Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval
Nagasaki Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Nagasaki. Nagasaki Prefecture was created by merging of the western half of the former province of Hizen with the island provinces of Tsushima and Iki. Facing China and Korea, the region around Hirado was a traditional center for pirates. During the 16th century, Catholic missionaries and traders from Portugal arrived and became active in Hirado and Nagasaki, which became a major center for foreign trade. After being given free rein in Oda Nobunaga's period, the missionaries were forced out little by little, until in the Tokugawa era, Christianity was banned under the Sakoku national isolation policy: Japanese foreign trade was restricted to Chinese and Dutch traders based at Dejima in Nagasaki. However, Kirishitan worship continued underground; these Kakure Kirishitan were tried at every step, forced to step on fumi-e to prove that they were non-Christian. With the banishment of all Catholic missionaries, traders from Catholic countries were forced out of the country.
Along with them, their children, half Japanese and half European, were forced to leave. The majority was sent to Jagatara and are still remembered by the locals as the people who wrote the poignant letters which were smuggled across the sea to their homeland. Today, Nagasaki has prominent Catholic churches, the Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region, have been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List. During the Meiji Restoration and Sasebo became major ports for foreign trade, major military bases and shipbuilding centers for the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries up to World War II. On August 9, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, which destroyed all buildings in a 1.6 kilometres radius from the point of impact and extensively damaged other parts of the city. 39,000 people were killed, including 27,778 Japanese munitions workers, 2,000 Korean forced workers, 150 Japanese soldiers. About 68-80% of the industrial production was destroyed to the point it would not recover for months or at least a year.
Nagasaki Prefecture contains many areas prone to heavy landslide damage. In July 1957 in the Isahaya area, damage from heavy rains and landslides lead to a death toll of 586, with 136 people missing and 3,860 injured. In July 1982, typhoon damage in the Nagasaki area lead to 299 fatalities, according to a report by the Japanese government. Nagasaki borders Saga Prefecture on the east, is otherwise surrounded by water, including Ariake Bay, the Tsushima Straits, the East China Sea, it includes a large number of islands such as Tsushima and Iki. Most of the prefecture is near the coast and there are a number of ports such as Nagasaki and a United States Navy base at Sasebo; as of 1 April 2014, 18% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Saikai and Unzen-Amakusa National Parks. Thirteen cities are located in Nagasaki Prefecture: These are the towns and villages of each district: The following municipalities have been dissolved since the year 2000. Kitamatsuura District: Emukae, Ikitsuki, Kosaza, Ōshima, Shikamachi, Takashima, Yoshii Minamimatsuura District: Arikawa, Kamigotō, Miiraku, Naru, Shin'uonome, Tomie, Wakamatsu Nishisonogi District: Iōjima, Kinkai, Kōyagi, Nomozaki, Ōseto, Ōshima, Sakito, Seihi, Takashima, Tarami Kitatakaki District: Iimori, Moriyama, Takaki Minamitakaki District: Aino, Arie, Chidiwa, Futsu, Kitaarima, Kunimi, Minamikushiyama, Nishiarie, Obama Kamiagata District: Kamiagata, Mine Shimoagata District: Izuhara, Toyotama Iki District: Ashibe, Ishida, Katsumoto Nagasaki is the most Christianized area in Japan with Roman Catholic missions having been established there as early as the 16th century.
Shusaku Endo's novel Silence draws from the oral history of the local Christian communities, both Kakure Kirishitan and Hanare Kirishitan. As of 2002, there are 68,617 Catholics in Nagasaki Prefecture, accounting for 4.52 percent of the population of the prefecture. The Nagasaki Saints of the Shikoku-Kyūshū Island League make Nagasaki Prefecture their home. Nagasaki Ōura Church Urakami Cathedral Confucius Shrine, Nagasaki Glover Garden Nagasaki Shinchi Chinatown Mount Inasa Kōfuku-ji Sōfuku-ji Suwa Shrine Hirado Hirado Castle Sakikata Park Sasebo Kujū-ku Islands Huis Ten Bosch Tenkaihō Saikai Nagasaki Bio Park Shimabara Peninsula Mount Unzen Shimabara Castle JR Kyushu Nagasaki Main Line Sasebo Line Omura Line Shimabara Railway Matsuura Railway Nishi-Kyūshū Line Nagasaki Electric Tramway Nagasaki Expressway West Kyushu Expressway Nagasaki Dejima Road Kawahira Toll Road Kunimi Toll Road Kawahira Toll Road Route 34 Route 35 Route 57 Route 202 Route 204 Route 205 Route 206 Route 207 Route 251 Route 324 Route 382 Route 383 Route 384 Route 389 Route 444 Route 498 Route 499 Nagasaki Port Sasebo Port Matsuura Port Hirado Port Shimabara Port Fukue Port Izuhara Port of Tsushima Gonoura Port of Iki Island Nagasaki Airport Fukue Airport Iki Airport Tsushima Airport The current governor of Nagasaki is former vice-governor Hōdō Nakamura.
First elected in 2010 to succeed Genjirō Kaneko, he was reelected for a second term in 2014. The prefectura
Zelkova is a genus of six species of deciduous trees in the elm family Ulmaceae, native to southern Europe, southwest and eastern Asia. They vary in size from shrubs to large trees up to 35 m tall; the bark is dark brown. Unlike the elms, the branchlets are never winged; the leaves are alternate, with serrated margins, a symmetrical base to the leaf blade. The leaves are in two distinct rows. There are two stipules at each node, though these are caducous, leaving a pair of scars at the leaf base. Zelkova is polygamous. Staminate flowers are clustered in the lower leaf axils of young branchlets. Pistillate and hermaphrodite flowers are solitary, or in clusters of two to four, in the upper leaf axils of young branchlets; the fruit is a nut-like drupe with a dorsal keel, produced singly in the leaf axils. The perianth and stigma are persistent. Zelkova abelicea—Cretan zelkova Zelkova carpinifolia—Caucasian zelkova Zelkova serrata—Keyaki or Japanese zelkova Zelkova serrata var. serrata Zelkova serrata var. tarokoensis Zelkova sicula—Sicilian zelkova Zelkova sinica—Chinese zelkova Zelkova schneideriana—Schneider's zelkova HybridsZelkova × verschaffeltii—Cut-leaf zelkova The genus Zelkova was common throughout northern Europe and North America as late as the Pliocene.
However, extensive Pleistocene glaciation has confined the genus to its present range to the eastern Mediterranean islands and the Caucasus, in eastern Asia where only local glaciation occurred. Species of Zelkova were important elements of the vast forests that prevailed throughout the Northern Hemisphere during much of the Cenozoic Period. Today, the genus comprises six species with disjunct distribution patterns: three in eastern Asia, one in southwestern Asia and two on the Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Crete; the oldest fossils attributed to Zelkova date from the early Eocene in western North America, where the genus is extinct today. In Bulgaria, Zelkova fossils were found in Paleogene and Neogene layers in the following locations: Zelkova ungeri Kov. — Lozenets, Chukurovo in Sofia Region, Dospey in Samokov Region, Pirin Mine in Blagoevgrad Region, Bobov Dol in Kyustendil Region. Zelkova abelicea is endemic to Crete, it grows on north-facing slopes or in and around rocky river-beds and gullies which remain moist during dry summers.
The species is endangered through habitat fragmentation and destruction, overgrazing and water stress. The Sicilian Zelkova Z. sicula, only discovered in 1991, is listed as an endangered species. The two known populations close to Siracuse comprise a small number of low shrubs suffering from severe overgrazing. Whilst all the known Zelkova taxa are in cultivation and in botanic gardens or arboreta few collections are known to be from wild sourced material or known in the countries of their natural distribution. Z. sicula and Z. abelicea are the two taxa considered to be at most risk of extinction. These two Zelkova species are the two with the most restricted natural distribution—both are small island endemics; the Zelkova with the widest natural distribution, Z. serrata, is the most common Zelkova in botanic garden collections Phylogeography, using chloroplast and mitochondrial markers, has focused on the Quaternary and the influence of the cycles of glaciation on species distribution and structure.
Phylogeography has, however been used to document more ancient patterns, with some of them dating as far back as the early Miocene. The retrieval of ancient patterns may be specific to tree species, which are assumed to evolve more than herbaceous plants and shrubs. Zelkova trees live for centuries, a good indication that ancient patterns might be recovered using molecular markers. A few phylogenetic and biogeographical studies have been carried out on Zelkova, but these studies had small sample sizes or weak representation of wild populations. A more comprehensive phylogeographical analysis, based on trnH–psbA, trnL and internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2, was the first to use a wide sampling of natural populations from nearly all the disjunct regions where Z. abelicea, Z. carpinifolia and Z. sicula presently grow. It aimed to assess the diversity within and among species using DNA from two cellular compartments that have different modes of inheritance and trace different histories.
Zelkova serrata and Z. carpinifolia are grown as ornamental trees. The wood is hard, used for making furniture; the name Zelkova derives from the native name of Z. carpinifolia in one of the Kartvelian languages, as shown by the Georgian name, ძელქვა, from ძელ
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Jinju is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. It was the location of the second Sieges of Jinju by Japanese forces during the Imjin War; the Republic of Korea Air Force Education and Training Command is located in the eastern part of the city. There are cultural-historical tourist attractions in Jinju such as Jinju Castle, the Jinju National Museum, the Nam-gang Prehistoric Site Museum. From old times, Jinju was a fountainhead of national spirit; as a city that has held 1,000-year-old historical heritage of the ancient city, Jinju has been well renowned as a home of patriotic spirit, education and art. Jinju was an ancient city of Goryeonggaya in the Gaya Era; this city was called'Geoyeolseong' of Baekje during the Three Kingdom Era, was called'Geoyeolju','Cheongju', and'Gangju' during the Unified Silla Era. Name of this city was changed into'Jinju' for the first time in the 23rd year of King Taejong of the Goryeo Dynasty, it became'Jinju - one of 12 moks in the 2nd year of King Seongjong.
In the 33rd year of King Gojong of the Joseon Dynasty, administrative district of the nation was reorganized with 13 provinces. At that time Jinju began to belong to Gyeongsangnam-do, became capital town of Gyeongsangnam-do, and provincial governor started to reside in Jinju. On April 1, 1925, Busan replaced Jinju as provincial capital. On August 15, 1949, the government of the Republic of Korea was established and'the local self-government system' was started. At that time, Jinju-bu was started to have mayor of the city. On January 1, 1995, in accordance with'the Law pertaining to the establishment of Urban-Rural Integrated City', Jinju-si and Jinyang-gun became extinct and were merged into one integrated Jinju-si. There are cultural events held in Jinju every year. Among these are the Jinju Namgang Lantern Festival, held in October for ten days; this nationally designated cultural tourism festival, found only in Jinju, features a spectacle of lanterns floating on the Nam River to commemorate the patriotic spirit of the 70,000 militia corps and government troops who died for their country defending Jinju from the Japanese forces during the Imjin War.
Other major festivals include: the Nongae Festival, the Korea Drama Festival, the Gaecheon Arts Festival and the Jinju National Bullfighting Contest. The Nongae Festival, held in May each year commemorates and celebrates the sacrifice of the beautiful and patriotic gisaeng Nongae's suicide-assassination of a Japanese general together with the 70,000 Koreans who lost their lives in the battle of Jinju Castle during the Imjin War; the festival features an emotional reenactment of Nongae's suicidal drowning of a Japanese general from uiam bawi below Chokseongnu on the banks of the Nam River. Gaecheon Arts Festival is annually held from October 3 to 10 and the entire city turns to the streets for celebration at Korea's first provincial culture art festival, which awakens the artistic spirit of the Korean people; the festival falls around Gaecheonjeol and is regarded as one of Korea's finest. The Jinju National Bullfighting Contest is recognized as Korea's oldest bullfighting event and spectators can witness a test of strength at this bullfighting contest held at a purpose-built traditional Korean sports arena near Jinyang lake.
At just over a third of a million, Jinju is a small city by Korean standards. The annual growth of the population is 0.4% since 1995. People between the ages of 20 and 29 represent 17.5% of the city's total population, justify the city's long-standing reputation as an educational city. The senior population, representing 7.6% of the city's total population, is higher than the provincial average. This suggests that Jinju is providing senior citizens with livable conditions, such as a variety of welfare programs and pleasant living environment. Gang Se-hwang, a high ranking government official and representative painter and art critic, was born here in 1713, son of Kang Hyeon. Park Minhyuk, main rapper and dancer of six-membered boygroup ASTRO was born here in 1999. Jinju has a number of distinctive local delicacies. Most celebrated is Jinju bibimbap, which distinguishes itself from the common Korean rice and vegetable dish by its use of yukhoe, made with raw beef and generous amounts of sesame oil.
Famous is Namgang Grilled Eel, caught locally and served in any one of the numerous restaurants overlooking the Nam. Enjoying their food spicy, Jinjuites have perfected a hot pepper version of the popular Korean side dish pajeon known by its colloquial name jijimi; this is best enjoyed with a bowl of local rice wine makkeolli. Since ancient days, silk processed in Jinju has been known for its superior quality, a result of the combination of natural resources and human resources. Silk factories in Jinju annually spin out 70% of the national production. Jinju silk has a refined feeling and elegant colors because of its superior dyeing techniques. Jinju is an educational city and is home to Gyeongsang National University and Chinju National University of Education, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, it is home to International University of Korea, catering to foreign students. It has a number of community colleges that serve the local area. Jinju's high schools offer a high quality of e
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
North Gyeongsang Province
North Gyeongsang Province known as Gyeongbuk, is a province in eastern South Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the northern half of the former Gyeongsang province, remained a province of Korea until the country's division in 1945 became part of South Korea. Daegu was the capital of North Gyeongsang Province between 1896 and 1981, but has not been a part of the province since 1981. In 2016, the provincial capital moved from Daegu to Andong; the area of the province is 19.1 % of the total area of South Korea. The province is part of the Yeongnam region, on the south by Gyeongsangnam-do, on the west by Jeollabuk-do and Chungcheongbuk-do Provinces, on the north by Gangwon-do Province. During the summer, Gyeongsangbuk-do is the hottest province in South Korea; this is helped by the fact that the province is surrounded by mountains: the Taebaek Mountains in the east and the Sobaek Mountains in the west. Gyeongsangbuk-do is the homeland of the former kingdom of Silla and has retained much of its cultural tradition.
A number of artists, political leaders and scholars have come from the province. According to the census of 2005, of the people of North Gyeongsang 33.9% follow Buddhism and 18.6% follow Christianity. 47.5% of the population is not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. Gyeongsangbuk-do is divided into 13 counties; the names below are given in English and hanja. List of Korea-related topics Liancourt Rocks Gyeongsangbuk-do provincial government in English Alsace/Gyeongsangbuk-do North Gyeongsang Province travel guide from Wikivoyage