Colleton County, South Carolina
Colleton County is a county located in the Lowcountry region of the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 38,892, its county seat is Walterboro. The county is named after Sir John Colleton, 1st Baronet, one of the eight Lords Proprietor of the Province of Carolina. After two previous incarnations, the current Colleton County was created in 1800. In 1682, Colleton was created as one of the three original proprietary counties, located in the southwestern coastal portion of the new South Carolina Colony and bordering on the Combahee River. In 1706, the county was divided between the new Saint Saint Paul parishes; this area was developed for large plantations devoted to rice and indigo cultivation as commodity crops. The planters depended on the labor of African slaves transported to Charleston for that purpose. In the coastal areas, black slaves soon outnumbered white colonists, as they did across the colony by 1708. In 1734, most of the coastal portion of Saint Paul's Parish was separated to form the new Saint John's Colleton Parish.
In 1769, the three parishes were absorbed into the Charleston Judicial District, the southwestern portion of, referred to as Saint Bartholomew's. In 1800, the new Colleton District was formed from the western half of the Charleston District. In 1816, it annexed a small portion of northwestern Charleston District. In 1868, under the Reconstruction era new state constitution, South Carolina districts were reorganized as counties. Officials were to be elected by the resident voters rather than by state officials, as was done thus giving more democratic power to local residents. In 1897, the northeastern portion of the county was separated to form the new Dorchester County, with its seat at Saint George. In 1911, the portion of the county east of the Edisto River was annexed by Charleston County. In 1919 and again in 1920, tiny portions of northwestern Colleton County were annexed to Bamberg County. In March 1975, the town of Edisto Beach was annexed to Colleton County from Charleston County, thus bringing the county to its present size.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,133 square miles, of which 1,056 square miles is land and 77 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in fourth-largest by total area. Orangeburg County - north Dorchester County - northeast Charleston County - east Beaufort County - south Hampton County - west Allendale County - west Bamberg County - northwest Ernest F. Hollings ACE Basin National Wildlife Refuge Colleton State Park Edisto Beach State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 38,264 people, 14,470 households, 10,490 families residing in the county; the population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 18,129 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.52% White, 42.18% Black or African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.56% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 1.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,470 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.10% were married couples living together, 16.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.50% were non-families.
24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.50% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,733, the median income for a family was $34,169. Males had a median income of $28,518 versus $19,228 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,831. About 17.30% of families and 21.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.70% of those under age 18 and 19.10% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2000 Census, the Colleton County population is nearly 75% rural, with the exception of the Walterboro Urban Cluster.
The total county population is designated as the Walterboro Micropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 38,892 people, 15,131 households, 10,449 families residing in the county; the population density was 36.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 19,901 housing units at an average density of 18.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 57.0% white, 39.0% black or African American, 0.8% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 1.3% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.0% were American, 7.3% were English, 6.5% were German, 5.2% were Irish. Of the 15,131 households, 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families, 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.07.
The median age was 40.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,263 and the median income for a family was $40,955. Males had a median income of $36,622 versus $25,898 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,842. About 17.7% of families and 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.3% of those under age 18 and 17
In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geography with one homogeneous human activity or complex of activities. These are associated with an ethnolinguistic group and the territory it inhabits. Specific cultures do not limit their geographic coverage to the borders of a nation state, or to smaller subdivisions of a state. Cultural "spheres of influence" may overlap or form concentric structures of macrocultures encompassing smaller local cultures. Different boundaries may be drawn depending on the particular aspect of interest, such as religion and folklore vs. dress and architecture vs. language. Cultural areas are not considered equivalent to Kulturkreis. A culture area is a concept in cultural anthropology in which a geographic region and time sequence is characterized by uniform environment and culture; the concept of culture areas was originated by museum curators and ethnologists during the late 1800s as means of arranging exhibits.
Clark Wissler and Alfred Kroeber further developed the concept on the premise that they represent longstanding cultural divisions. The concept is criticized by some, but other researchers disagree and the organization of human communities into cultural areas remains a common practice throughout the social sciences. The definition of culture areas is enjoying a resurgence of practical and theoretical interest as social scientists conduct more research on processes of cultural globalization. A formal culture region is an area inhabited by people who have one or more cultural traits in common, such as language, religion, or system of livelihood, it is an area homogeneous with regard to one or more cultural traits. The geographer who identifies a formal culture region must locate cultural borders; because cultures overlap and mix, such boundaries are sharp if only one cultural trait is mapped and so there are cultural border zones, rather than lines. The zones broaden with each additional cultural trait, considered because no two traits have the same spatial distribution.
As a result, instead of having clear borders, formal culture regions reveal a center or core, where the defining traits are all present. Away from the central core, the characteristics disappear. Thus, many formal culture regions display a core-periphery. In contrast to the abstract cultural homogeneity of a formal culture region, a functional culture region may not be culturally homogeneous. Functional culture regions have nodes or central points where the functions are coordinated and directed, such as city halls, national capitols, precinct voting places, parish churches and banks. In that sense, functional regions possess a core-periphery configuration, in common with formal culture regions. Many functional regions have defined borders that include all land under the jurisdiction of a particular urban government, delineated on a regional map by a line distinguishing between one jurisdiction and another. Vernacular, popular or perceptual cultural regions are those perceived to exist by their inhabitants, as is evident by the widespread acceptance and use of a distinctive regional name.
Some vernacular regions are based on physical environmental features. Vernacular regions, like most culture regions lack sharp borders, the inhabitants of any given area may claim residence in more than one such region, it grows out of people's sense of identification with a particular region. An American example is "Dixie", they lack the organization necessary for functional regions although they may be centered on a single urban node. They do not display the cultural homogeneity that characterizes formal regions. Allen Noble gave a summary of the concept development of cultural regions using the terms "cultural hearth", "cultural core" by Donald W. Meinig for Mormon culture published in 1970 and "source area" by Fred Kniffen and Henry Glassie for house and barn types. Outside of a core area he quoted Meinigs' use of the terms "domain" and "sphere". A cultural boundary in ethnology is a geographical boundary between two identifiable ethnic or ethnolinguistic cultures. A language border is also a cultural border, as language is a significant part of a society's culture)l, but it can divide subgroups of the same ethnolinguistic group along more subtle criteria, such as the Brünig-Napf-Reuss line in German-speaking Switzerland, the Weißwurstäquator in Germany or the Grote rivieren boundary between Dutch and Flemish culture.
In the history of Europe, the major cultural boundaries are found: in Western Europe between Latin Europe, where the legacy of the Roman Empire remained dominant, Germanic Europe, where it was syncretized with Germanic culture in the Balkans, the Jireček Line, dividing the area of dominant Latin from that of dominant Greek influence. Macro-cultures on a continental scale are referred to as "worlds," "spheres," or "civilizations," such as the Muslim world. In a modern context, a cultural boundary can be a division between subcultures or classes within a given society, such as blue collar vs. white collar etc. See also: Isogloss Cultural boundaries sometimes d
China Ocean Shipping Company, known as COSCO or COSCO Group, is a Chinese state-owned shipping and logistics services supplier company. Its headquarters is in Ocean Plaza in the Xicheng District in Beijing, it owns 1114 ships, including 365 dry bulk vessels, a container fleet with a capacity of 1,580,000 twenty-foot equivalent units, a tanker fleet of 120 vessels. The fleet calls at over a thousand ports worldwide, it ranks third largest in both number of container ships and aggregate container volume in the world. In 2012, it was among China's top 15 brands, it is the largest dry bulk carrier in China and one of the largest dry bulk shipping operators worldwide. In addition, the Group is the largest liner carrier in China. A list of the ships it operates can be found at COSCO fleet lists. In February 2016, the COSCO Group merged with China Shipping Group to form China COSCO Shipping. COSCO contains seven listed companies and has more than 300 subsidiaries locally and abroad, providing services in freight forwarding, ship building, ship repair, terminal operation, container manufacturing, financing, real estate, information technology.
There are seven listed companies of COSCO: Hong Kong: COSCO Pacific Ltd. Hong Kong: COSCO International Holdings Ltd. Hong Kong: China International Marine Containers Co. Ltd. Hong Kong: China COSCO Holdings Co. Ltd. Shanghai: China COSCO Holdings Co. Ltd. Shenzhen: China International Marine Containers Co. Ltd. Shenzhen: China International Marine Containers Co. Ltd. Singapore: COSCO Corporation Limited Japan: Cosco SHIPPING Lines Co. Ltd. In April 2016 COSCO agreed to buy 51% of Piraeus Port Authority, listed on the Athens Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE/Athex Large Cap index. COSCO's subsidiary Piraeus Container Terminal has been operating two Piers at Piraeus Port since 2009. In July 2017, COSCO put in a $6.3 billion bid to buy its Hong Kong based rival Orient Overseas Limited. The bid has been accepted subject to shareholder and regulatory approval; this will make it the world's third largest container shipping company with a fleet of over 400 vessels. On 31 July 2009, the Panama-flagged bulk carrier, Full City, operated by COSCO, experienced engine failure and ran aground near Langesund, Norway, during a storm, spilling 200 tons of heavy bunker fuel oil in an ecologically and environmentally sensitive wildlife area.
On the 3 April 2010 MV Shen Neng 1 ran aground 38 nautical miles east of Great Keppel Island, Australia. The ship, carrying 975 tonnes of heavy bunker fuel oil, began leaking oil in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, closed to commercial shipping; the Australian Maritime Safety Authority has revealed that a shipping plan was lodged for Shen Neng 1 to travel between Douglas Shoal and the Capricorn Group, where there is a gap of 6 nautical miles. List of oil spills Shipping industry of China Top intermodal container companies list China Ocean Shipping Company COSCO North America, Inc. COSCO Pte. Ltd Analysis of COSCO Terminal at Pier J
North Charleston, South Carolina
North Charleston is the third-largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, with incorporated areas in Berkeley and Dorchester counties. On June 12, 1972, the city of North Charleston was incorporated and was rated as the ninth-largest city in South Carolina; as of the 2010 Census, North Charleston had a population of 97,471, growing to an estimated population of 108,304 in 2015, with a current area of more than 76.6 square miles. As defined by the U. S. Office of Management and Budget, for use by the U. S. Census Bureau and other U. S. Government agencies for statistical purposes only, North Charleston is included within the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville metropolitan area and the Charleston-North Charleston urban area. North Charleston is one of the state's major industrial centers and is the state's top city in gross retail sales. From the 17th century until the Civil War, plantations cultivated commodity crops, such as rice and indigo; some of the plantations located in what is now North Charleston were: Archdale Hall Plantation – dating from 1680, Archdale Hall was located on the Ashley River.
By 1783, it had grown to 3,000 acres. Its primary crops were rice; the plantation was the longest family-owned plantation in South Carolina. It has since been redeveloped into the Archdale subdivision. Camp Plantation – dating from 1705, Camp Plantation covered around 1,000 acres. Elms Plantation – dating from 1682, Elms Plantation was founded by Ralph Izard, its principal crop was rice. It covered nearly 4,350 acres, stretching across parts of what are now the cities of Goose Creek and North Charleston. Charleston Southern University is located on part of the original plantation lands. French Botanical Garden – established between 1786 and 1796, this small plantation/garden area of 111 acres was owned and maintained by the French botanist André Michaux, it was closed by Michaux's son in 1803. The garden was located near what is today the Charleston International Airport, the parkway connecting Dorchester Road with International Boulevard is named in his honor. Marshlands, Mons Repos and Retreat plantations – the Retreat Plantation dates from 1672 and the Marshlands Plantation dates from 1682.
Mons Repos was developed around 1798. The land from all three plantations was acquired by the federal government for development of the Charleston Naval Base and Charleston Naval Shipyard; the Marshlands Plantation's main house has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. To preserve the house, it was moved in 1961 to land at Fort Johnson on James Island and is used as offices for the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. Oak Grove Plantation – dating from 1680, Oak Grove covered 960 acres along the Cooper River. By 1750, its owners had expanded the plantation to about 1,127 acres. Tranquil Hill Plantation – started in 1683, Tranquil Hill was known as White Hall Plantation, a name it would keep until 1773, its principal crop was rice. It encompassed about 526 acres. Since the late 20th century, it was redeveloped as the Whitehall residential subdivision. Windsor Hill Plantation – established in 1701, Windsor Hill was an inland rice plantation that covered nearly 1,348 acres.
General William Moultrie, victor at the Battle of Sullivan's Island in 1776 and governor from 1785–87 and 1792–94, was buried here. His remains were exhumed and reburied at Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island in 1977; the Windsor Hill Plantation subdivision was developed on a portion of the eponymous plantation's property. The large plantations were subdivided into smaller farms in the late 19th century as the urban population began moving northward. Due to the large labor forces of enslaved African Americans who worked these properties for over two centuries, the population of Charleston County in 1870 was 73 percent black. After the Civil War, phosphate fertilizer plants were developed, with extensive strip mining occurring between the Ashley River and Broad Path; the main route for transportation of these phosphates became known as Ashley Phosphate Road. Since the early 20th century, the section of unincorporated Charleston County that became the city of North Charleston had been designated by Charleston business and community leaders as a place for development of industry and other business sites.
The first industry started in this area was the E. P. Burton Lumber Company. In 1901, the Charleston Naval Shipyard was established with agreements between the federal government and local Charleston city leaders. Shortly thereafter, the General Asbestos and Rubber Company built the world's largest asbestos mill under one roof. In 1912, a group of businessmen from the city of Charleston formed a development company that bought the E. P. Burton Lumber Company began to lay out an area for further development; the Park Circle area was one of the first to be designed and developed, allocating sections for industrial and residential usage. Park Circle was planned as one of only two English Garden Style communities in the US, most of the original planning concept remains today; some of the streets in the area still bear the names of these original developers: Durant, Mixon, O'Hear. During World War II, substantial development occurred as the military bases and industries expanded, increasing the personnel assigned there.
New residents moved to the region to be closer to their work. From World War II through the 1
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a large multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung. Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; the history of the company started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik on 15 November 1886. One year Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines. Twenty years the first magneto for automobiles followed; the first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901. In 1906, the company produced its 100,000-th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers. In 1910, the Feuerbach plant was built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913. In 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation. In 1926, Bosch started to produce windshield wipers, in 1927, injection pumps for diesel.
Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company presented its first car radio; as early as the end of 1933, negotiations between Robert Bosch AG and the National Socialists began on relocating parts of armaments production to the interior of Germany. Bosch founded two such alternative plants in 1935 and 1937: Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin and Elektro- und Feinmechanische Industrie GmbH in Hildesheim. Both plants were used for armaments production; these "shadow factories" were built under great secrecy and in close cooperation with the Nazi authorities. In 1937, Bosch AG became a limited liability company; the Bosch subsidiary Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin employed around 5,000 people, more than half of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war, female concentration camp prisoners, including many women from the Warsaw Uprising. They had to produce accessories for German Luftwaffe aircraft.
In Hildesheim, a secret plant for the entire electrical equipment of tanks and trucks of the Wehrmacht was built. In 1944, 4,290 men and women worked in the Trillke factory, 2,019 of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war and military internees. During the Second World War, a total of 2,711 people, deported to Germany from the occupied countries had to work at the Bosch plant in Hildesheim. In the last years of the war, no new German tank drove without the starter elements from the Bosch factory in Hildesheim. Bosch had a monopoly position in the outfitting of German Luftwaffe aircraft. During the war, production was further decentralized, Bosch produced in an larger number of factories, relocated parts of its production to 213 plants in more than 100 locations. On 12 March 1942, the company's founder, Robert Bosch, died at the age of 80. Angela Martin and Ewa Czerwiakowski interviewed numerous former forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners of Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH and Trillke-Werke as part of a Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt project, researched the history of the two shadow factories, published several books and exhibitions on the subject.
In 2016, they published the website z. B. Bosch. Zwangsarbeit im Hildesheimer Wald. After the second world war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso. In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded. Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970. In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH, renamed Telenorma in 1985, acquired in 1987. In 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH; the most relevant inventions of the company until 2000 were the oxygen sensor, the electric motor control, the traction control system, the xenon light for cars, the electronic stability control, the common rail direct fuel injection, the direct fuel injection. In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area. In 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG, which they renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG. In the same year, the company opened a new testing centers in Vaitoudden close to Arjeplog in north Sweden.
A new developing center in Abstatt, Germany followed in 2004. In 2002, Bosch acquired Philips CSI, which at the time was manufacturing a broad range of professional communication and security products and systems including CCTV, congress and public address systems. Important inventions in these years were the electric hydraulic brake in 2001, the common rail fuel injection with piezo-injectors, the digital car radio with a disc drive, the cordless screwdriver with a lithium-ion battery in 2003. Bosch received the Deutsche Zukunftspreis from the German president in 2005 and 2008. A new development center was planned in 2008 in Renningen. In 2014, the first departments moved to the new center, while the remaining departments followed in 2015. In 2006, Bosch acquired Electro-Voice. In 2009, Bosch invested about 3.6 billion Euro in research. 3900 patents are published per year. In addition to increasing energy efficiency by employing renewable energies, the company plans to invest into new areas such as biomedical engineering.
China has developed into an important manufacturing base for Bosch. In 2
The Grand Strand is a large stretch of beaches on the East Coast of the United States extending from Little River to Georgetown in the U. S. State of South Carolina, it consists of more than 60 miles along an uninterrupted arc of beach land, beginning around the Little River and terminating at Winyah Bay. The population of the Grand Strand was 329,449 at the 2010 United States Census; the term Grand Strand dates back to a November 19, 1949 The Myrtle Beach Sun column titled "From the Grandstand" and another titled "From the Grand Strand" on December 3, 1949 in The Myrtle Beach News. "Strand" itself derives from the German Strand, meaning "beach". The area has become a major tourist attraction along the Southeastern coast, with its primary city, Myrtle Beach, attracting over ten million visitors each season, it is home to numerous hotels, golf resorts, recreational centers, making it popular with families and college students during the summers and winters. According to Köppen climate classification, the Myrtle Beach area has a humid subtropical climate, influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, giving the area a more oceanic feel.
The city experiences hot, humid summers. Rainfall is plentiful throughout the whole year, but most concentrated during the summer months, where it is not uncommon for every day to have at least a 30% chance of rain; the area is susceptible to strong thunderstorms in the summer months. These have a short duration, although some may have intense hail with tornadoes rarely. Snowfall is rare in this part of the state, but does occur, such as when Myrtle Beach received five inches of snow in January 2000. Another severe ice and snow storm struck on January 28, 2014. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Long Bay area was inhabited by the native Waccamaw Tribe; the Waccamaw fished along the shore around Little River. Waties Island, the primary barrier island along Long Bay, has evidence of burial and shell mounds, remains of the visiting Waccamaw; the first European settler along Long Bay arrived in the late 18th Century, attempting to extend the plantation system outward towards the ocean. Records are sparse from this period, with most of the recorded history pieced together from old land grants documents.
These settlers were met with mixed results, producing unremarkable quantities of indigo and tobacco as the coast's soil was sandy and most of the crop yields were of an inferior quality. Prior to the American Revolution, the area along the future Grand Strand was uninhabited. Several families received land grants along the coast, including the Withers: John, Richard and Mary; this family received an area around present-day Wither's Swash known as Myrtle Swash or the 8-Mile Swash. A separate grant was granted to James Minor, including a barrier island named Minor Island, now Waties Island, off of the coast near Little River. Mary Wither's gravestone at Prince George Winyah Episcopal Church speaks to the remoteness of the former Strand: "She gave up the pleasures of Society and retired to Long Bay, where she resided a great part of her life devoted to the welfare of her children."As the American colonies gained independence, the area remained unchanged, the coast remained barren. George Washington scouted out the Southern states during his term, traveling down the King's Highway.
He was led across Wither's Swash to Georgetown by Jeremiah Vereen. The Withers family remained one of the few settlers around Myrtle Beach for the next half-century. In 1822, a strong hurricane swept the house of R. F. Withers into the ocean, drowning 18 people inside; the tragedy made. Left unattended, the area began to return to forest. On February 28, 1899, Burroughs and Collins, predecessor of modern-day Burroughs and Chapin, received their charter to build the Conway & Seashore Railroad to transport timber from the coast to inland customers; the railroad began daily service on May 1900 with two wood-burning locomotives. One of the engines was dubbed The Black Maria and came second-hand from a North Carolina logging operation. A community named "Withers" post office was established at the site of the old Swash. After the railroad was finished, employees of the lumber and railroad company would take train flatcars down to beach area on their free weekends, becoming the first Grand Strand tourists.
The railroad terminus was nicknamed contrasting it with the "Old Town", or Conway. At the turn of the 20th century, Franklin Burroughs envisioned turning New Town into a tourist destination rivaling the Florida and northeastern beaches. Burroughs died in 1897, but his sons completed the railroad's expansion to the beach and opened the Seaside Inn in 1901. After its founding, New Town continued to grow until 1957. A contest was held to name the town and Burroughs' wife suggested honoring the locally abundant shrub, the Southern Wax Myrtle. So the town was named Myrtle Beach. In 1937, Myrtle Beach Municipal Airport was built, however it was promptly taken over by the United States Army Air Corps in 1940 and converted into a military base. Commercial flights began in 1976 and shared the runway for over 15 years until the air base closed in 1993. Since the airport has been named Myrtle Beach International Airport. In 2010 plans to build a new terminal were approved. In 1940, Kings Highway was paved.
The Grand Strand's economy is dominated by the tourist industry, with tourism bringing in millions of dollars each year. Hotels, resorts, restaurants and retail develo
Evergreen Marine Corporation, is a Taiwanese container transportation and shipping company headquartered in Luzhu District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan. Its principal trading routes are the Far East to Central America and the Caribbean. With over 150 container ships it is part of the Evergreen Group conglomerate of transportation firms and associated companies. Evergreen calls on 240 ports worldwide in about 80 countries, is the fifth largest company of its type; the company's activities include: shipping, construction of containers and ships, management of ports, engineering and real estate development. Subsidiaries and divisions include Uniglory Marine Corp. Evergreen UK Ltd. and shipping company Italia Marittima S.p. A.. In 2007, Italia Maritima, Evergreen were merged into the single "Evergreen Line." The majority of Evergreen's shipping containers are painted green with the word "Evergreen" placed on the sides in white letters. Uniglory containers are painted and marked, but those containers are bright orange.
Evergreen's refrigerated "reefer" containers have a reverse color scheme. The company was founded 1 September 1968 by Yung-Fa Chang. Services began with a single cargo vessel named Central Trust, which operated a "go-anywhere" service. A second vessel was added in 1969, used on Middle East services. Additional vessels were acquired through the 1970s, routes to East Asia and Central America were added. Service to the U. S. began with the establishment of Evergreen Marine Corporation Ltd.. In 1981, the parent company changed its name to Evergreen International S. A. as the company increased its global expansion efforts. Evergreen Marine began its first circumnavigation shipping services in 1984; this service is bi-directional, covering both eastbound routings. Since Evergreen Marine has expanded to include other shipping companies such as the Uniglory Marine Corp. in 1984, the Hatsu Marine Ltd. in 2002, the Italian shipping company Italia Marittima in 1993. Uniglory was made a division of the company in 1999.
Evergreen Marine has become a partner of EVA Airways, founded in 1989, Uni Air, founded in 1998. In 2002, Evergreen Marine operated 61 container vessels, with a total fleet size totaling 130 vessels with 400,000 TEU. By 2008, Evergreen Marine operated 178 container vessels. In 2009, the company announced plans to build 100 additional vessels, in anticipation of a global economic recovery by 2012. Evergreen Marine's operations center around five general routings: East Asia to North America/Central America East Asia to Northern Europe/Mediterranean Europe to North America East Asia to Southern Hemisphere Intra-AsiaThe shipping line's busiest routings are in the first category, East Asia to North America and Central America. Within this area, common traffic is between China, Japan and Taiwan with the U. S. West Coast, along with routings to the East Caribbean via Panama. Evergreen Marine operated 153 container ships with 439,538 twenty-foot equivalent units on 1 May 2005. In total, Evergreen Marine operated 178 container ships in 2008.
The following are Evergreen containership classes since 1975: Ever Spring–class, 4 ships, 646 TEU, built 1975–1976 Ever Valor–class, 7 ships, 1214 TEU, built 1977–1979 Ever Level–class, 6 ships, 1800 TEU, 1979–80, 1983 Ever G–class, 3 ships, 2240 TEU, built 1983 Ever G–class, 17 ships, 2728 TEU, built 1984–1985 Ever GL / GX–class, 11 ships, 3428 TEU, built 1986–1988 some by CSBC Corporation, Taiwan Ever Racer–class, 10 ships, 4229 TEU, built 1993–1995 Ever Dainty–class, 10 ships, 4163 TEU, built 1997–1998 Ever Ultra–class, 18 Post-Panamax ships, 5364 TEU, built 1996–2001 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Kobe Ever A–class, 14 ships, 1162 TEU, built 1996–1999 Ever P–class, 16 ships, 1618 TEU, built 1999 – July 2003 by Evergreen Shipyard, Nagasaki Hatsu Eagle–class, 5 Post-Panamax ships, 6332 TEU, built December 2001 – December 2002 by Mitsubishi H. Ind. Hatsu Shine–class, 10 Post-Panamax ships, 7024 TEU, built September 2005 – 2008 by Mitsubishi H. Ind. Kobe LT Cortesia–class, 8 Post-Panamax ships, 8100 TEU, built May 2005 – May 2006 by Samsung The following are vessels transferred between Evergreen Marine and Uniglory Marine and subsidiaries: Lloyd Triestino / Italy (ship name begins with pre-fix "LT", since 2006 with "Ital Evergreen UK Ltd. / UK: Hatsu Marine was renamed Evergreen UK Some vessels delivered as new buildings to these subsidiaries.
Evergreen Marine operates four major transshipment hubs, multiple container terminals. Taichung Container Terminal, Taiwan Kaohsiung Container Terminal, Taiwan Colon Container Terminal, Panama Evergreen Los Angeles Terminal, California Evergreen Pierce County Container Terminal, Washington Evergreen terminals in Asia and elsewhere Evergreen terminals in Middle East, North Yard Company Since 2007, the following have been merged into the single Evergreen Line. Uniglory Marine Corp. (Taiwan