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Photinia

Photinia is a genus of about 40–60 species of small trees and large shrubs, but the taxonomy has varied with the genera Heteromeles and Aronia sometimes included in Photinia. They are a part of the rose family and related to the apple; the botanical genus name derives from the Greek word photeinos for shiny and refers to the glossy leaves. Most species are evergreen, but deciduous species occur; the small apple-shaped fruit has forms in large quantities. They ripen in the fall and remain hanging on the bush until well into the winter; the fruits are used as food by birds, which excrete the seeds with their droppings and thereby distribute the plant. The natural range of these species is restricted to warm temperate Asia, from the Himalaya east to Japan and south to India and Thailand, they have, been cultivated throughout the world as ornamentals for their white flowers and red fruits. Some varieties of Photinia are toxic due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in the foliage and fruit; the scientific name Photinia is widely used as the common name.

Another name sometimes used is "Christmas berry", but this name is a source of confusion, since it is applied to plants in several genera including Heteromeles, Lycium and Ruscus. The name "photinia" continues to be used for several species of small trees in the mountains of Mexico and Central America, included in the genus Photinia. Photinias grow from 4–15 m tall, with a irregular crown of angular branches; the leaves are alternate, entire or finely toothed, varying between species from 3–15 cm in length and 1.5–5 cm wide. The flowers are produced in early summer in dense terminal corymbs; the fruit is a small pome, 4–12 mm across, bright red and berry-like, produced large quantities, maturing in the fall and persisting well into the winter. The fruit are consumed by birds, including thrushes and starlings. Photinia species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including common emerald, feathered thorn and setaceous Hebrew character; some botanists include the related North American species Heteromeles arbutifolia in Photinia — as Photinia arbutifolia.

The genus Stranvaesia is so similar in morphology to Photinia that its species have sometimes been included within it, but recent molecular data indicate that the two genera are not related. The genus Aronia has been included in Photinia in some classifications, but recent molecular data confirm that these genera are not related. Other close relatives include the firethorns and hawthorns. A number of species have been moved to the separate genus Stranvaesia including P. amphidoxa, P. davidiana, P. nussia, P. tomentosa. Photinias are popular ornamental shrubs, grown for their fruit and foliage. Numerous hybrids and cultivars are available; the most planted are: Photinia × fraseri - red tip photinia, Christmas berryPhotinia × fraseri'Red Robin' - the most planted of all, this cultivar has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit Photinia × fraseri'Little Red Robin', a plant similar to'Red Robin', but dwarf in stature with an ultimate height/spread of around 2–3 ft Photinia × fraseri'Camilvy' Photinia × fraseri'Curly Fantasy' Photinia × fraseri'Super Hedger' - a newer hybrid with strong upright growth Photinia × fraseri'Pink Marble' known as'Cassini', a new cultivar with rose-pink tinted new growth and a creamy-white variegated margin on the leaves Photinia × fraseri'Robusta'Photinia'Redstart' Photinia'Palette' Photinia davidiana'Fructu Luteo' Photinia davidiana'Prostrata' Some varieties of Photinia are toxic due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in the vacuoles of foliage and fruit cells.

When the leaves are chewed these compounds are released and are converted to hydrogen cyanide which blocks cellular respiration. The amount of HCN produced varies between taxa, is in general greatest in young leaves. Ruminants are affected by cyanogenic glycosides because the first stage of their digestive system provides better conditions for liberating HCN than the stomachs of monogastric vertebrates. Flora of China: Stranvaesia

Ernst Bechly

Ernst Carl Bechly was an American surveyor and map maker. Ernst Carl Bechly was the first son of Charles Heinrich Sophie Keffel, he relocated with his family from Sheboygan, Wisconsin to Chehalis, Washington in 1891. Bechly served in the Spanish-American War in 1898. In 1905, he married Grace Henrietta Foster and they had a daughter Constance Josephine. In 1903, Bechly began his career with Washington engineer's department, he was promoted to county surveyor in 1907, to county engineer in 1909. Bechly worked several years surveying the original layout of US 12 across the Cascade Mountains, he retired in 1950 after 47 years of service to the department. Bechly was a member of the Society of American Military Engineers, a registered Professional Engineer, a member of the Elks Lodge, a member of the Reformed Church in America. Bechly was awarded a United States Patent for "Stringer Separator" in 1937 as a means to extend the service life of stringers in bridge construction. Bechly is best known for his map of the Washington Territory, west of the Cascade Range.

This map, printed in 1951, showed detail of the military forts, Indian reservations and other key points that existed in 1870 prior to statehood. He was noted for a map of Lewis County, Washington, published in 1909. Ernst Bechly at Find a Grave

Theodor Sproll

Theodor Karl Sproll is a German social and economical scientist and Rector of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach since 2013. After his school matriculation in Constance he did his National Service in Tank Regiment 294 in Stetten am kalten Markt and studied Social and Administrative Science at Constance University. From 1981 he was concurrently an employee of the Institute for Social- and Economic Science at the same University. In 1985, as an external employee of the institute, he took earned a doctorate in Economic Science with the theme “Drug Lists and Cost Containment”. From 2003 to 2005 he undertook further studies in various programmes at the Harvard Business School in Boston, where he is an Alumnus. After working in positions with Ciba-Geigy AG Basel, Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Grenzach-Wyhlen and as director of Novartis-Germany in Nurenberg he was elected to the board of Novartis Pharma AG Switzerland, latterly as Head of Global Market Access. In 2007 Theodor Sproll was appointed Professor, 2009 Dean of the Faculty of Economics and 2013 Rector of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach.

He is married to Brigitte Sproll, with whom he has a daughter. Development and positioning of the BWL Health Management course: compilation of concepts, description of modules, acquiring education partners and lecturers. Emphasis of his teaching activities: marketing and sales, competitive strategy, negotiation. Supervision of General Studies with colleagues. Lecturer within the framework of the Erasmus programme. Leader of the Central Working Group Health Science of the DHBW. Appointed Vice-Rector and Dean of the Faculty of Economics at the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach. Elected Rector of the University in March 2013 and reelected July 2019. Theodor Karl Sproll on the webpage of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach in 2010 Rector Theodor Sproll on the Webpage of the Badische Zeitung Loerrach

Naperville Historic District

The Naperville Historic District is a set of 613 buildings in Naperville, Illinois. Of these 613 buildings, 544 contribute to the historical integrety of the area; the district represents the town as it was platted and a few early additions. Stephen Scott established a farm on the DuPage River in 1830, marking the first settlement in what would become Naperville. A sawmill, grist mill, trading post, school were erected soon after several other families migrated to the land. Among the earliest settlers was Joseph Naper, who, in 1831, made a claim to land and built a cabin at the earliest site of Naperville. By 1832, 180 residents lived in the Naperville region; the village was abandoned in 1832 as families fled to Fort Dearborn during the Black Hawk War, but most returned after fighting had ceased. The first post office was constructed in 1833; the Galena Road between Chicago and Galena brought commerce to the area. In the 1850s through the early 1870s, Naperville battled politically with Wheaton over which town should be the county seat of DuPage County.

Though the town built a courthouse, a court decided in favor of Wheaton. The courthouse was converted to a park; the First Congregational Church of Naperville was founded in 1833, is the oldest church in DuPage County. Naperville found economic success through the management of local resources. Stone quarries exported limestone, breweries produced alcohol, three separate plant nurseries flourished. Other important industries were Naperville Agricultural, producing farming equipment, Martin Mitchell's Naperville Title and Brick Works. By World War I, the largest employer was Naperville Manufacturing Co. which became of the nation's leading furniture exporters. Plainfield College in Plainfield moved its campus to Naperville in 1870, was renamed to North Central College; the Evangelical Theological Seminary was organized in 1873 and was associated with North Central until merging with Garrett Theological Seminary in 1974. Despite this economic welfare and religious presence, Naperville grew slowly.

The town's first major population boom was in the 1950s, as increased ease of traveled enhanced Naperville's place a Chicago suburb. Most of the older sections of town, are intact; the Naperville City Council established the Naperville Historic District in 1986. In 2019, North Central College announced their plans to purchase and demolish the P. E. Kroehler mansion, owned by Little Friends, for the purpose of rezoning and redeveloping the property with new academic buildings; the college subsequently withdrew from the purchase, but Little Friends stated their intent to proceed with applying to demolish the building. Naperville selected twenty sites and structures of particular value to exemplify the historical merit of the district. Willard Scott, Jr. House – Son of Stephen Scott. Operated Scott's the Naperville Hotel. Elmholm – Designed by Harry Robinson. Proprietor Rollo M. Givler owned the Clarion, a local newspaper 205 North Wright – Purchased by the seminary in 1908, moved to present site in 1912 for use as a dormitory 122 South Brainard – Owned by Hammerschmidt family, notable for quarrying business North Central College – Designed by John M. Van Osdel.

South wing added in 1890 Nichols House – Designed by Harry Robinson 227 East Jefferson – Designed by G. N. Gross; the home of ecologist May Theilgaard Watts Dieter House – Designed by Dr. David Hess. Moved to present location in 1898. Wilson House Kroehler Manufacturing Company – Alterations in 1909 and 1913 Paw Paw Station – First public building in the county. Considerable alterations J. L. Nichols House – Donated funds for public library and North Central College, founder of Kroehler Manufacturing Company. General Store – Designed and operated by Joseph Naper, the town's founder Central Park – Former site of county courthouse 221 West Jefferson Dr. Truitt House – Truitt practiced medicine for over 50 years and helped establish the city hospital Kreger Family House Nichols Library – Designed by Mifflin E. Bell First Congregational Church P. E. Kroehler House – Became president of Kroehler Manufacturing Company. Part of North Central College in 1950sNaperville Historic District Buildings Historic District, The City of Naperville Naperville Historic Walking Tour -- Downtown Media related to Naperville Historic District at Wikimedia Commons

Siege of Yorktown (1862)

The Battle of Yorktown or Siege of Yorktown was fought from April 5 to May 4, 1862, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. Marching from Fort Monroe, Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac encountered Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder's small Confederate force at Yorktown behind the Warwick Line. McClellan settled in for siege operations. On April 5, the IV Corps of Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes made initial contact with Confederate defensive works at Lee's Mill, an area McClellan expected to move through without resistance. Magruder's ostentatious movement of troops back and forth convinced the Union that his works were held; as the two armies fought an artillery duel, reconnaissance indicated to Keyes the strength and breadth of the Confederate fortifications, he advised McClellan against assaulting them. McClellan ordered the construction of siege fortifications and brought his heavy siege guns to the front. In the meantime, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston brought reinforcements for Magruder.

On April 16, Union forces probed a point in the Confederate line at Dam No. 1. The Union failed to exploit the initial success of this attack, however; this lost opportunity held up McClellan for two additional weeks while he tried to convince the U. S. Navy to bypass the Confederates' big guns at Yorktown and Gloucester Point and ascend the York River to West Point and outflank the Warwick Line. McClellan planned a massive bombardment for dawn on May 5, but the Confederate army slipped away during the night of May 3 toward Williamsburg; the battle took place near the site of the 1781 Siege of Yorktown. McClellan had chosen to approach the Confederate capital of Richmond, with an amphibious operation that landed troops on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at Fort Monroe, his Army of the Potomac numbered 121,500 men, transported starting on March 17 by 389 vessels. McClellan planned to use U. S. Navy forces to envelop Yorktown, but the emergence of the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia and the Battle of Hampton Roads disrupted this plan.

The threat of the Virginia on the James River and the heavy Confederate batteries at the mouth of the York River prevented the Navy from assuring McClellan that they could control either the York or the James, so he settled on a purely land approach toward Yorktown. The Confederate defenders of Yorktown, led by Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder numbered only 11–13,000 men. Magruder constructed a defensive line from Yorktown on the York River, behind the Warwick River, to Mulberry Point on the James River to block the full width of the Peninsula, although he could adequately man none of the defensive works at that time; this became known as the Warwick Line. McClellan's plan called for Maj. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman's III Corps to fix the Confederate troops in their trenches near the York River, while the IV Corps under Brig. Gen. Erasmus D. Keyes enveloped the Confederate right and cut off their lines of communication. McClellan and his staff, ignorant of the extent of Magruder's line, assumed the Confederates had concentrated only in the immediate vicinity of Yorktown.

On April 4, 1862, the Union Army pushed through Magruder's initial line of defense but the following day encountered his more effective Warwick Line. The nature of the terrain made it difficult to determine the exact disposition of the Confederate forces. McClellan estimated that the Confederates had 15-18,000 troops in the defensive line, it has been claimed that Magruder attempted to deceive by moving infantry and artillery in a noisy, ostentatious manner to make the defenders seem a much larger forces than their actual numbers. However, his reports do not mention this and no reference before 1988 can be found claiming this. On 6–7 April McClellan estimated that 30,000 troops were at Yorktown. Troops continued to arrive and on 20 April McClellan estimated "more than 80,000" were at Yorktown. McClellan had five divisions advanced in two columns; the 4th Corps of two divisions under Keyes advanced towards Lee's Mill, whilst the 3rd Corps of two divisions under Heintzelman advanced towards Yorktown proper.

He kept his last division in reserve to commit to either column. The lead division of Keyes' corps under Smith contacted the position at Lee's Mill in the early afternoon of the 5th, he attempted to suppress the superior enemy artillery. He lost the firefight and despite an order from McClellan to Keyes "to attack with all his force if only with the bayonet", Smith withdrew back to Warwick Court House; the 3rd Corps were stopped by heavy artillery fire. That evening McClellan ordered two brigades to march across the entire frontage of the enemy line; the next day Hancock and Burns took parts of their brigades and marched across the entire frontage to provoke enemy fire. Hancock took the 6th Maine Infantry and 5th Wisconsin Infantry left to right, Burns went right to left; this proved that there was no break in the river that could be assaulted. That evening a major storm started, shut down all troop movements until the 10th. Further recces were ordered in order to find a weak point to attack, on April 9 Hancock performed a reconnaissance around Dam Number One, where Magruder had widened the Warwick to create a water obstacle nearby.

The rebel picket line was along the Garrow Ridge o