger Leon Klinghoffer was shot dead and thrown overboard; the four hijackers, fearful of United States military intervention, surrendered to Egypt in return for safe passage out of Egypt, based on the pretext that they had done no harm to any of the passengers.

Four F-14 aircraft from the U. S. 6th Fleet intercepted the plane carrying the hijackers to Tunisia and escorted it to Sigonella, a NATO base in Italy. There they discovered that Zaidan and PLO political officer Hassan were on the plane. Insider deals within the Italian government made them both flown from Sigonella to Rome. From there and Hassan boarded a Yugoslav civilian airliner bound for Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Despite American requests for the extradition of Zaidan from Yugoslavia, he was not extradited because of Yugoslav relations with the PLO, he flew to Aden, South Yemen and from there to Baghdad, where Saddam Hussein sheltered him from extradition to Italy. He remained in Iraq and commanded the PLF until the American invasion of Iraq in 2003. Italy sentenced Zaidan in absentia to five terms of life imprisonment for his role in the Achille Lauro hijacking, he was wanted in the US for crimes including terrorism and murder. In 1996, he apologized for the Achille Lauro hijacking and the murder of Leon Klinghoffer and advocated peace talks between Palestinians and Israel.

On 14 April 2003, Zaidan was captured by American forces in Iraq while attempting to flee from Baghdad to Syria. Italy subsequently requested his extradition; the Pentagon reported on 9 March 2004 that Zaidan had died the previous day, of natural causes, while in U. S. custody. The PLF accused the Americans of assassinating their leader; the U. S. authorities agreed to give Abbas' body to the Palestine Red Crescent Society for burial in Ramallah on the West Bank. However, his burial there was blocked by the Israeli authorities, he was buried in the Martyrs' Cemetery in Damascus instead. "Abu Abbas collected news and commentary". The New York Times. U. S. captures mastermind of Achille Lauro hijacking, David Ensor, CNN, 16 April 2003 The World Should Know What He Did to My Family, Smadar Haran Kaiser, Washington Post, 18 May 2003 Achille Lauro hijacking, BBC H2G2

Tsuyoshi Kosaka

Tsuyoshi Kosaka is a Japanese mixed martial artist and professional wrestler who most competed in the Heavyweight division of RIZIN. A professional competitor MMA competitor since 1994, he has competed for the UFC, PRIDE Fighting Championships, RINGS, DEEP. Kohsaka is the former King of Pancrase Super Heavyweight Champion, his "TK guard" position, a precursor to modern butterfly guard, is famous for its efficiency. Training in judo since highschool, Kosaka competed extensively during his stay at the Senshu University, where he befriended future world judo champion Hidehiko Yoshida. After graduating, Kosaka became a professional judoka under the sponsorship of Toray Industries, but was forced to retire after a knee injury. After a year, he joined shoot-style promotion Fighting Network RINGS. Kosaka had his first mixed martial arts venture when, thanks to his strong judo background, he was sent to represent RINGS in the gi-clad MMA event Lumax Cup 1995, he won the tournament by knocking out Hiroyuki Yoshioka, submitting Susumu Yamasaki with a heel hook, outclassing Brazilian jiu-jitsu champion Egan Inoue at the finals with a mix of judo throws and positional reversals.

After his return to RINGS, Kosaka was put in opening shoot matches, defeating names like Maurice Smith and Willie Peeters. In September 26, 1997, however, he was thrown to a greater challenge when he faced former Pancrase star Frank Shamrock. Tsuyoshi controlled the match and taking down the lighter Shamrock and threatening him with submissions, but couldn't lock any of them, while Shamrock was successful at defending from half guard and counterattacking with his own hold attempts. After a failed takedown, the judoka was caught in a guillotine choke by Frank and had to spend a rope escape. Although Kohsaka clamped a Kimura lock which appeared to carry potential to finish the match, the time ended without Kosaka completing the hold, thus giving the win to Shamrock for his scored point; the loss, was instrumental in Kohsaka's career, as it made him close friends with Frank Shamrock and Maurice Smith, who became his training partners in the team The Alliance shortly after. In April 1999, after a series of matches in UFC, Kohsaka fought Dutch kickboxer Gilbert Yvel in RINGS.

The match saw a worn Kosaka getting ahead in points by multiple fouls from Yvel, but he failed at submitting him while Yvel landed several knockdowns, until one of them caused the fight to be stopped. They rematched in August, when an improved Kohsaka threw Yvel down, hit him with numerous body punches and submitted him with a toehold for a rope escape; as TK had scored a point before the bout went to no contest, the match was counted as a victory for him. Yvel and Kohsaka had a rubber match during the King of Kings Tournament, but it was short and uneventful, as TK was stopped again by a bleeding cut. In August 2000, TK faced the King of Kings semi-finalist Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira. Started the fight, Kohsaka blocked a takedown and transitioned it into an uchi mata, but Nogueira pulled him to the ground and mount him; the judoka escaped from under him, only for Nogueira to regain position, but this time it was Kohsaka who reversed him into a leglock attempt and pressed into his guard when it failed.

At the next round, Kohsaka stopped another takedown with a leg hook tawara gaeshi and continued pressing, blocking Nogueira's attempts to work submissions from the bottom and striking when possible. Nogueira mounted him again and threw punches, but Kohsaka performed again his signature escape into leglock and keep attacking his guard. A pair of sweeps Kohsaka controlled position until the end of the time; the match was ruled a draw. During the next King of Kings tournament, Kosaka advanced over Mikhail Ilyukhin by knockout and Mikhail's teammate Fedor Emelianenko by doctor stoppage; the latter was again a controversial technical victory, as the cut was caused by a missed looping punch where Kosaka's elbow struck Emelianenko's head, reopening a cut sustained in his previous fight against Ricardo Arona. Since the fight was in a tournament format, a winner and loser were required because draws and no-contests were not awarded, as Emelianenko could not advance due to the injury, Kosaka did. At the finals, TK forth match.

Kosaka controlled the first round of a match fought in the clinch, throwing down the wrestling champion with a harai makikomi and landing abundant ground and pound, but his activity stopped when he received an accidental headbutt. After the injury was checked, Couture took Kosaka down, although the judoka used his "TK scissors" move to counter an unfavourable north/south position, the American still controlled the second round; the match ended with a trade of strikes in which Couture got the best part, being granted the split decision and eliminating the Japanese. In June 2001, Kosaka fought luta livre specialist Renato Sobral, who had defeated Kosaka's countrymen Kiyoshi Tamura and Hiromitsu Kanehara. Sobral controlled the stand-up segments via wrestling and knee strikes, while Kosaka worked from the bottom and pursued submissions. Action increased at the second round, where Kohsaka and Sobral exchanged positions and reversals, but the Brazilian kept the dominance and it forced Kosaka to resort to sacrifice techniques like kani basami and flying kneebars.

Victory by majority decision was given to Sobral. After a quick KO victory over RINGS Russia exponent Koba Tkeshelashvili in August, Kosaka fought Koba's teammate

Room in New York

Room in New York is a 1932 oil on canvas painting by Edward Hopper that portrays two individuals in a New York City flat. It is in the collection of the Sheldon Museum of Art; the painting is said to have been inspired by the glimpses of lighted interiors seen by the artist near the district where he lived in Washington Square. The scene of a brightly lit; the stark framing makes the room the main focus, drawing the eye and giving realness to the action of peeping into a space where the subjects are unaware they are being watched. The genuineness of spying is a product of Hopper’s artistic process, he admitted the inspiration for Room in New York came from "glimpses of lighted interiors seen as I walked along city streets at night." Despite the snapshot-esque quality of the scene, it is no one particular window or moment Hopper peered into but rather a culmination of many different narratives he saw as he roamed New York City. The act of peering gives the viewer the sense that what is being seen is wholly unfiltered.

Thus, the narrative Hopper portrays is one of unapologetic realness. The harsh lines and blocks of color that frame the scene not only divide the space between viewer and subject but divide space within the room itself. Hopper places a door exactly center to divide the work into two distinct halves horizontally, isolating the man and the woman into their respective sides. While the man reads the newspaper, his counterpart plays the piano with her back to him. Blocks of color suggest suggest a lack of movement. Art historian and scholar Jean Gillies argues that the less details the viewer has to look at, the slower the eye will move across the work; the idea comes from the notion that when viewing a work of art, the eye jumps from detail to detail in order to perceive the whole. By reducing the number of elements, Hopper creates a slow moving or still scene. Gilles argues the formal techniques function to give the subjects a timeless quality as if they are frozen in that instant. A majority of scholars focus on loneliness and alienation as the theme of Hopper's work.

Art historian Pamela Koob points out that the "solitary figures in Hopper’s paintings may well be evocations of such contented solitude rather than the loneliness so cited." The evidence for contentedness comes from Hopper’s own notion that a work of art is an expression of the creator’s “inner life” -- According to his wife Jo Hopper, he loved his inner life to the point that he could “get on fine without the interruption from other humans.”In addition to the main theme of alienation, a variety of other factors are highlighted in Hopper's work. Hopper himself describes it as, “you know, there are many thoughts, many impulses that go into a picture, not just one"; some scholars have asserted that Hopper’s defined shapes and figures might be a relic of his previous work in advertising. While it was well known Hopper gave himself little credit when talking about his longtime work as a book and magazine illustrator, some of the formal qualities seen in commercial work tend to appear in his oil paintings.

Art historian Linda Nochlin argues that Hopper still held on to "vestiges of its figural conventions, its spatial shorthand, its coy puritan stiffness of contour." These rigid formalities in regard to shape are what Nochlin argues gives Hopper’s work an undeniably American look. The feeling of separation connected to the New York City flat is a running theme in Hopper’s work. In particular, Hopper’s pieces that contain two main subjects cut deep to the idea of loneliness. Hopper’s couples tend to be a man and woman in close proximity and yet oblivious to one another. While these estranged pairs appear in many of Hopper’s works, art historian Joseph Stanton suggests that Hotel by a Railroad might be something of a companion piece to Room in New York. Stanton points out the couple by the railroad might be the same couple in Room in New York, just three or four decades older. In both works, the dresses the women wear are the same color and the dark hair and pale skin furthers the likeness between them.

The men in both paintings wear black suits without the jacket. Beyond the physical similarities of the two couples, the notion of physical closeness yet complete alienation ties the two works together. Gillies, Jean. "The Timeless Space of Edward Hopper." Art Journal 31, no. 4: 404-12. Koob, Pamela N. "States of Being: Edward Hopper and Symbolist Aesthetics." American Art 18, no. 3: 52-77. Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. 1995. Levin, Gail. Edward Hopper: An Intimate Biography. New York: Knopf. 1995. Nochlin, Linda. "Edward Hopper and the Imagery of Alienation." Art Journal 41, no. 2: 136-141. Stanton, Joseph. "On Edge: Edward Hopper's Narrative Stillness." Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal 77, no. 1/2: 21-40. Ward, J. A. American Silences: The Realism of James Agee, Walker Evans, Edward Hopper. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1985

Maurelius of Voghenza

Maurelius of Voghenza was a Syrian priest, who became bishop of Voghenza. He is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. Little information survives on his life, though a Latin account of it was written in 1489, Legendary and Life and Miracles of Saint Maurelius; this stated that Maurelius was born in Edesa as one of the sons of Theobald, the pagan king of Mesopotamia. Two more sons were born to his father when Maurelius was aged 18, named Rivallus; when Maurelius reached the age of 30 he revealed to his father that he had converted to Christianity but his father refused permission for him to continue living as a Christian. He succeeded his father on his death, but passed the throne to Hippolytus soon afterwards to follow his faith more beginning spiritual instruction under Theophilus of Antioch, bishop of Smirne, who ordained him a priest. Theophilus authorised him to examine the heretic abbot Severinus of Noricum, who refused to obey the order to come to be tried. Maurelius was invited to Rome by Pope John IV to explain how this heterodoxy had occurred and how best to counter it.

During his journey towards Rome he had a vision of an angel. Maurelius thus decided to return to Smirne, he thus decided to visit St Peter's Basilica in nearby Rome to receive the pope's blessing. Several pilgrims from Voghenza were at the papal audience to ask for a successor to their recently-dead bishop Oldrado. During the audience the pope had a vision of Saint George, who ordered him to choose Maurelius as the new bishop. Maurelius travelled to Voghenza, where he celebrated his first mass as bishop. During it a hand appear blessing him and words were heard praising him for renouncing earthly honours to embrace Christianity, he cured a blind girl and another vision predicted a set of sufferings in his future. The tradition and the sources diverge at this point; the Legendary states that messengers arrived from Edessa to state that Rivallus had renounced Christianity and killed Hipolytus. Maurelius returned to Edessa, where Rivallus arrested and killed him. Other more historical sources argue Maurelius was the victim of a power struggle between the Exarchate of Ravenna and the papacy for control of territories under Byzantine rule - Maurelius favoured the papal side, leading to both his martyrdom and his canonisation In 1106 Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor had a vision of the saint and translated his relics to the church of San Giorgio in Ferrara.

This led to a more intense veneration of the saint and in 1463 he was made Ferrara's patron saint. The saint became a major subject in Ferrarese art, such as Cosmè Tura's 1470 Saint Maurelius Altarpiece for San Giorgio church, his relics are now in the Basilica of San Giorgio fuori le mura in Ferrara. José-Apeles Santolaria de Puey y Cruells, Annuario Diocesano 2017. Arcidiocesi di Ferrara-Comacchio, Archidiocesis Ferrariensis, 2016. Romeo Sgarbanti, Ferrara nascita di una città, edited by Carlo Bassi, Sabbioncello San Pietro, 2G Editrice, 2008, SBN IT\ICCU\UFE\0897723. Carlo Bassi, Breve ma veridica storia di Ferrara, Ferrara, 2G Libri, 2015, ISBN 88-89248-06-8