Fashion Island is a mall in Newport Beach, California. It is served by Orange County Transportation Authority bus routes 1, 55, 57, 79. Fashion Island is owned by The Irvine Company. Opened in 1967 as part of Newport Center, the center featured four department stores: Buffum's, J. W. Robinson's, The Broadway, J. C. Penney; these four initial buildings were designed by architects William Pereira and Welton Becket, were flanked by several smaller stores. The Spanish architectural theme which would define the property was evident in the Robinson's building. Bullocks Wilshire opened in August 1977 and Neiman Marcus opened in March 1978. J. C. Penney closed its doors in April 1982, the building it occupied was reconstructed and reopened as "Atrium Court," which contained numerous smaller shops and a food court on the lower level; the southwest entrance to Robinson's features a bronze wind-chime sculpture by mural artist Tom Van Sant, installed in September 1967, recorded by the Guinness Book of Records as the world's largest wind chime.
In 1988, the center underwent a major expansion and renovation based on the design of Jon Jerde, adding the Island Terrace Food Court, an eight-screen movie theater, three new avenues of shops, all of which converge in a circular courtyard with an animated fountain that shoots jets of water up to 30 feet high. This fountain is known as the "Iris Fountain" because of the radial-leaves pattern of its marble lining coupled with the jets of water that represents the iris plant. In February 1990, the Bullocks Wilshire store became an I. Magnin. Buffum's closed in May 1991 due to the chain being liquidated, its space was subdivided into smaller stores; the Robinson's store became a Robinson's-May store in January 1993 due to both J. W. Robinson's and May Company California merging to form Robinson's-May. I. Magnin closed in January 1995 due to the chain being liquidated, the site became a Bullock's Women's Store in June of that same year; the Bullock's Women's Store became a Macy's Women's Store in 1996.
The last original anchor store The Broadway closed in 1996 due to the chain being purchased by Macy's and liquidated, the site reopened as one of the first Bloomingdale's stores on the West Coast in the fall of that same year. In the early 2000s, the center underwent additional minor renovations resulting in the alteration and replacement of landscape elements, building facades, outdoor furniture, floor materials to better reflect the Mediterranean theme. Included in this renovation was the installment of a carousel and a new wing with restaurants and shops, although the carousel was removed in January 2010 as part of major renovations of the center; the Federated-May merger in 2006 affected Fashion Island, resulting in the closure and demolition of the 80,000 square feet Macy's Women's Store and conversion of the former Robinsons-May into a full-line Macy's store. On January 29, 2008, Nordstrom announced that it had signed a letter of intent to open a 138,000 sq ft store in 2010 in the former Macy's Women's Store location.
On April 16, 2010, Nordstrom opened at Fashion Island. In 2009, the Irvine Company began a $100 million renovation of the property. On September 12, 2012, Whole Foods Market opened on the east side of the mall near Noble; the store includes a bar and restaurant. The large courtyard outside the Bloomingdale's building is occupied annually by a large Christmas tree; every year, the tree is lit in mid-November The tree lighting is preceded by extravagant holiday performances. The trees are taken from a private timber area near Mount Shasta and shipped to Fashion Island in several pieces, which are re-assembled using steel rods and a large crane. Fashion Island takes an environmentally friendly approach with the tree: its harvesting had no detrimental impact on the environment and is recycled once holiday festivities conclude. Since 1983, the tree at Fashion Island has been one the nation's tallest; the M Resort held this distinction for 2009. The tree is 90 feet tall with ornaments. Official website
Phaseolus lunatus known as the lima bean, butter bean, sieva bean, or Madagascar bean, is a legume grown for its edible seeds or beans. Phaseolus lunatus is found in Meso- and South America. Two gene pools of cultivated lima beans point to independent domestication events; the Mesoamerican lima bean is distributed in neotropical lowlands while the other is found in the western Andes. They were discovered in Peru; the Andes domestication took place around 2000 BC, produced a large-seeded variety, while the second, taking place in Mesoamerica around 800 AD, produced a small-seeded variety. By around 1300, cultivation had spread north of the Rio Grande, in the 1500s, the plant began to be cultivated in the Old World; the small-seeded type is found distributed from Mexico to Argentina below 1,600 m above sea level, while the large-seeded wild form is found distributed in the north of Peru, from 320 to 2,030 m above sea level. The Moche Culture cultivated lima beans and depicted them in their art. During the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, lima beans were exported to the rest of the Americas and Europe, since the boxes of such goods had their place of origin labeled "Lima, Peru", the beans got named as such.
Despite the origin of the name, when referring to the bean, the word "lima" is pronounced differently than the Peruvian capital. The term "butter bean" is used for a large and yellow/white variety of lima bean. In the United States Sieva-type beans are traditionally called butter beans otherwise known as the Dixie or Henderson type. In that area, lima beans and butter beans are seen as two distinct types of beans. In Spain, it is called garrofón, constitutes one of the main ingredients of the famous Valencian paella. In the United Kingdom and the United States, "butter beans" refers to either dried beans which can be purchased to rehydrate, or the canned variety which are ready to use. In culinary use there, lima beans and butter beans are distinct, the latter being large and yellow, the former small and green. In areas where both are considered to be lima beans, the green variety may be labelled as "baby" limas. Lima bean is a domesticated species of economic and cultural importance worldwide in Mexico.
The species has two varieties. The wild variety is silvester and the domesticated one is lunatus. In the U. S, it is a warm season crop, grown in Delaware and mid-Atlantic region for processing and in Midwest and California for dry beans. Baby lima beans are harvested about 10 -- 12 weeks later. In western New York State, baby lima bean production increased exponentially from 2011 to 2015. Cultivation: The main rainy season lasts from June to August and most of the above-ground parts die during dry season. Germination or budding occurs in July; the first inflorescence is in November. The production of flowers and fruits ends between February and April. Cultivars: Both bush and pole cultivars exist, the latter range from 1 to 5 metres in height; the bush cultivars mature earlier than the pole cultivars. The pods are up to 15 cm long; the mature seeds are oval to kidney-shaped. In most cultivars the seeds are quite flat, but in the "potato" cultivars, the shape approaches spherical. White seeds are common, but black, red and variously mottled seeds are known.
The immature seeds are uniformly green. Lima beans yield 2,900 to 5,000 kg of seed and 3,000 to 8,000 kg of biomass per hectare; the seeds of the cultivars listed below are white. Related or synonymous names are listed on the same line.'Henderson' /'Thorogreen', 65 days'Eastland', 68 days'Jackson Wonder', 68 days'Dixie Butterpea', 75 days'Fordhook 242', 75 days, 1945 AAS winner'Carolina' /'Sieva', 75 days'Christmas' /'Chestnut' /'Giant Speckled' /'Speckled Calico', 78 days'Big 6' /'Big Mama', 80 days'Willow Leaf', 80 days'King of the Garden', 85 days a. Phytophthora phaseoli is one example of a pathogen of the lima bean, it is an oomycete plant pathogen that causes downy mildew of lima bean during cool and humid weather conditions. To combat this pathogen, developing lima bean cultivars with resistance is a cost-efficient method, environmentally safe as compared to using pesticides.b. Didymella is a foliar disease found in baby lima beans first reported in New York State. Symptoms include small necrotic tan spots with red to reddish brown irregular margins that come together to cover the entire leaf.
Lesions occur after around 3–4 weeks of planting and increase till there is considerable defoliation. Lesions are observed on the stems. Two pynidial fungi were found on leaves included Didymella sp, and Boeremia exigua var. exigua, pathogenic on baby lima bean and plays a role in the foliar disease complex. Other fungal diseases on lima beans with similar symptoms are B. exigua var. exigua, pod blight caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum, leaf spots caused by Phyllosticta sp. and Phoma subcircinata. The two-spotted spider mites or Tetranychus urticae lay eggs on lima bean leaves, it prefers lima bean plants as host food source over other plants such as cabbage plants. Spider mites pose the greatest threat to the lima bean plants as compa
Nordstrom Inc. is an American chain of luxury department stores operating in Canada and headquartered in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1901 by Swedish American John W. Nordstrom and Carl F. Wallin, the company began as a shoe retailer and expanded its inventory to include clothing, handbags, jewelry and fragrances. Select Nordstrom stores include wedding and home furnishings departments; the company has in-house cafes and espresso bars. Nordstrom, Inc.'s common stock is publicly traded on the NYSE under the symbol JWN. Nordstrom has 379 stores operating in 40 US states, Puerto Rico and Canada, a number which includes 122 full-line stores and 244 Nordstrom Rack stores, two clearance stores, six Trunk Club clubhouses, three Jeffrey boutiques and three Nordstrom Local stores. Nordstrom serves customers through nordstrom.com, nordstromrack.com, its online private sale site, HauteLook. In 1887, John W. Nordstrom immigrated to the United States at the age of 16, he was born in the village of Alvik, close to the city of Luleå in Northern Sweden.
His name at birth was Johan Nordström, which he anglicized to John Nordstrom. After landing in New York, he first began working in Michigan and was able to save enough money to purchase a 20-acre potato farm in Arlington, Washington. In 1897, he joined the Klondike Gold Rush in Canada's Yukon Territory. After two years of prospecting, he struck gold, but sold his disputed claim for $13,000. Returning to Seattle with his newfound wealth, he married Hilda Carlson and looked for a business venture settling on a shoe store that opened in 1901, called Wallin & Nordstrom. Carl F. Wallin, the co-founder of the store, was the owner of the adjacent shoe repair shop. John and Hilda had five children, three of whom would follow him into the family business, Everett W. Elmer J. and Lloyd N. Nordstrom. In 1928, John W. Nordstrom retired and sold his shares to two of his sons and Elmer. In 1929, Wallin retired and sold his shares to them; the 1930 grand opening of the remodeled Second Avenue store marked the change of name to Nordstrom.
Lloyd Nordstrom subsequently joined the company in 1933, the three brothers ran the business together for forty years. By 1958, Nordstrom still sold only shoes, their expansion was based on deep product offerings and full size ranges. Apparel came with its purchase of Best Apparel of Seattle in 1963, the company's name was changed to Nordstrom's Best. In 1971, the company was taken public on NASDAQ, it was moved to the New York Stock Exchange in 1999 under the ticker symbol JWN after John W. Nordstrom, its founder. By 1975, Nordstrom expanded into Alaska by purchasing Northern Commercial Company and opened its first Nordstrom Rack clearance store in Seattle. A strong northwest regional retailer with sales approaching $250 million making it the third-largest specialty retailer in the United States, the company opened its first Southern California store at South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa in 1978. By the early 1990s, it had opened 26 stores plus Racks in California. Subsequent expansion relied on creating a decentralized regional structure, beginning with the Northeast in the Tysons Corner Center in Virginia, the Midwest in the Oakbrook Center in Illinois, the Southeast in Atlanta, the Southwest in Dallas.
In a new region, the initial store was used as a base for training and recruitment for subsequent expansion, was backed by its own distribution center. From 1978 to 1995, Nordstrom opened a total of 46 full-line department stores. In 1976, Nordstrom opened a series of stores called Place Two to sell a more limited selection of apparel in smaller markets. By 1983, there were ten Place Two stores, but the cost of upgrading the smaller stores from a systems perspective, outweighed the benefit, the division was discontinued; the company expanded into direct sales in 1993, beginning with a catalog division led by John N.'s son Dan, followed by an e-commerce business. Nordstrom.com's fulfillment and contact centers are located in Iowa. It has distribution centers in Ontario, California. Nordstrom FSB, a wholly owned subsidiary of Nordstrom, Inc. is a federally chartered savings bank doing business as Nordstrom Bank. It was formed in 1991 in Scottsdale, with its customer contact center in Centennial, Colorado.
Nordstrom FSB was known as Nordstrom National Credit Bank and changed its name to Nordstrom FSB in March 2000. The bank offers various banking and credit products, such as Nordstrom Signature VISA, Nordstrom retail credit and debit cards, interest-bearing checking accounts, check cards, certificates of deposits, it offers Nordstrom customers cards under Nordstrom Rewards – its customer loyalty program – where customers earn points when making purchases with the card at Nordstrom and other retailers. Other rewards include Nordstrom Notes which are redeemed or used like cash in stores for new purchases and the Nordstrom Signature VISA card has an optional travel/leisure rewards feature; the Nordstrom Rewards program features 4 levels of status depending on annual spending and offers various promotional times throughout the year to earn double and ten-times points. Beginning in 1995, the fourth generation of brothers and cousins served as co-presidents for a time. After John Whitacre served as the first non-Nordstrom CEO in 1997, In 1998, Nordstrom replaced its downtown Seattle store with a new flagship location in the form
Macy's is an American department store chain founded in 1858 by Rowland Hussey Macy. It became a division of the Cincinnati-based Federated Department Stores in 1994, through which it is affiliated with the Bloomingdale's department store chain; as of 2015, Macy's was the largest U. S. department store company by retail sales. As of February 2019, there were 584 full-line stores with the Macy's nameplate in operation throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, its flagship store is located at Herald Square in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The company had 130,000 employees and earned annual revenue of $24.8 billion as of 2017. Macy's has conducted the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City since 1924 and has sponsored the city's annual Fourth of July fireworks display since 1976. Macy's Herald Square is one of the largest department stores in the world; the flagship store covers an entire New York City block, features about 1.1 million square feet of retail space, includes additional space for offices and storage, serves as the endpoint for the Thanksgiving Day parade.
The value of Herald Square has been estimated at around $3 billion. Macy's was founded by Rowland Hussey Macy, who between 1843 and 1855 opened four retail dry goods stores, including the original Macy's store in downtown Haverhill, established in 1851 to serve the mill industry employees of the area, they all failed. Macy moved to New York City in 1858 and established a new store named "R. H. Macy & Co." on Sixth Avenue between 13th and 14th Streets, far north of where other dry goods stores were at the time. On the company's first day of business on October 28, 1858 sales totaled $11.08, equal to $320.27 today. From the beginning, Macy's logo has included a star, which comes from a tattoo that Macy got as a teenager when he worked on a Nantucket whaling ship, the Emily Morgan; as the business grew, Macy's expanded into neighboring buildings, opening more and more departments, used publicity devices such as a store Santa Claus, themed exhibits, illuminated window displays to draw in customers.
It offered a money back guarantee, although it accepted only cash into the 1950s. The store produced its own made-to-measure clothing for both men and women, assembled in an on-site factory. In 1875, Macy took on Robert M. Valentine, a nephew. La Forge of Wisconsin, the husband of a cousin. Macy died in 1877 from inflammatory kidney disease. La Forge died the following year, Valentine died in 1879. Ownership of the company remained in the Macy family until 1895, when the company, now called "R. H. Macy & Co.", was acquired by Isidor Straus and his brother Nathan Straus, who had held a license to sell china and other goods in the Macy's store. In 1902, the flagship store moved uptown to Herald Square at 34th Street and Broadway, so far north of the other main dry goods emporia that it had to offer a steam wagonette to transport customers from 14th Street to 34th Street. Although the Herald Square store consisted of just one building, it expanded through new construction occupying the entire block bounded by Seventh Avenue on the west, Broadway on the east, 34th Street on the south and 35th Street on the north, with the exception of a small pre-existing building on the corner of 35th Street and Seventh Avenue and another on the corner of 34th Street and Broadway.
This latter 5-story building was purchased by Robert H. Smith in 1900 for $375,000 – an incredible sum at the time – with the idea of getting in the way of Macy's becoming the largest store in the world: it is supposed that Smith, a neighbor of the Macy's store on 14th Street, was acting on behalf of Siegel-Cooper, which had built what they thought was the world's largest store on Sixth Avenue in 1896. Macy's ignored the tactic, built around the building, which now carries Macy's "shopping bag" sign by lease arrangement. In 1912, Isidor Straus died in the sinking of the Titanic at the age of 67 with Ida; the original Broadway store was designed by architects De Lemos & Cordes, was built in 1901–02 by the Fuller Company and has a Palladian facade, but has been updated in many details. There were further additions to the west in 1924 and 1928, the Seventh Avenue building in 1931, all designed by architect Robert D. Kohn, the newer buildings were Art Deco in style. In 2012, Macy's began the first full renovation of the iconic Herald Square flagship store at a reported cost of $400 million.
Studio V Architecture, a New York-based firm, was the overall Master Plan architect of the project. Studio V's design raised controversy over the nature of contemporary design and authentic restoration; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark in 1978. In the 1960s, Macy's built a store on Queens Boulevard in Elmhurst, in the New York City borough of Queens; this resulted in a round department store on 90 percent of the lot, with a small owned house on the corner. Macy's no longer occupies this building, which now contains the Queens Place Mall, with Macy's Furniture Gallery as a tenant. More distant acquisitions included Lasalle & Koch, Davison-Paxon-Stokes, L. Bamberger & Co. O'Connor Moffat & Company and John Taylor Dry Goods Co.. O'Connor Moffat was renamed Macy's San Francisco in 1947 becoming Macy's California, John Taylor was renamed
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the
Westfield Valley Fair
Westfield Valley Fair known as Valley Fair, is an upscale shopping mall in San Jose, California, in Silicon Valley, owned by Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield. It is located on Stevens Creek Boulevard in San Jose and Santa Clara, one of Silicon Valley's premier shopping streets and nearby Santana Row. Westfield Valley Fair is one of the largest malls in the United States and has the highest-sales volume in California, with $1,150 per square foot; the shopping center consists of 273 stores, a seventeen-outlet food court, nine restaurants, three department stores. Westfield Valley Fair is unique in; the original Valley Fair Shopping Center, opened in 1956, was confined to the eastern side of the property in San Jose. It was developed and anchored by Macy's and included 40 other stores including Joseph Magnin in an outdoor plaza. At the western side was another outdoor shopping center, Stevens Creek Plaza in Santa Clara, it was anchored by The Emporium and I. Magnin. For that reason, the current mall contributes sales tax revenues to both the cities of San Jose and Santa Clara, is regulated by both city governments.
In 1986, both centers were acquired and merged into one two-level enclosed mall by The Hahn Company, creating one of the most successful shopping centers in the country, called "Valley Fair". Nordstrom joined in 1987, with I. Magnin closing its store in 1992; the former Emporium store became a second Macy's location in 1996, housing Macy's Men's & Home Store. The former I. Magnin housed a succession of tenants, its final one being Sports Authority, its building sits vacant, it will be demolished, along with the former Old Navy building, as part of the mall's upcoming expansion. In 1998, Westfield America, Inc. a predecessor of the Westfield Group and The Rouse Company acquired Valley Fair jointly from Hahn. Westfield bought out Rouse in 1999 and brought in an institutional investment partner to share its investment risk in this high-profile property. In 1998 the property was renamed Westfield Shoppingtown Valley Fair. Nordstrom replaced its location in 2001 during the grand opening of a new $165 million, two-phase redevelopment.
The former Nordstrom reopened as additional mall retail space in the second phase in 2002. Westfield discontinued the "Shoppingtown" moniker in 2005. A major remodel of the center commenced in 2013, bringing the mall a revamped "Dining Terrace" with local concepts alongside national chains, a major reshuffling of tenants. Nordstrom was extensively remodeled, adding two new restaurant concepts and a revamped store design; the mall's lower level Nordstrom wing was reconfigured into a "Luxury Collection", with new luxury tenants like Balenciaga, Saint Laurent Paris, Bottega Veneta, Giorgio Armani, Tory Burch, Salvatore Ferragamo, Prada joining existing tenants Louis Vuitton and Tiffany & Co.. In 2012, San Jose raised its minimum wage to $10 USD an hour, but Santa Clara did not, leading to what the NPR Planet Money team dubbed "A Mall Divided," where workers on one side of the mall were being paid $2 less than the other side. A Gap clothing store located on the two city lines was required to either account for how long its employees spent in each city or raise its wages for all employees to the San Jose minimum wage.
In 2007 Westfield announced major expansion plans which would increase the gross leaseable area to over 2,000,000 square feet, adding anchor stores Bloomingdale's and Neiman Marcus, 100 shops, a 3000 space parking structure. Westfield was granted approval for the expansion by the city of San Jose in November 2007, it was to be completed by September 2011. However, the expansion was put on hold in 2008 due to the global recession. In Spring of 2015, Westfield unveiled new plans for a $900 million expansion: A three-level, 150,000 square foot Bloomingdale's department store A new retail building with a PIRCH home furnishings store at ground level and a Showplace ICON luxury cinema above 265,000 square feet of new interior shop space, adding 100+ new stores An outdoor dining promenade fronting Stevens Creek Boulevard More than 3,000 new parking spaces Relocation of the Chase and Bank of America banksConstruction of the expansion began in 2016, with the new parking garage being completed in Fall of 2016.
The expansion will be complete by April 2019. Media related to Westfield Valley Fair at Wikimedia Commons Official website at Westfield History of Valley Fair Shopping Center Valley Fair Expansion Project at the Wayback Machine New Westfield Valley Fair Redevelopment Project
The Pacific Northwest, sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common conception includes the Canadian province of British Columbia and the U. S. states of Idaho and Washington. Broader conceptions reach north into Southeast Alaska and Yukon, south into northern California, east to the Continental Divide to include Western Montana and parts of Wyoming. Narrower conceptions may be limited to the coastal areas west of the Coast mountains; the variety of definitions can be attributed to overlapping commonalities of the region's history, geography and other factors. The Northwest Coast is the coastal region of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Plateau is the inland region; the term "Pacific Northwest" should not be confused with the Northwest Territory or the Northwest Territories of Canada. The region's largest metropolitan areas are Greater Seattle, with 3.8 million people.
A key aspect of the Pacific Northwest is the US–Canada international border, which the United States and the United Kingdom established at a time when the region's inhabitants were composed of indigenous peoples. The border—in two sections, along the 49th parallel south of British Columbia and the Alaska Panhandle west of northern British Columbia—has had a powerful effect on the region. According to Canadian historian Ken Coates, the border has not influenced the Pacific Northwest—rather, "the region's history and character have been determined by the boundary". Definitions of the Pacific Northwest region vary, Pacific Northwesterners do not agree on the exact boundary; the most common conception includes the U. S. states of Idaho and Washington and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Broader definitions of the region have included the U. S. states of Alaska and parts of the states of California and Wyoming, the Canadian territory of the Yukon. Definitions based on the historic Oregon Country reach east to the Continental Divide, thus including all of Idaho and parts of western Montana and western Wyoming.
Sometimes, the Pacific Northwest is defined as being the Northwestern United States excluding Canada. Note that these types of definitions are made by government agencies whose scope is limited to the United States; the Pacific Northwest has been occupied by a diverse array of indigenous peoples for millennia. The Pacific Coast is seen by some scholars as a major coastal migration route in the settlement of the Americas by late Pleistocene peoples moving from northeast Asia into the Americas; the coastal migration hypothesis has been bolstered by findings such as the report that the sediments in the Port Eliza Cave on Vancouver Island indicate the possibility of survivable climate as far back as 16 kya in the area, while the continental ice sheets were nearing their maximum extent. Other evidence for human occupation dating back as much as 14.5 kya is emerging from Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon. However, despite such research, the coastal migration hypothesis is still subject to considerable debate.
Due in part to the richness of Pacific Northwest Coast and river fisheries, some of the indigenous peoples developed complex sedentary societies, while remaining hunter-gatherers. The Pacific Northwest Coast is one of the few places where politically complex hunter-gatherers evolved and survived to historic contacts, therefore has been vital for anthropologists and archaeologists seeking to understand how complex hunter and gatherer societies function; when Europeans first arrived on the Northwest Coast, they found one of the world's most complex hunting and fishing societies, with large sedentary villages, large houses, systems of social rank and prestige, extensive trade networks, many other factors more associated with societies based on domesticated agriculture. In the interior of the Pacific Northwest, the indigenous peoples, at the time of European contact, had a diversity of cultures and societies; some areas were home to egalitarian societies. Others along major rivers such as the Columbia and Fraser, had complex, sedentary societies rivaling those of the coast.
In British Columbia and Southeast Alaska, the Tlingit and Haida erected large and elaborately carved totem poles that have become iconic of Pacific Northwest artistic traditions. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, thousands of indigenous people live, some continue to practice their rich cultural traditions, "organizing their societies around cedar and salmon". In 1579 the British captain and erstwhile privateer Francis Drake sailed up the west coast of North America as far as Oregon before returning south to land and make ship repairs. At this landing site near present-day San Francisco, Drake made a symbolic claim of the region for England, naming it New Albion. Juan de Fuca, a Greek captain sailing for the Crown of Spain found the Strait of Juan de Fuca around 1592; the strait was whether he discovered it or not has long been questioned. During the early 1740s, Imperial Russia sent the Dane Vitus Bering to the region. By the late 18th century and into the mid-19th century, Russian settlers had established several posts and communities on the northeast Pacific coast reaching a