Alcatraz Island is located in San Francisco Bay, 1.25 miles offshore from San Francisco, United States. The small island was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison, a federal prison from 1934 until 1963. Beginning in November 1969, the island was occupied for more than 19 months by a group of Native Americans from San Francisco, who were part of a wave of Native activism across the nation, with public protests through the 1970s. In 1972, Alcatraz became part of a national recreation area and received designation as a National Historic Landmark in 1986. Today, the island's facilities are managed by the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Visitors can reach the island in a little under 15 minutes by ferry ride from Pier 33, located between the San Francisco Ferry Building and Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco. Hornblower Cruises and Events, operating under the name Alcatraz Cruises, is the official ferry provider to and from the island.
Alcatraz Island is home to the abandoned prison, the site of the oldest operating lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States, early military fortifications, natural features such as rock pools and a seabird colony. According to a 1971 documentary on the history of Alcatraz, the island measures 1,675 feet by 590 feet and is 135 feet at highest point during mean tide; the total area of the island is reported to be 22 acres. Landmarks on the island include the Main Cellhouse, Dining Hall, Lighthouse, the ruins of the Warden's House and Officers' Club, Parade Grounds, Building 64, Water Tower, New Industries Building, Model Industries Building, the Recreation Yard; the first Spaniard to document the island was Juan Manuel de Ayala, who charted San Francisco Bay in 1775 and named one of the three islands he identified as "La Isla de los Alcatraces," which translates as "The Island of the Gannets" but is believed to translate as "The Island of the Pelicans," from the archaic Spanish alcatraz.
Over the years, the Spanish version "Alcatraz" became popular and is now used. In August 1827, French Captain Auguste Bernard Duhaut-Cilly wrote "... running past Alcatraze's Island... covered with a countless number of these birds. A gun fired over the feathered legions caused them to fly up in a great cloud and with a noise like a hurricane." The California brown pelican is not known to nest on the island today. The Spanish built several small buildings on other minor structures; the earliest recorded owner of the island of Alcatraz is Julian Workman, to whom it was given by Mexican governor Pio Pico in June 1846, with the understanding that Workman would build a lighthouse on it. Julian Workman is the baptismal name of William Workman, co-owner of Rancho La Puente and personal friend of Pio Pico. In 1846, acting in his capacity as Military Governor of California, John C. Frémont, champion of Manifest Destiny and leader of the Bear Flag Republic, bought the island for $5,000 in the name of the United States government from Francis Temple.
In 1850, President Millard Fillmore ordered that Alcatraz Island be set aside as a United States military reservation, for military purposes based upon the U. S. acquisition of California from Mexico following the Mexican–American War. Frémont had expected a large compensation for his initiative in purchasing and securing Alcatraz Island for the U. S. government, but the U. S. government invalidated the sale and paid Frémont nothing. Frémont and his heirs sued for compensation during protracted but unsuccessful legal battles that extended into the 1890s. Following the acquisition of California by the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican–American War, the onset of the California Gold Rush the following year, the U. S. Army began studying the suitability of Alcatraz Island for the positioning of coastal batteries to protect the approaches to San Francisco Bay. In 1853, under the direction of Zealous B. Tower, the United States Army Corps of Engineers began fortifying the island, work which continued until 1858, when the initial version of Fort Alcatraz was complete.
The island's first garrison, numbering about 200 soldiers, arrived at the end of that year. When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, the island mounted 85 cannons in casemates around its perimeter, though the small size of the garrison meant only a fraction of the guns could be used at one time. At this time it served as the San Francisco Arsenal for storage of firearms to prevent them falling into the hands of Confederate sympathizers. Alcatraz, built as a "heavily fortified military site on the West Coast", was to form a "triangle of defense" with Fort Point and Lime Point, but the contemplated work on Lime Point was never built; the first operational lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States was built on Alcatraz. During the war, Fort Alcatraz was used to imprison Confederate sympathizers and privateers on the west coast, but never fired its guns at an enemy. Studies in 2018 by archeologists using ground-penetrating radar and laser scans found the remains of structures, ammunition magazines, tunnels below the penitentiary, built later.
They believe. Because of its isolation from the outside by the cold, tremendous currents of the waters of San Francisco Bay, Alcatraz was used to house soldiers who were guilty of crimes as early as 1859. By 1861, the fort was the military priso
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
Oracle Park is a baseball park located in the South Beach neighborhood of San Francisco, California. Since 2000, it has served as the home of the San Francisco Giants, the city's Major League Baseball franchise. Named Pacific Bell Park SBC Park in 2003 after SBC Communications acquired Pacific Bell, the stadium was christened AT&T Park in 2006, after SBC acquired AT&T and took on the name; the current name was adopted in 2019. The park stands along the San Francisco Bay, a segment of, named McCovey Cove in honor of former Giants player Willie McCovey. Oracle Park has played host to both professional and collegiate American football games; the stadium was the home of the annual college postseason bowl game now known as the Redbox Bowl from its inaugural playing in 2002 until 2013, served as the temporary home for the University of California's football team in 2011. Professionally, it was the home of the San Francisco Demons of the XFL and the California Redwoods of the United Football League.
Public transit access to the stadium is provided within San Francisco by Muni Metro or Muni Bus, from the Peninsula and Santa Clara Valley via Caltrain, from parts of the Bay Area across the water via various ferries of San Francisco Bay. The Muni 2nd and King Station is directly outside the ballpark, the 4th & King Caltrain station is 1.5 blocks from the stadium, the Oracle Park Ferry Terminal is outside the east edge of the ballpark beyond the center field bleachers. Designed to be a 42,000-seat stadium, there were slight modifications before the final design was complete; when the ballpark was brought to the ballot box in the fall of 1996 for voter approval, the stadium was 15° clockwise from its current position. The center-field scoreboard was atop the right-field wall and the Giants Pavilion Building were two separate buildings. Groundbreaking on the ballpark began on December 11, 1997, in the industrial waterfront area of San Francisco known as China Basin in the up-and-coming neighborhoods of South Beach and Mission Bay.
The stadium cost $357 million to build and supplanted the Giants' former home, Candlestick Park, a multi-use stadium in southeastern San Francisco, home to the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers until 2014, when they relocated to Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara. A team of engineers from UC Davis was consulted in the design process of the park, resulting in wind levels that are half those at Candlestick. Fans had shivered through 40 seasons at "The'Stick" and looked forward to warmer temperatures at the new ballpark, but because Oracle Park, like its predecessor, is built right on San Francisco Bay, cold summer fog and winter jackets in July are still not unusual at Giants games, despite the higher average temperature. When it opened on March 31, 2000, the ballpark was the first Major League Baseball ballpark built without public funds since the completion of Dodger Stadium in 1962. However, the Giants did receive a $10 million tax abatement from the city and $80 million for upgrades to the local infrastructure.
The Giants have a 66-year lease on the 12.5-acre ballpark site, paying $1.2 million in rent annually to the San Francisco Port Commission. The park opened with a seating capacity of 40,800, but this has increased over time as seats have been added. In April 2010, the stadium became the first MLB ballpark to receive LEED Silver Certification for Existing Buildings and Maintenance. On April 3, 1996, Pacific Bell, a telephone company serving California based in San Francisco, purchased the naming rights for the planned ballpark for $50 million for 24 years; the stadium was named Pac Bell Park for short. Just days before the sponsorship was announced, SBC Communications had announced their intention to acquire Pacific Bell's parent company, Pacific Telesis, a deal which closed in April 1997. SBC stopped using the Pacific Bell name for marketing, reached an agreement with the Giants to change the stadium's name to SBC Park on January 1, 2004. After SBC bought AT&T Corporation on November 18, 2005, the name of the merged company became AT&T Inc.
As a result, in 2006 the stadium was given its third name in six years: AT&T Park. On January 9, 2019, it was reported that AT&T had given the Giants the option of ending the naming deal a year early, if the team could find a new partner; the Giants and Oracle Corporation came to a rapid agreement, with the old AT&T Park signs being replaced with temporary Oracle Park banners on January 10. Some fans still refer to the stadium as Pac Bell Park, as it was the first name given to the stadium. Others have nicknamed the stadium "The Phone Booth" or "Telephone Park", in response to its multiple name changes, while some referred to the stadium as "Some Big Corporation Park" during the SBC years. Others yet refer to it as "Mays Field" in honor of Giants great Willie Mays or "The Bell". Many refer to the stadium as "China Basin" or "McCovey Cove" after its location, which would be immune to changes in sponsorship naming; the stadium contains 68 luxury suites, 5,200 club seats on the club level, an additional 1,500 club seats at the field level behind home plate.
On the facing of the upper deck along the left-field line are the retired numbers of Bill Terry, Mel Ott, Carl Hubbell, Monte Irvin, Willie Mays, Barry Bonds, Juan Marichal, Orlando Cepeda, Jackie Robinson, Willie McCovey, Gaylord Perry, as well as the retired uniforms, denoted "NY", of Christy Mathewson and John McGraw who played or managed in the pre-number era. These two pre-number–era retired uniforms are among only six such retired uniforms in all of the Major Leagues. Oracle Park has a reputation of being a pitcher's park and the most pitc
American handball, known as handball in the United States, is a sport in which players use their hands to hit a small rubber ball against a wall such that their opponent cannot do the same without it touching the ground twice. The three versions are three-wall and one-wall; each version can be played either by two players, three players or four players, but in official tournaments and doubles are the only versions played. Games in which a ball is hit or thrown have been referenced as far back as ancient Egypt. A game similar to handball was played by Northern and Central Americans from 1500 BC, most famously by the Aztecs as the Mesoamerican ballgame. However, no references to a rebound game using a wall survive, it is thought that these ancient games more resembled a form of hand tennis. Further examples of similar games include the European-originated games of Basque pelota, Valencian frontó, International fronton and Welsh handball; the first recorded game of striking a ball against a wall using a hand was in Scotland in 1427, when King James I ordered a cellar window in his palace courtyard to be blocked up, as it was interfering with his game.
In Ireland, the earliest written record of a similar game is in the 1527 town statutes of Galway, which forbade the playing of ball games against the walls of the town. The first depiction of an Irish form of handball does not appear until 1785; the sport of handball in Ireland was standardized as Gaelic handball. By the mid-19th century, Australians were playing a similar game, which developed into the modern sport of Australian handball. In Treacherous Beauty, by Mark Jacob and Stephen H. Case, about the Arnold-Andre conspiracy, Major John Andre and General Sir Henry Clinton are said to have played a game called handball during the American Revolution; the earliest record of the modern game in the United States mentions two handball courts in San Francisco in 1873. The sport grew over the next few decades. By the early 1900s, four-wall handball was well established and a one-wall game was developed in New York City by beach-goers who hit bald tennis balls with their hands against the sides of the wooden jetties that lined beaches.
This led to a rise in one-wall handball at New York beaches and by the 1930s, thousands of indoor and outdoor one-wall courts had been built throughout the city. American handball is seen predominantly in parks and high school yards in New York and other large urban areas. National championships in handball have been held annually in the United States since 1919; these championships were organized by the Amateur Athletic Union until 1950, when their control was transferred to the newly formed United States Handball Association. The sports of racquetball, fives, four-wall and one-wall paddleball were influenced by handball. Four-wall paddleball and one-wall paddleball were created when people took up wooden paddles to play on handball courts. Four-wall paddleball was invented in 1930 by Earl Riskey, a physical-education instructor at the University of Michigan, when he came up with the idea of using paddles to play on the school's handball courts. Racquetball was invented in 1949 by Joe Sobek in Greenwich, when he played handball using a strung racquet.
American handball is played on a walled court, 40 by 20 feet, with either a single wall, three walls, or in a enclosed four-wall court. The four-wall court is a rectangular box; the front wall is 20 feet square, the side walls are 40 feet long and 20 feet high. In the middle of the floor lies a short line, dividing the floor into two 20 feet squares. Along the floor is the service line, 5 feet in front of the short line; the service zone is the area between these two lines. The back wall of the court is 12 feet high, with an above gallery for the referee and spectators; some courts have a glass back glass side walls to allow for better viewing. Handball may be played as singles, doubles, or "cutthroat". In cutthroat handball, one server plays against two receivers, until he or she is "put out"; the left-most receiver serves. Serves rotate in this way until one player wins by scoring either 11, 15, or 21 points. Should both teams reach a score 1 below the winning score, the game can be continued by "win-by-two" or "straight".
In "win-by-two", the winning score is increased by 2 points. In ` straight', the score can not be pushed; when a tie of 20 is reached in a 21-point match, a common decision is'straight 25', where the winning score is set to 25 and cannot be changed. The cutthroat mode of play is known as "triangles." The ball is served by one player standing in the service zone. The server begins by dropping the ball to the floor of the service zone and striking it, after one bounce, with the hand or fist so that it hits the front wall; the ball must hit the front wall first. If the served ball lands in front of the short line, it is called a "short," while a serve which reaches the back wall without bouncing is called "long," and a serve which hits both side walls before hitting the floor is called a "3-wall." These are all typ
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Mission Bay, San Francisco
Mission Bay is a 303-acre neighborhood on the east side of San Francisco, California. It is bordered by China Basin to the north, Dogpatch to the south, San Francisco Bay to the east. An industrial district, it underwent development fueled by the construction of the UCSF Mission bay campus, is in the final stages of development and construction, it is the site of the under construction Chase Center. Mission Bay is bounded by Townsend Street on the north, Third Street and San Francisco Bay on the east, Mariposa Street on the south, 7th Street and Interstate 280 on the west. Before urbanization, Mission Bay was nestled inside of a +500 acre salt marsh and lagoon, was occupied by year-round tidal waters; this area was a natural habitat and refuge for large water fowl populations that included ducks, herons, egrets and gulls. The Native American tribes who resided in this area were the Costanoan people who spoke eight different languages which delineated between the various tribelets; the tribe most prevalent in the Bay area was the Patwin people who resided in the area for over 5,000 years.
Beginning in the mid-1800s, Mission Bay was used as a convenient place to deposit refuse from building projects. It was used to as a dumping ground for debris from the 1906 earthquake; as the marsh stabilized with the weight of the infill, the area became an industrial district. By 1850 the area was used for shipbuilding and repair and meat production, oyster and clam fishing. With the addition of the railroad, Mission Bay became the home to shipyards, canneries, a sugar refinery and various warehouses. In 1998 the area was announced by the Board of Supervisors as a redevelopment project. Much of the land was long a railyard of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, transferred to Catellus Development Corporation when it was spun off as part of the aborted merger of Southern Pacific and the Santa Fe Railway. Catellus subsequently sub-contracted several parcels to other developers, it has evolved into a wealthy neighborhood of luxury condominiums and biotechnology research and development. Mission Bay was the original headquarters of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine prior to the organization's move to Oakland.
It is the headquarters, at 550 Terry Francois Blvd, of the Old Navy brand of The Gap clothing retailer. It is the location of a new research campus of the University of California, San Francisco, UCSF Mission Bay Mission Bay was to be the location of a 14 acre, two-million-square-foot Salesforce.com U. S. headquarters. Salesforce sold the property it owned to the NBA's Golden State Warriors, who have announced plans to build an arena that will open by the 2019–20 NBA season; the northern terminus of the Third Street Light Rail Project of the San Francisco Municipal Railway. The northern terminus of Caltrain. An AT&T Fiber to the premises greenfield project; the first new branch of the San Francisco Public Library in over 40 years, The Mission Bay Branch Library, opened on July 8, 2006. It is located on the ground floor of a new multi-use facility, which includes an adult day health center, affordable senior housing, retail space and a large community meeting room; the new library is 7,500 square feet, is the 27th branch of the San Francisco Public Library.
455 Mission Bay Boulevard South planned to be the headquarters of Pfizer's Biotherapeutics and Bioinnovation Center, occupied by Nektar Therapeutics in November 2010 as their corporate headquarters. The other half of the building is occupied by Bayer's U. S. Innovation Center. Location of the San Francisco Public Safety Building at Third Street and Mission Rock, it includes Police Station and Mission Bay Fire Station. Funding for the building was passed with a 79.4 percent positive vote on Proposition B. The home of Rock Health, a seed accelerator for digital health startups. An estimated 56 biotech companies were clustered in Mission Bay in mid-2010; the San Francisco Bay Trail. The Blue Greenway waterfront trail. Sinking sidewalk on the 1200 block of 4th street Mission Bay is served by the N Judah and T Third Street lines of San Francisco's Muni Metro; the N Judah links the neighborhood to Downtown, BART, Hayes Valley and the Sunset District, the T Third Street links to downtown, BART, the Bayview and Visitacion Valley neighborhoods.
Several other Muni bus and trolley bus lines link the area to neighborhoods to the north and south. The Caltrain commuter rail system connects Mission Bay with San Gilroy; the proposed Central Subway project will make the link between Mission Bay, Oracle Park, Market Street-Union Square, Chinatown faster. Although near to and associated with Oracle Park, the ballpark is in the adjacent South Beach neighborhood. UCSF has built a new 289-bed hospital serving children and cancer patients which opened in February 2015. Construction of the hospital began in October 2010. Mission Bay has a large residential component with 6,404 apartments and/or condos planned; the Beacon is one of the largest condominium complexes in San Francisco and anchors much of the activity in North Mission Bay. With 595 condominium units, it sits on a full city block bounded by Townsend to the north, King to the south and 3rd and 4th Streets. A Safeway anchors the retail sections of the building; the building's name refers to its being the first large scale mixed-use project planned for the new neighborhood, thus "The Beacon" of the area's revival.
The California Institute for Regenerative Me
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water for recreation, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the body, or both. Humans can hold their breath underwater and undertake rudimentary locomotive swimming within weeks of birth, as a survival response. Swimming is among the top public recreational activities, in some countries, swimming lessons are a compulsory part of the educational curriculum; as a formalized sport, swimming features in a range of local and international competitions, including every modern Summer Olympics. Swimming relies on the nearly neutral buoyancy of the human body. On average, the body has a relative density of 0.98 compared to water, which causes the body to float. However, buoyancy varies on the basis of body composition, lung inflation, the salinity of the water. Higher levels of body fat and saltier water both lower the relative density of the body and increase its buoyancy. Since the human body is only less dense than water, water supports the weight of the body during swimming.
As a result, swimming is “low-impact” compared to land activities such as running. The density and viscosity of water create resistance for objects moving through the water. Swimming strokes use this resistance to create propulsion, but this same resistance generates drag on the body. Hydrodynamics is important to stroke technique for swimming faster, swimmers who want to swim faster or exhaust less try to reduce the drag of the body's motion through the water. To be more hydrodynamic, swimmers can either increase the power of their strokes or reduce water resistance, though power must increase by a factor of three to achieve the same effect as reducing resistance. Efficient swimming by reducing water resistance involves a horizontal water position, rolling the body to reduce the breadth of the body in the water, extending the arms as far as possible to reduce wave resistance. Just before plunging into the pool, swimmers may perform exercises such as squatting. Squatting helps in enhancing a swimmer’s start by warming up the thigh muscles.
Human babies demonstrate an innate swimming or diving reflex from newborn until the age of 6 months. Other mammals demonstrate this phenomenon; the diving response involves apnea, reflex bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction. Because infants are innately able to swim, classes for babies of about 6 months old are offered in many locations; this makes strong swimmers from a young age. Swimming can be undertaken using a wide range of styles, known as'strokes,' and these strokes are used for different purposes, or to distinguish between classes in competitive swimming, it is not necessary to use a defined stroke for propulsion through the water, untrained swimmers may use a'doggy paddle' of arm and leg movements, similar to the way four-legged animals swim. There are four main strokes used in competition and recreation swimming: the front crawl known as freestyle, the breaststroke, the backstroke and the butterfly. Competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800 using the breaststroke. In 1873, John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions.
The butterfly stroke developed in the 1930s, was considered a variant of the breaststroke until accepted as a separate style in 1953. Butterfly is considered the hardest stroke by many people, but it is the most effective for all-around toning and the building of muscles, it burns the most calories. Other strokes exist for specific purposes, such as training or rescue, it is possible to adapt strokes to avoid using parts of the body, either to isolate certain body parts, such as swimming with arms only or legs only to train them harder, or for use by amputees or those affected by paralysis. Swimming has been recorded since prehistoric times, the earliest records of swimming date back to Stone Age paintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC; some of the earliest references include the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible and other sagas. The coastal tribes living in the volatile Low Countries were known as excellent swimmers by the Romans. Men and horses of the Batavi tribe could cross the Rhine without losing formation, according to Tacitus.
Dio Cassius describes one surprise tactic employed by Aulus Plautius against the Celts at the Battle of the Medway: The thought that Romans would not be able to cross it without a bridge, bivouacked in rather careless fashion on the opposite bank. Thence the Britons retired to the river Thames at a point near where it empties into the ocean and at flood-tide forms a lake; this they crossed because they knew where the firm ground and the easy passages in this region were to be found, but the Romans in attempting to follow them were not so successful. However, the swam across again and some others got over by a bridge a little way up-stream, after which they assailed the barbarians from several sides at once and cut down many of them." In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. There are many reasons why people swim, from swimming as a recreational pursuit to swimming as a necessary pa