Redland City, better known as the Redlands and known as Redland Shire, is a local government area located in the southeast of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland. With a population just under 150,000, the City is spread along the southern coast of Moreton Bay, covering 537.1 square kilometres. Its mainland borders the City of Brisbane to the west and north-west, Logan City to the south-west and south, while its islands are situated north of the City of Gold Coast. Redland attained city status on 15 March 2008, having been a shire since 1949, when it was created by the merger of the former Tingalpa and Cleveland Shires. Despite this status, the City consists of suburban and coastal communities, featuring a somewhat disjointed urbanisation around major suburbs interspersed with bushland. Large mainland suburbs include Capalaba, Victoria Point, Redland Bay; the latter is the City's namesake, due to the colour of its fertile soil. North Stradbroke Island and smaller nearby islands, most notably those of Southern Moreton Bay, comprise the eastern portion of the Redlands.
The City's boundaries correspond to those of the federal division of Bowman. The area now known as the Redlands was inhabited by the Jagera and Quandamooka people. Europeans first entered the Redlands in the late 18th century while mapping Moreton Bay: James Cook made observations of the then-undivided Stradbroke Island. By the 1840s, the coastal township of Cleveland was in contention to become a major port replacing Brisbane, but was not chosen due to the region's existing sandbars and shipwrecks, an unfavourable review from Governor George Gipps during his 1842 visit. Louis Hope and other land purchasers began to develop significant infrastructure at this time. On 11 November 1879, under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, the Tingalpa Division was created to govern the area to the east of metropolitan Brisbane; the area around Cleveland split away to form the Cleveland Division on 30 May 1885. Under the Local Authorities Act 1902, both became Shires on 31 March 1903; the Tingalpa council met at Mount Cotton.
On 1 October 1925, a sizeable portion of the Shire of Tingalpa became part of the new City of Brisbane along with 20 other local governments. On 9 December 1948, as part of a major reorganisation of local government in South East Queensland, an Order in Council renamed the Shire of Cleveland to be Shire of Redland and amalgamated part of Shire of Tingalpa into it; the twentieth century saw significant population growth in the Redlands, preceded by the construction of the Cleveland railway line. Peel Island became a leper colony, while North Stradbroke Island became a hub for sand mining, is associated with the Indigenous rights movement as the home of poet Oodgeroo Noonuccal and academic Aileen Moreton-Robinson. On 15 March 2008, Redlands was granted city status. In June 2018, the Redland City Council approved a marketing campaign to brand the city as "Redlands Coast" with the tagline "naturally wonderful"; the campaign seeks to attract tourists to the city's 335 kilometres of coastline. Although most of the population resides on the main urban conglomeration based around the centres of Capalaba and Victoria Point, over 6,000 people live on islands in Moreton Bay that are part of the City.
These are North Stradbroke and the Southern Moreton Bay Islands of Karragarra, Lamb and Macleay. Tingalpa Creek rises on Mount Cotton, forming Leslie Harrison Dam, marking the majority of the area's western boundary. Redland City has many recognisable animals and plants such as koalas, migratory shorebirds, flying foxes and scribbly gum forests, it is home to over 1,700 other recorded native species, many of which are under threat from population growth and its associated effects such as habitat clearing and fragmentation, road construction and expanding development. The council area is home to Venman Bushland National Park, the Eprapah Scout environment training centre. In April 2013, the Redland City Council illegally cleared vegetation from public land on the foreshores of Moreton Bay; the Council has been required by the State Government to restore the cleared vegetation and install signage about the restoration. Trees felled included many sheoaks; the city's koala population has declined in recent years.
In 2010, it was estimated that only 2,000 koalas remained, a 65% decline since 1999. Figures from a count in 2012 have not yet been released by the Queensland Government; the Redland City-based Koala Action Group has warned that: "Rampant expansion of urban areas will lead to the loss of the koala populations that are vital to the long-term survival of the species."The city boundaries include internationally significant coastal wetlands within the Moreton Bay Ramsar site. Tidal flats and seagrass beds provide important habitats for fish, and: large numbers of the nationally threatened green turtle and the loggerhead turtle the internationally vulnerable dugong, a large sea mammal from the order Sirenia which includes manatee species 43 species of shorebirds, including 30 migratory bird species listed by international migratory bird conservation agreements, such as the vulnerable eastern curlew and the grey-tailed tattler, that use this area in their journey through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway.
Freshwater systems in the Redlands catc
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
History of Brisbane
Brisbane's recorded history dates from 1799, when Matthew Flinders explored Moreton Bay on an expedition from Port Jackson, although the region had long been occupied by the Jagera and Turrbal aboriginal tribes. The town was conceived as a penal colony for British convicts sent from Sydney, its suitability for fishing, farming and other occupations, caused it to be opened to free settlement in 1838. The town became a municipality in 1859 and a consolidated metropolitan area in 1924. Brisbane encountered major flooding disasters in 1893, 1974 and 2011. Significant numbers of US troops were stationed in Brisbane during World War II; the city hosted the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit. Brisbane, Australia, is named for Sir Thomas Brisbane, British soldier and colonial administrator born in Ayrshire, Scotland. Sir Thomas Brisbane was Governor of New South Wales at the time. Prior to European colonisation, the Brisbane region was occupied by aboriginal tribes, notably the Yuggera and Turrbal aboriginal clans.
Before European settlement, the land, the river and its tributaries were the source and support of life in all its dimensions. The river's abundant supply of food included fish, shellfish and prawns. Good fishing places became the focus of group activities; the district was defined by open woodlands with rainforest in some pockets or bends of the Brisbane River. A resource-rich area and a natural avenue for seasonal movement, Brisbane was a way station for groups travelling to ceremonies and spectacles; the region had several large seasonal camps, the biggest and most important located along waterways north and south of the current city heart: Barambin or'York's Hollow' camp and Woolloon-cappem known as Kurilpa. These camping grounds continued to function well into historic times; the region was first explored by Europeans in 1799, when Matthew Flinders explored Moreton Bay during his expedition from Port Jackson north to Hervey Bay. He made a landing at what is now Woody Point in Redcliffe, touched down at Coochiemudlo Island and Pumicestone Passage.
During the fifteen days he spent in Moreton Bay, Flinders was unable to find the Brisbane River. A permanent settlement in the region was not founded until 1823, when New South Wales Governor Thomas Brisbane was petitioned by free settlers in Sydney to send their worst convicts elsewhere and the area chosen became the city of Brisbane. On 23 October 1823, Surveyor General John Oxley set out with a party in the cutter Mermaid from Sydney to "survey Port Curtis, Moreton Bay, Port Bowen, with a view to forming convict settlements there"; the party reached Port Curtis on 5 November 1823. Oxley suggested that the location was unsuitable for a settlement, since it would be difficult to maintain; as he approached Point Skirmish by Moreton Bay, he noticed several indigenous Australians approaching him and in particular one as being "much lighter in colour than the rest". The white man turned out to be a shipwrecked lumberjack by the name of Thomas Pamphlett who, along with John Finnegan, Richard Parsons, John Thompson had left Sydney on 21 March 1823 to sail south along the coast and bring cedar from Illawarra but during a large storm were pushed north.
Not knowing where they were, the group attempted to return to Sydney being shipwrecked on Moreton Island on 16 April. They lived with the indigenous tribe for seven months. After meeting with them, Oxley proceeded 100 kilometres up what he named the Brisbane River in honour of the governor. Oxley explored the river as far as what is now the suburb of Goodna in the city of Ipswich, about 20 kilometres upstream Brisbane's central business district. Several places were named by Oxley and his party, including Breakfast Creek, Oxley Creek, Seventeen Mile Rocks. In 1824, the first convict colony was established at Redcliffe Point under Lieutenant Henry Miller. Meanwhile and Allan Cunningham explored further up the Brisbane River in search of water, landing at the present location of North Quay. Only one year in 1825, the colony was moved south from Redcliffe to a peninsula on the Brisbane River, site of the present central business district, called "Meen-jin" by its Turrbul inhabitants. At the end of 1825, the official population of Brisbane was "45 males and 2 females".
Until 1859, when Queensland was separated from the state of New South Wales, the name Moreton Bay was used to describe the new settlement and surrounding areas. "Edenglassie" was the name first bestowed on the growing town by Chief Justice Francis Forbes, a portmanteau of the two Scottish cities Edinburgh and Glasgow. The name soon fell out of favour with many residents and the current name in honour of Governor Thomas Brisbane was adopted instead; the colony was established as a "prison within a prison"—a settlement, deliberately distant from Sydney, to which recidivist convicts could be sent as punishment. It soon garnered a reputation, along with Norfolk Island, as one of the harshest penal settlements in all of New South Wales. In July 1828 work began on the construction of the Commissariat Store, it remains intact today as a museum of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland and is only one of two convict era buildings still standing in Queensland. The other is The Old Windmill on Wickham Terrace.
Over twenty years, thousands of convicts passed through the penal colony. Hundreds of these escaped into the bush. Although most escapes
City of Ipswich
The City of Ipswich is a local government area in Queensland, located in the southwest of the Brisbane metropolitan area, including the urban area surrounding the city of Ipswich and surrounding rural areas. The City of Ipswich is centrally located in the South East Queensland region of Australia. Ipswich governs the outer western portion of the Brisbane Metropolitan Area, Australia, it covers an area of 1,090 square kilometres along the coast about 40 kilometres southwest of Brisbane CBD. To the east is the City of Brisbane local government area, to the west are the rural and agricultural areas of the Brisbane and Fassifern Valleys. Ipswich is the second-oldest local government area in Queensland, after Brisbane. On 16 November 1859, after the enactment of the Municipalities Act of 1858 in New South Wales, a petition containing 91 signatures was received by the Governor of New South Wales seeking to have Ipswich, which at the time had 3,000 people, granted municipal town status; the petition was gazetted the following day, no counter-petition was received.
On 29 November, the letters patent authorised by Queen Victoria which were to make Queensland a separate colony were published in New South Wales, the petition was forwarded to the new Queensland governor, Sir George Ferguson Bowen. On 10 December 1859, the same day that the letters patent were published in Queensland, the petition was regazetted. On 3 March 1860 the Borough of Ipswich was proclaimed, its first elections were held on 19 April 1860, where John Murphy became its first Mayor; the Municipality's corporate logo was designed by Reverend Lacey H. Rumsey, the rector of St Paul's Church in Ipswich in 1861. Ipswich applied on 22 November 1904 to become a City, the status being conferred by the Government of Queensland on 1 December 1904 and its first mayor was Hugh Reilly. On its declaration, the City of Ipswich covered only the central area of Ipswich itself – what are today considered inner suburbs were parts of different entities. Beginning in 1994 Ipswich adopted an innovative, community-based, information technology project which aimed to make the city a technology hub at the forefront of the growing move towards the information superhighway.
The most prominent feature of the initiative, called Global Info-Links, was the development of a new library with free public internet access and the development of a wide area network to which people could subscribe. In October 2000, the council began erecting cast brass plaques at significance heritage sites. On 13 October 1916, a rationalisation of the local government areas in and around Ipswich was implemented, it involved the abolition of five shires: Brassall Bundanba Lowood Purga Walloonresulting in: an enlarged City of Ipswich by including part of the Shire of Brassall and part of the Shire of Bundanba a new Shire of Ipswich by amalgamating part of the Shire of Brassall, part of the Shire of Bundanba, part of the Shire of Walloon and all of the Shire of Purga an enlarged Shire of Rosewood by including part of the Shire of Walloon an enlarged Shire of Esk by including all of the Shire of Lowood On 29 January 1949, a new Local Government Act was enacted to further amalgamate local government in the Ipswich area, abolishing the Shires of Normanby and Rosewood.
The City of Ipswich was enlarged to include the more urban parts of the Shire of Moreton. The Shire of Moreton was enlarged by the inclusion of the northern part of the Shire of Normanby and all the Shire of Rosewood; the southern part of the Shire of Normanby was transferred to an enlarged Shire of Boonah. The Shire of Moreton amalgamated with Ipswich on 11 March 1995. In March 2000, Ipswich ceded some rural territory in Mount Walker, Mutdapilly and Warrill View to the neighbouring Shire of Boonah. Following the major reforms of local government in Queensland, on 15 March 2008, Ipswich lost the rural areas of Harrisville and Peak Crossing in its southeast to the new Scenic Rim Region. On 31 October 2012, a groundbreaking ceremony for the Ecco Ripley housing development project was conducted by Ipswich mayor Paul Pisasale and Sekisui House; the local government has 10 Councillors each representing one division. Each Councillor serves a four-year term; the Mayor is directly elected by the people every 4 years.
Elected mayor of 2016, Paul Pisasale, resigned on 6 June 2017 citing health concerns. Division 7 Councillor Andrew Antoniolli and Deputy Mayor Paul Tully both contested the 2017 Ipswich Mayoral By-Election, held on 19 August 2017. Councillor Antoniolli was elected Mayor with 34.57% of the primary vote and 54.44% after preferences, with Paul Tully winning 30.83% of the primary vote and 45.56% after preferences. After Andrew Antoniolli's election as Mayor, a By-Election for the vacant Division 7 was held on 7 October 2017. David Martin was elected with 23.65% of the vote. |Antoniolli won the 2017 Ipswich City Council Mayoral By-Election, triggered by the resignation of former mayor, Paul Pisasale, charged with multiple counts of corruption. In May 2018 Andrew Antoniolli was charged with seven counts of corruption forcing him to stand down and administrators to take over Ipswich City Council. In August 2018, the Queensland Government passed legislation to dismiss all of the councillors and replace them with an administrator.
At the time of the dismissal, the divisional Councillors were: The City of Ipswich includes the following settlements: 1 - split with Scenic Rim Region2 - not to be confused with White Rock in Cairns Region Ipswich City Council operates three public libraries at Ipswich Central and Redbank Plains. It operates a mobile library service to Booval
Tweed Heads, New South Wales
Tweed Heads is a town in New South Wales. It is located on the Tweed River in Australia, in Tweed Shire. Tweed Heads is located next to the border with Queensland, adjacent to its "twin town" of Coolangatta, a suburb of the Gold Coast, it is referred to as a town where people can change time zones – celebrate New Year twice within an hour – by crossing the street, due to its proximity to the Queensland border, the fact that New South Wales observes daylight saving whereas Queensland does not. In 1823 John Oxley was the first European to see the Tweed Valley, he wrote of it: "A deep rich valley clothed with magnificent trees, the beautiful uniformity of, only interrupted by the turns and windings of the river, which here and there appeared like small lakes; the background was Mt. Warning; the view was altogether beautiful beyond description. The scenery here exceeded anything I have seen in Australia."Timber cutters moved to the Tweed Valley in 1844. After the timber had been cleared, farmers moved in with bananas and dairy farming dominating the area, while a fishing industry developed.
The first school opened in 1871. Tweed Heads was once connected to the Queensland Railways system, with the South Coast line providing a direct connection to Brisbane; the railway opened on 10 August 1903 It had been hoped that the New South Wales government would extend their railway line from Murwillumbah to Tweed Heads, but this did not occur due to cost of resuming the land and the expenses associated with the tunnel and bridge that would be required. The Tweed Heads railway station was located on the western side of Enid Street between Bay Street and Frances Street; the railway line to Brisbane closed in 1961. The Tweed Heads and Coolangatta Surf Life Saving Club opened on 13 September 1911; the Tweed Shire, inclusive Murwillumbah was declared in 1947. Given its proximity to the Gold Coast, Tweed Heads has a shared economy with Coolangatta based on tourism. Tweed Heads' most popular tourist destinations include Mount Warning, one of the largest shield volcanoes in the Southern Hemisphere, the nearby Nightcap, Border Ranges and Lamington National Parks, which abound with sub-tropical fauna and flora.
Some areas of the Tweed can receive both TV broadcasts from Northern New South Wales. Brisbane stations are Seven Brisbane BTQ, Nine Brisbane QTQ, Ten Brisbane TVQ; the local Northern NSW stations are NBN Television and WIN Television. In the 2016 census, Tweed Heads recorded a population of 8,176 people made up of 52.2 percent female and 47.8 percent male. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.4% of the population. The median age of the population was 18 years above the Australian median; this has made the Tweed Heads region a prime location for retirement living, with 14 separate retirement villages. 69.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 5.8% and New Zealand 3.6%. 83.8% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 26.3%, Catholic 24.1% and Anglican 20.4%. Composition of the Tweed Heads urban area Population by Statistical Local Area. Composition of the Tweed Heads urban area Population by Statistical Local Area.
Below are a list of retirement villages and retirement living facilities in the Tweed Region: Serene Living Tall Trees Care Communities Banora Point Palm Lake Resort Aveo Banora Point Tweed Broadwater Village Southern Cross Car St Joseph's Villa Fairways Winders Retirement Community St Cuthbert's Retirement Living Complexes Darlington Retirement Community Southern Cross Care St Martha Ocean View Banora Point Bangalor Retreat Gateway Lifestyle Tweed Shores Due to its close proximity, Tweed Heads sports teams compete in Gold Coast/Queensland-based competitions. Tweed Heads was once home to several iterations of professional rugby league clubs in the New South Wales Rugby League competition between 1988-1995; the Gold Coast-Tweed Giants were established in 1988 and based out of the Tweed Heads Seagulls premises in west Tweed Heads. The Seagulls ran a successful social club that turned large profits due to poker machines and by 1990 the club had acquired the Giants' NSWRL licence and rebranded the team to become the Gold Coast Seagulls, despite remaining based in Tweed Heads.
The team pulled off its biggest coup in 1990 when it signed future Rugby League Immortal Wally Lewis. After years of poor on field results and low attendances, the Seagulls sold their NSWRL licence to businessman Jeff Muller who moved the team to Carrara on the Gold Coast; the Seagulls returned to the Group 18 Rugby League competition in 1996 and were granted entry into the Queensland Cup in 2003. Australian rules football was brought to the area in 1962 when the Coolangatta Tweed Heads Australian Football Club, it was intended to represent the twin towns of Coolangatta and Tweed Heads and competed in the Gold Coast Australian Football League competition. In 1984 the Northern Rivers region established the Summerland Australian Football League that included the Tweed Coast Football Club; the league was amalgamated into Queensland Australian Football League as its own division in 2012. Despite not being based inside Queensland, the area acts as a feeder zone for both the Gold Coast Titans in the National Rugby League and the Gold Coast Suns in the Australian Football League.
Tweed United is a soccer Club based in the area that competes in the Football Gold Coast competition plus the Coolangatta Tweed Barbarians who compete in the Gold Coast and District Rugby
Gold Coast, Queensland
The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland 66 kilometres south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and north of the border with New South Wales. With a census-estimated 2016 population of 638,090, the Gold Coast is the sixth-largest city in Australia, making it the largest non-capital city, Queensland's second-largest city; the Gold Coast region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach. The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. In 1875, Southport was surveyed and established and grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents. After the establishment of the Surfers Paradise Hotel in the late 1920s, the Gold Coast region grew significantly; the area boomed in the 1980s as a leading tourist destination and in 1994, the City of Gold Coast local government area was expanded to encompass the majority of the Gold Coast's metropolitan area, becoming the second most populous local government area in Australia after the City of Brisbane.
Today, the Gold Coast is a major tourist destination with its sunny subtropical climate and has become known for its surfing beaches, high-rise dominated skyline, theme parks and rainforest hinterland. The city is part of the nation's entertainment industry with television productions and a major film industry; the city hosted the 21st Commonwealth Games which ran from 4 to 15 April 2018. The Gold Coast is the ancestral home of a number of Indigenous clans of the Yugambeh people, including the Kombumerri and Tulgi-gi-gin clans. Lieutenant James Cook became the first European to note the region when he sailed along the coast on 16 May 1770 in HMS Endeavour. Captain Matthew Flinders, an explorer charting the continent north from the colony of New South Wales, sailed past in 1802. Escaped convicts from the Moreton Bay penal settlement hid in the region; the region remained uninhabited by Europeans until 1823 when explorer John Oxley landed at Mermaid Beach, named after seeing a cutter named Mermaid.
The hinterland's red cedar supply attracted people to the area in the mid-19th century. A number of small townships developed in the hinterland; the western suburb of Nerang was surveyed and established as a base for the industry and by 1870 a town reserve had been set aside. By 1873, the town reserve of Burleigh Heads had been surveyed and successful land sales had taken place. In 1875, the small settlement opposite the boat passage at the head of the Nerang River, known as Nerang Heads or Nerang Creek Heads, was surveyed, renamed Southport with the first land sales scheduled to take place in Beenleigh. Southport grew a reputation as a secluded holiday destination for wealthy Brisbane residents; the Gold Coast was known as the South Coast. However, inflated prices for real estate and other goods and services led to the nickname of "Gold Coast" from 1950. South Coast locals considered the name "Gold Coast" derogatory. However, soon the "Gold Coast" became a convenient way to refer to the holiday strip from Southport to Coolangatta.
The Town of South Coast was formed through the amalgamation of Town of Coolangatta and Town of Southport along with the coastal areas from the Shire of Nerang on 17 June 1949 with the effect of having the present-day Gold Coast coastal strip as a single local government area. As the tourism industry grew into the 1950s, local businesses began to adopt the term Gold Coast in their names, on 23 October 1958 the Town of South Coast was renamed Town of Gold Coast; the area was proclaimed a city less than one year on 16 May 1959. In 1995, the Albert Shire was amalgamated into the City of Gold Coast. In 2007, the Gold Coast overtook the population of Newcastle, New South Wales, to become the sixth largest city in Australia and the largest non-capital city. Today the Gold Coast is known for its golden sanded surf beaches, theme parks and rainforest hinterlands; the Gold Coast hosted the 2018 Commonwealth Games. The Gold Coast is half covered by forests of various types; this includes small patches of near-pristine ancient rainforest, mangrove-covered islands, patches of coastal heathlands and farmland with areas of uncleared eucalypt forest.
Of the plantation pine forests that were planted in the 1950s and 1960s, when commercial forest planting for tax minimisation was encouraged by the Commonwealth government, tiny remnants remain. Gold Coast City lies in the southeast corner of Queensland, to the south of Brisbane, the state capital; the Albert River separates the Gold Coast from a suburban area of Brisbane. Gold Coast City stretches from Beenleigh and Russell Island to the border with New South Wales 56 km south, extends from the coast west to the foothills of the Great Dividing Range in World Heritage listed Lamington National Park; the southernmost town of Gold Coast City, includes Point Danger and its lighthouse. Coolangatta is a twin city with Tweed Heads located directly across the NSW border. At 28.1667°S 153.55°E / -28.1667. From Coolangatta forty kilometres of holiday resorts and surfing beaches stretch north to the suburb of Main Beach, further on Stradbroke Island; the suburbs of Southport and Surfers Paradise form the Gold Coast's commercial centre.
The major river in the area is the Nerang River. Much of the land between the coastal strip and the hinterland were once wetlands drained by this river, but th
Sunshine Coast, Queensland
Sunshine Coast is a peri-urban area and the third most populated area in the Australian state of Queensland. Located 100 km north of the state capital Brisbane in South East Queensland on the Pacific Ocean coastline, its urban area spans 60 km of coastline and hinterland from Pelican Waters to Tewantin; the estimated urban population of Sunshine Coast as at June 2015 was 302,122, making it the 9th most populous in the country. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 19th century with development progressing until tourism became an important industry; the area has several coastal hubs at Caloundra, Kawana Waters and Noosa Heads. Nambour and Maleny have developed as primary commercial centres for the hinterland, although Maleny falls outside the urban area defined by the ABS that this article refers to; the Sunshine Coast, as a term recognised by most Australians, is the district defined in 1967 as "the area contained in the Shires of Landsborough and Noosa, but excluding Bribie Island".
Its use is colloquial however. Since 2014, the Sunshine Coast district has been split into two local government areas, the Sunshine Coast Region and the Shire of Noosa, which administer the southern and northern parts of the Sunshine Coast respectively. James Cook on the deck of HM Bark Endeavour in 1770 became the first known white person to sight the Glass House Mountains, located south-west of Caloundra. In the 1820s, the Sunshine Coast saw its first white inhabitants: three castaways who shared the life of the local Aborigines for eight months. Thereafter, during the 1830s to 1840s, the district became home to numerous runaway convicts from the Moreton Bay penal colony to the south. In 1842, Governor George Gipps had the entire Sunshine Coast and hinterland from Mt Beerwah north to Eumundi declared a "Bunya Bunya Reserve" for the protection of the bunya tree after Andrew Petrie advised him of the importance of bunya groves in Aboriginal culture. However, during the 1840s and 1850s, the Bunya Bunya Reserve and its vicinity became the scene of some of the most bitter skirmishes of Australia's "Black War".
The Blackall Range, on account of the tri-annual Bunya Festival, served as both a hideout and rallying point for attacks against white settlement. By the 1850s timber cutters and cattlemen had started exploiting the area. Many of the Sunshine Coast's towns began as simple ports or jetties for the timber industry during the 1860s and 1870s, as the area once had magnificent stands of forest; the region's roads began as snigging tracks for hauling timber. Timbergetters used the region's creeks and lakes as seaways to float out their logs of cedar – the resultant wood being shipped as far afield as Europe. During the Gympie Gold Rush, prospectors scaled the Sunshine Coast mountains to develop easier roadways to and from the gold fields of Gympie. After construction of the railway line to Gympie, the coastal and river towns, being ports for the early river-trade, were bypassed. By the 1890s diverse small-farming had replaced the cattle-and-timber economy of earlier decades. Sugar cane and pineapples proved important produce for the district.
Many small hamlets and towns now emerged. Produce was taken by horse to Landsborough to Eudlo in 1891. After World War II, the Sunshine Coast grew into a favoured holiday and surfing destination; this tendency was further expanded in the development boom of the 1970s. Around the same time, various tourist/theme parks were created – the most iconic being the Big Pineapple in Woombye. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Sunshine Coast attracted persons drawn to alternative lifestyles; these newcomers developed a range of craft industries, co-operatives and spiritual centres in the hinterlands. After the 1980s, the Sunshine Coast experienced rapid population growth; as of 2016 it had become one of the fastest-growing regions in Australia. As the region becomes residential, most of the district's distinctive small farms – tropical-fruit and sugar-cane farms have disappeared, as have most of its theme parks; the Moreton sugar mills closure in 2003 removed a market for the district's 120 cane growers, harvesting cane in the region.
Instead, businesses concerned with retail and tourism have assumed increasing importance. In 2008, The Shire of Noosa, Shire of Maroochy and City of Caloundra merged to form the Sunshine Coast Region; the 2007 referendum conducted by the Australian Electoral Commission and leading to the merger remained controversial in Noosa Shire, where 95% of voters had rejected amalgamation. In March 2013, a second referendum resulted in 81% of residents voted to leave the amalgamated Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 November 2013 an election resulted in Noel Playford being elected to take office as mayor on 1 January 2014 with the new council; the Shire of Noosa was re-established on 1 January 2014. This resulted in two geopolitical areas occupying the area recognised as'The Sunshine Coast'; the Sunshine Coast Region, governed by the Sunshine Coast Council and the Shire of Noosa, governed by Noosa Shire Council. Major rivers of the Sunshine Coast include Noosa River, Maroochy River, Mooloolah River and the Stanley River.
The region includes several lakes such as Lake Weyba. Ewen Maddock Dam, Wappa Dam and Baroon Pocket Dam have been built for water storage. Several stretches of the Sunshine Coast are lined with unbroken beaches – from Sunshine Beach near Noosa to Coolum Beach.