Chesapeake is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 222,209. Chesapeake is included in the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC MSA. One of the cities in the South Hampton Roads, Chesapeake was organized in 1963 by voter referendums approving the political consolidation of the city of South Norfolk with the remnants of the former Norfolk County, which dated to 1691. Chesapeake is the second-largest city by land area in the Commonwealth of Virginia, the 17th-largest in the United States. Chesapeake is a diverse city. Extending from the rural border with North Carolina to the harbor area of Hampton Roads adjacent to the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach, Chesapeake is located on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, it has miles of waterfront industrial and residential property. In 2011, Chesapeake was named the 21st best city in the United States by Bloomberg Businessweek. Chesapeake is home to the international Headquarters for Dollar Tree.
In 1963, the new independent city of Chesapeake was created when the former independent city of South Norfolk consolidated with Norfolk County. The consolidation was approved and the new name selected by the voters of each community by referendum, authorized by the Virginia General Assembly. Formed in 1691 in the Virginia Colony, Norfolk County had included all the area which became the towns and cities of Norfolk and South Norfolk, its area was reduced after 1871. Becoming an independent city was a method for the former county to stabilize borders with neighbors, as cities could not annex territory from each other; the small city of South Norfolk had become an incorporated town within Norfolk County in 1919, became an independent city in 1922. Its residents wanted to make a change to put their jurisdiction on a more equal footing in other aspects with the much larger cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, by the late 1950s, although immune from annexation by the bigger cities, South Norfolk was close to losing all the county land adjoining it to the city of Norfolk in another annexation suit.
The consolidation that resulted in the city of Chesapeake was part of a wave of changes in the structure of local government in southeastern Virginia which took place between 1952 and 1975. The Chesapeake region was among the first areas settled in the state's colonial era, when settlement started from the coast. Along Chesapeake's segment of the Intracoastal Waterway, where the Great Bridge locks marks the transition between the Southern Branch Elizabeth River and the Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal, lies the site of the Battle of Great Bridge. Fought on December 9, 1775, in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, the battle resulted in the removal of Lord Dunmore and all vestiges of English Government from the Colony and Dominion of Virginia; until the late 1980s and early 1990s, much of Chesapeake was either suburban or rural, serving as a bedroom community of the adjacent cities of Norfolk and Virginia Beach with residents commuting to these locations. Beginning in the late 1980s and accelerating in the 1990s, Chesapeake saw significant growth, attracting numerous and significant industries and businesses of its own.
This explosive growth led to strains on the municipal infrastructure, ranging from intrusion of saltwater into the city's water supply to congested roads and schools. Chesapeake made national headlines in 2003 when, under a court-ordered change of venue, the community hosted the first trial of alleged Beltway sniper Lee Boyd Malvo for shootings in 2002. A jury spared him a potential death sentence. A jury in neighboring Virginia Beach convicted his older partner John Allen Muhammad and sentenced him to death for another of the attacks. Chesapeake is located at 36°46′2″N 76°17′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 351 square miles, of which 341 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water; the northeastern part of the Great Dismal Swamp is located in Chesapeake. Chesapeake is one of the nation in terms of land area; this poses challenges to city leaders in supporting infrastructure to serve this area. In addition, the city has many and geographically distinct communities.
City leaders are faced with conflicts between development of residential and industrial areas and preservation of virgin forest and wetlands. Within the city limits in the southwestern section is a large portion of the Great Dismal Swamp. Portsmouth, Virginia Norfolk, Virginia Virginia Beach, Virginia Currituck County, North Carolina Camden County, North Carolina Suffolk, Virginia Chesapeake consists of eight informal boroughs: South Norfolk, Hickory, Deep Creek, Great Bridge, Indian River, Western Branch. One of the boroughs, South Norfolk, used to be its own independent city; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chesapeake has a humid subtropical climate, a
Isle of Wight County, Virginia
Isle of Wight County is a county located in the Hampton Roads region of the U. S. state of Virginia. It was named after the Isle of Wight, in the English Channel, from where many of its early colonists had come; as of the 2010 census, the population was 35,270. Its county seat is Isle of Wight. Isle of Wight County is located in the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metropolitan Statistical Area, its northeastern boundary is on the coast of Hampton Roads waterway. Isle of Wight County features two incorporated towns and Windsor; the first courthouse for the county was built in Smithfield in 1750. The original courthouse and its associated tavern are still standing; as the county population developed, leaders thought they needed a county seat near the center of the area. They built a new courthouse near the center of the county in 1800; the 1800 brick courthouse and its associated tavern are still standing, as are the 1822 clerk's offices nearby. Some additions have been made; the 1800 courthouse is used daily, serving as the government chambers for the Board of Supervisors, as well as the meeting hall for the School Board.
The chambers are sometimes used as a court for civil trials if the new courthouse is in use. The new courthouse opened in 2010. During the 17th century, shortly after establishment of the settlement at Jamestown in 1607, English settlers explored and began settling the areas adjacent to the large Hampton Roads waterway. Captain John Smith in 1608 crossed the James River and obtained fourteen bushels of corn from the Native American inhabitants, the Warrosquyoack or Warraskoyak, they were a tribe of the Powhatan Confederacy. English colonists drove the Warraskoyak from their villages in 1622 and 1627, as part of their reprisals for the Great Massacre of 1622, in which the Native Americans had decimated English settlements, hoping to drive them out of their territory; the first English plantations along the south shore within present-day Isle of Wight were established by Puritan colonists, beginning with that of Christopher Lawne in May 1618. Several members of the Puritan Bennett family settled there, including Richard Bennett.
He led the Puritans to neighboring Nansemond in 1635, was appointed as governor of the Virginia Colony. By 1634, the entire Colony consisted of eight shires or counties with a total population of 5,000 inhabitants. Warrosquyoake Shire was renamed in 1637 as Isle of Wight County, after the island off the south coast of England; the original name had come derived from the Native Americans of the area. St. Luke's Church, built in the 17th century, is Virginia's oldest church building. In the late 20th century, it was designated as a National Historic Landmark in recognition of its significance. Many landmark and contributing structures on the National Register are located in Smithfield including the Wentworth-Grinnan House. In 1732 a considerable portion of the northwestern part of the original shire was added to Brunswick County, in 1748 the entire county of Southampton was carved out of it. During the American Civil War, Company F of the 61st Virginia Infantry Regiment of the Confederate Army was called the "Isle of Wight Avengers."
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 363 square miles, of which 316 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water; the county is bounded by the James River on the Blackwater River to the south. The land is low-lying, with many swamps and pocosins. Newport News, Virginia — northeast Suffolk, Virginia — southeast Southampton County — west Franklin, Virginia — southwest Surry County — northwest US 17 US 258 US 460 SR 10 SR 32 As of the census of 2010, there were 35,270 people, 11,319 households, 8,670 families residing in the county; the population density was 94 people per square mile. There were 12,066 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.8% White, 24.7% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. 1.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 11,319 households out of which 34.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.40% were married couples living together, 12.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.40% were non-families.
20.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $45,387, the median income for a family was $52,597. Males had a median income of $37,853 versus $22,990 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,235. About 6.60% of families and 8.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.80% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. Carrsville District: Don Rosie Hardy District: Rudolph Jefferson Newport District: William McCarty Smithfield District: Dick Grice Windsor District: Joel Acree Clerk of the Circuit Court: Sharon Nelms Jones Commissione
Smithfield is a town in Isle of Wight County, in the South Hampton Roads subregion of the Hampton Roads region of Virginia in the United States. The population was 8,089 at the 2010 census; the town is most famous for the production of the Smithfield ham. The Virginia General Assembly passed a statute defining "Smithfield ham" by law in 1926, with one of the requirements that it be processed within the town limits. Smithfield Foods, a Chinese Fortune 500 company that owns Smithfield Packing Company and others, is the world's largest pork processor and hog producer; the company, based in Smithfield, raises 12 million hogs and processes 20 million pounds of them annually. Smithfield, first colonized in 1634, is located on the Pagan River, south of Jamestown and on the south side of the James River; the Native Americans knew this area as Warascoyak spelled Warrosquoyacke, meaning "point of land." The Virginia colony formed Warrosquyoake Shire in 1634, but it had been known as "Warascoyack County" before this.
It was renamed as Isle of Wight County in 1637. In 1730, the Tobacco Inspection Act of 1730 established "Warricksqueak Bay, in Isle of Wight County" as the site of an official tobacco inspection house; the town was established as a seaport in 1752 by Arthur Smith IV. The original survey and plat of the Town of Smithfield was made by Jordan Thomas, County Surveyor, for Captain Arthur Smith in 1750; as a river town, its life and growth were dependent on the river. "Wharf Hill" was the waterfront location of the beginning of the industries of Smithfield. They included peanuts and the raising of pork as commodities, leading to the city claiming the titles of "Peanut Capital of the World" and "Ham Capital of the World." George Purdie, a County Justice and Postmaster of Smithfield during his lifetime, in 1763 purchased Lots 4 and 5 of the original plat of the Town of Smithfield. Purdie's neighbor, Captain Mallory Todd, developed the business of curing and shipping the hams that has made Smithfield world-famous.
The peanut industry continued until the fire of 1921. The peanut trade moved to the nearby railroad hub of Virginia. Military actions of both the Revolutionary and Civil War took place in and around the town, as it was considered strategic due to its proximity to the James River. Revolutionary Patriots used Wharf Hill as a safe harbor for receiving arms and supplies, a vantage point for directing Federal cannon fire on Main Street, its dock has welcomed the fictional drama of the real "Show Boat". The Mansion on Main was the showplace home of a Victorian-era "Virginian of Virginians", R. S. Thomas, it was restored by Sala Clark in the late 1990s. His 1889 "urban" Queen Ann-style mansion changed the face of Smithfield. Thomas helped to preserve the 1632 St. Luke's Church, which in the late 20th century was recognized as a National Historic Landmark. Thomas "wrote the book" on St. Luke's Church, The Old Brick Church Near Smithfield, Virginia to champion recognition of its 1632 date of construction and legacy.
He presented his work to the Virginia Historical Society on December 22, 1891. He wrote: "It is my object to prove that this Church was built in 1632, I shall prove it, 1. By the existence at that early date, of such strong, religious sentiment, as demanded a house of worship to the living God. By tradition. By existing records. By the bricks and mortar of the Church itself." Today, Smithfield has a population of 8,100. It is 10.1 square miles in size. The ham production operation was purchased by a Chinese firm in 2014. Smithfield is located at 36°58′44″N 76°37′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 10.4 square miles, of which 9.5 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,089 people, 2,438 households, 1,830 families residing in the town; the population density is 851.5 people per square mile. In 2000 there were 2,552 housing units at an average density of 267.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 67.22% White, 30.87% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population. There were 2,438 households out of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.9% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.95. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,224, the median income for a family was $53,906. Males had a median income of $40,845 versus $24,419 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,301. About 11.8% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under the age of 18 and 15.6% of those 65 and older.
Known as the ham capital of the world, Smithfield attracts many tourists. Smithfield's Historic Dist
Naval Station Norfolk
Naval Station Norfolk, is a United States Navy base in Norfolk, Virginia. It supports naval forces in the United States Fleet Forces Command, those operating in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, the Indian Ocean; the installation occupies about 4 miles of waterfront space and 11 miles of pier and wharf space of the Hampton Roads peninsula known as Sewell's Point. It is the world's largest naval station, with the largest concentration of U. S. Navy forces through 75 ships alongside 14 piers and with 134 aircraft and 11 aircraft hangars at the adjacently operated Chambers Field and Port Services controls more than 3,100 ships' movements annually as they arrive and depart their berths. Air Operations conducts over 100,000 flight operations each year, an average of 275 flights per day or one every six minutes. Over 150,000 passengers and 264,000 tons of mail and cargo depart annually on Air Mobility Command aircraft and other AMC-chartered flights from the airfield's AMC Terminal; the area where the base is located was the site of the original 1907 Jamestown Exposition.
In 1915 the Headquarters of the 5th Naval District was manned. In April 1917, not long after the United States entered World War I, a bill was passed for the purchase of the land, money was set aside in the amount of $1.6 million for the development of the base. The Naval Operating Base and other facilities were established. By 1918, there were 34,000 enlisted men at the base. However, by the war's end, the base was reduced in personnel and put into a "standby mode." When World War II began in Europe in 1939, the base became more active again. New facilities were built, including new runways for part of Naval Air Station Norfolk, it had ramps built to be used by seaplanes to be operated by the Navy during the war. About 400 acres was acquired and, by 1943, the air station had become a central airfield for operations. Due to the expansion, it contributed to ending the war due because of the training it provided to naval air units. In March 1946, the Chief of Naval Operations ordered the Commandant of the 5th Naval District to place NOB Norfolk and NAS Norfolk as separate installations under the command of Commandant Naval Base, whose title was soon changed to Commander, Navy Region, Mid-Atlantic.
On 1 January 1953, the name of the naval base was changed to Naval Station Norfolk, after being known as the NOB. In 1968, the Naval Air Station was given a major role in John F. Kennedy's vision of putting a man on the moon; the air station became Recovery Control Center Atlantic, which provided command and communications for the ships and aircraft that participated in the recovery operations of Apollo 7. Due to the end of the Cold War, a drawdown began in the 1990s, the Navy began reducing shore installations to help with operating costs. Due to this, the Navy merged the separate Naval Station Norfolk and Naval Air Station Norfolk into a single installation to be called Naval Station Norfolk, which became official on 5 February 1999. Following the attack on USS Cole and 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, the base had some major upgrades to its security gates, costing more than $12.5 million. On 26 January 2017, NS Norfolk celebrated its centennial at the Pennsylvania House, a historical building built for the Jamestown Exposition, located on the base.
On Easter of 1988, members of the anti-nuclear group Plowshares boarded the battleship USS Iowa with visitors for a ship's tour and left their group to do symbolic damage to the ship's empty Tomahawk missile launchers, using hammers and their own blood. On March 24, 2014, a shooting at NS Norfolk resulted in the death of a civilian; the shooting occurred around 11:20 p.m. EDT aboard USS Mahan. Security forces shot and killed the civilian who had shot the sailor aboard the vessel; the base was closed for a short time after the shooting on USS Mahan. Naval Station Norfolk is home port of their assigned ships. In addition, the Naval Station plays host to several Military Sealift Command ships, as well as the submarines of the Atlantic Fleet; as of June 2017, the following operational units are headquartered or homeported at Naval Station Norfolk: In addition to the several operational units, Naval Station Norfolk is headquarters to a number of shore activities that provided administrative and specialty support to regional operational assets, in some cases, the entire Navy.
As of February 2017, these included: Navy Warfare Development Command Navy Region Mid-Atlantic Navy Expeditionary Combat Command Naval Reserve Force Navy Fleet Readiness Centers Naval Surface Force Atlantic Naval Computer and Telecommunications Area Master Station Atlantic Navy Exchange Command Naval Safety Center Naval Criminal Investigative Service, Norfolk Field Office headquarters and NCIS Resident Agency Norfolk, a subordinate component of the Norfolk Field Office. Commodore Levy Chapel This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Navy. Official website Flagship - military-authorized newspaper of NAS Norfolk and Commander Navy Region Mid-Atlantic NS Norfolk at GlobalSecurity.org Navy Lodge Norfolk FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 FAA Terminal Procedures for NGU, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this U. S. military airport: FAA airport information for NGU AirNav airport information for KNGU ASN accident history for NGU NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart for KNGU
Joint Expeditionary Base Fort Story
Joint Expeditionary Base-Fort Story called Fort Story is a sub-installation of Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek–Fort Story, operated by the United States Navy. Located in the independent city of Virginia Beach, Virginia at Cape Henry at the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay, it offers a unique combination of features including dunes, sand, deep-water anchorage, variable tide conditions, maritime forest and open land; the base is the prime location and training environment for both Army amphibious operations and Joint Logistics-Over-the-Shore training events. The base includes 1,451 acres of sandy trails, cypress swamps, maritime forest, grassy dunes and soft and hard sand beaches; the western beaches are wide sloped and washed by the waters of the Chesapeake Bay. Eastern beaches are exposed to the rougher waters of the Atlantic surf. Fort Story became a military installation in 1914 when the Virginia General Assembly gave the land to the U. S. Government "to erect fortifications and for other military purposes".
The base was named for a noted coast artilleryman of his day. During World War I, Fort Story was integrated into the Coast Defenses of Chesapeake Bay, which included Fort Monroe and Fort Wool. After World War I, coastal artillery batteries consisting of four 16-inch M1920 howitzers were emplaced at Fort Story in 1922. In 1924, the coast defense command was designated a Harbor Defense Command and entered a period of post-war inactivity which lasted until the beginning of World War II. In May 1928, the first battle practice of units of the coast artillery was held since the end of the war. A battalion of 8-inch railway guns fired at "hostile" ships 16,000 yards out to sea. In 1941, prior to the United States entering World War II, the Headquarters of the Harbor Defenses of Chesapeake Bay was moved from Fort Monroe to Fort Story, more land was acquired, two additional harbor defense installations were added. In addition to the 16-inch howitzers, four 16 inch ex-Navy Mark II guns were installed at Fort Story during World War II.
These guns, along with matching batteries located at Fort John Custis on Cape Charles and batteries at Fort Monroe on Old Point Comfort, were used to guard the entrance to Chesapeake Bay against an attack by hostile naval forces. In 1944, Fort Story began to transition from a fortified coast artillery garrison to a convalescent hospital for returning veterans. By the time of its closing March 15, 1946, the hospital had accommodated more than 13,472 patients. In 1946, after World War II, the first amphibious training at Fort Story began with the arrival of the 458th Amphibious Truck Company and Army DUKWS. Fort Story was transferred to the Transportation Training Command, Fort Eustis, designated a Transportation Corps installation for use in training amphibious and terminal units in the conduct of Logistics-Over-The-Shore operations. Fort Story was declared a permanent installation on December 5, 1961. Joint Expeditionary Base Fort Story has three historic sites; the Cape Henry Memorial Cross marks the location where the Jamestown Settlers first landed in 1607.
The Old Cape Henry Light was the first lighthouse built by the Federal Government. At the Battle of the Virginia Capes Monument, there is a statue of French Admiral François Joseph Paul, comte de Grasse to commemorate the famous sea battle on September 5, 1781 which prevented the British from reaching Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War. Of historical interest, the new Cape Henry Lighthouse was completed in 1881 and is still maintained by the US Coast Guard as an active coastal beacon; the passenger station built in 1902 and served by the original Norfolk Southern Railway was restored late in the 20th century and is used as an educational facility by the Army. The coast defense weapons were removed in 1948 and their large casemated gun emplacements and former ammunition bunkers are used for storage. An Army Nike missile battery was located on Fort Story from 1958 to 1974; as a result of a 2005 Base Realignment and Closure recommendation, Fort Story operations were transferred to the United States Navy.
On October 1, 2009, Fort Story and Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek merged, Fort Story became Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek Fort Story. The following organizations were present at Joint Expeditionary Base Fort Story in 2009: AAFES 11th Transportation Battalion Army Reserve Center U. S. Army School of Music Directorate of Training and Doctrine FORSCOM Logistics Training Cluster, Saltwater Annex U. S. Marine Corps Security Cooperation Group Naval Special Warfare Group 2 Ranges Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Training and Evaluation Unit Two Navy Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit 10 Naval Undersea Warfare Center Shipboard Electronic Systems Evaluation Facility NATO Communication Logistical Activity
Gates County, North Carolina
Gates County is a small, rural county located in the northeast portion of the U. S. state of North Carolina, on the border with Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,197, its county seat is Gatesville. Gates County is included in the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of the Albemarle Sound area of the Inner Banks. As in other areas along the waterways, Indians lived in this region for thousands of years, with different groups leaving and new ones migrating to settle again, they created settlements permanent, along the Chowan River. At the time of European contact, the Chowanoke were the largest tribe in North Carolina of the many in the Algonquian language family and it occupied most of the territory along the river. After suffering dramatic population decreases by the early 17th century due to infectious diseases from Europe, which they had no immunity to, most of the survivors were pushed out by encroaching Tuscarora, an Iroquoian-speaking tribe.
In 1585, the Ralph Lane Colony explored the Chowan River at least as far up as present-day Winton. In 1622, the John Pory Colony led an expedition from Virginia to the Chowan River. In 1629, Sir Robert Heath was granted a patent to settle Carolina; this patent embraced Gates County. The Chowanoke waged war against the encroaching colonists in 1644n but they lost. During the 1650s, colonists from Virginia began to move into the Albemarle Sound region. Colonel Drew and Roger Green led an expedition into the Albermarle area. In 1654, Francis Speight was granted a patent for 300 acres of land near Raynor Swamp; the first English settlement in Gates County was established near Corapeake in 1660. In 1670, Colonel Henry Baker of Nansemond County obtained a grant of land for 2,400 acres near Buckland. In 1672, Quaker leader George Fox visited Gates County, he described the county as barren. The Chowanoke renewed their effort to expel the colonists, warring from 1675–1677. Following the English defeat of these forces, in 1677 they created a Chowanoke Indian Reservation, the first within the present-day United States.
The 11,360-acre reservation was established at the Chowanoke settlement between Bennett's Creek and Catherine Creek in Gates. From 1684–1722 Gates County was a part of the Chowan precinct. In 1711, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel established an Anglican school for Chowanoke and other local Indians at Sarum, with a Mr. Marshburn as the teacher. During the 18th century, the Chowanoke lost most of their land, selling off portions to help the tribe survive. Men's names were recorded in tribal conveyances, many descendants can trace their ancestry to these families; some members began to intermarry with other tribes, such as the nearby Meherrin people, as well as Englishmen and Africans. In 1738, local settlers created a mail route from Suffolk, Virginia to Corapeake and Edenton, North Carolina; the stagecoach route crossed the Chowan River at Barfield. Gates County was organized in 1779 from parts of Chowan and Perquimans counties, it was named for General Horatio Gates, who had commanded the victorious American colonial forces at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777.
In 1806, white settlers established Middle Swamp Baptist Church as the first Baptist church in Gates County. This accompanied the Second Great Awakening revival in the South after the American Revolution, led by Baptist and Methodist preachers. In 1811, Savages United Methodist Church was established, the oldest Methodist Church in Gates County. Both denominations preached both to enslaved blacks as well as white residents, they accepted slaves and free blacks as members and sometimes as preachers; the Chowanoke Indians lost their last 30-acre plot of communal land in 1821. Although Gates County residents were yeomen farmers who owned few slaves, the South overall still had a slave society which classified people as either black or white. However, the Native Americans managed to maintain their culture and absorbed people of other races in their matrilineal kinship systems; the Chowanoke were classified as free people of color, as where free blacks and mulattos. In 1825, the Marquis de Lafayette travelled through Gates County and was entertained at Pipkin's Inn.
The town of Gatesville was incorporated in 1830. The old courthouse was built in 1836, its oldest remaining component is its Federal-style bell, which the town had purchased in 1781. According to the 1850 census, only 15 of the county's 717 farms in Gates County 15 produced cotton. In 1851, the Reynoldson Academy was established. Free people of color, who were of mixed race, organized New Hope Baptist Church in 1859. County residents worked to develop better connections to major ports. From 1805–1822, they excavated the White Oak Marsh Canal or Hamburg Ditch, about three miles south of the Virginia line, it was Gates County's water route to the major port of Norfolk, running straight east for ten miles through the Dismal Swamp, from a landing on Daniels Road in Gates County to the Dismal Swamp Canal that led to Norfolk. The Cross Canal is no longer a through route, as it was blocked by hurricanes that toppled trees and blocked access; until the late 20th century, sportsmen in small boats used the Gates County end, at the site of the town of Hamburg, to enter the swamp.
Prior to the American Civil War, most of Gates County was covered with virgin timber. In 1861, A. J. Walton was chosen as Gates County's representative to the North Carolina secession convention. After North Carolina voted to secede, the "Gates Guard" company was formed raised to protect its borders, it was soon joined by a second company, the "Gates Minutemen". However, Gates Co
Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia located in the northeast corner of Virginia Beach. It is the southern boundary of the entrance to the long estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Across the mouth of the bay to the north is Cape Charles the opposite point of the Bay's gateway. Named for two sons of King James I of England in 1607, together Cape Henry and Cape Charles form the Virginia Capes. Cape Henry was named on April 26, 1607 in honor of Henry Frederick Stuart, the elder of two sons of King James I of England to survive to the age of 18 and heir-apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of England, by an expedition of the London Company branch of the proprietary Virginia Company headed by Captain Christopher Newport. After an unusually long voyage of 144 days from England, it was their first landfall, an event which has come to be called "The First Landing". Soon after this landing the English colonists erected a wooden cross and gave thanks for a successful crossing to a new land.
In the First Charter of Virginia, King James I devoted parcels of land for the purpose of spreading the Christian religion. The Charter reads in part: "We commending, graciously accepting of, their Desires for the Furtherance of so noble a Work, which may, by the Providence of Almighty God, hereafter tend to the Glory of his Divine Majesty, in propagating of Christian Religion to such People, as yet live in Darkness and miserable Ignorance..." Captain Newport, with his three ships, Susan Constant, the Godspeed, the Discovery, the group of 104 men and boys, subsequently explored inland and established Jamestown on an island for protection offshore from the north shore further upstream on the James River which became the first permanent English settlement in North America. The following year of 1608, Captain John Smith took a crew with a small boat outfitted with a sail and proceeded north up the Chesapeake Bay exploring and mapping its coasts and rivers and bays up to the named Susquehanna River which fed the Bay.
In 1781, the waters off of these Virginia Capes and the entrance to the Chesapeake and Hampton Roads harbor were the site of an important naval clash between warships of the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England near the end of the American Revolutionary War in the Battle of the Capes. The victory of the French Navy over the British Royal Navy cut off the King's Army troops of Lord Charles Cornwallis surrounded and under siege for a month at Yorktown, Virginia, a short distance up the Bay on the Western Shore's York River, they had been pursued after a series of clashes for several years in the Southern Theater in Georgia and the Carolinas by rebel patriot regular forces of soldiers under the command of Gen. Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan, along with irregular bands of guerilla partisans sniping and wearing down the Redcoats by attrition; as Cornwallis headed northward to the rich untouched colony of Virginia and hoping to be reinforced / resupplied or evacuated if necessary on the ragged shores of the Carolina coast or the Chesapeake where British seapower and naval dominance could be brought to bear.
The French fleet under Admiral deGrasse sent from the Caribbean Sea and West Indies islands with an unusual naval victory over the British taskforce who had sent a second fleet from occupied New York retreating back northward, supposed to reinforce and guard Cornwallis' seaward side. The British general was forced to surrender in October 1781 to a combined jointly commanded American-French Army with German states mercenary allies under Gen. George Washington, Gen. Marquis de Lafayette and French Army troops under Gen. Rochambeau who had deceived Gen. William Howe commander in New York where the Northern Theater had stalemated and sneaked out slipping and gaining several weeks march southward down the East Coast to surprise and catch Cornwallis' Redcoats camped at Yorktown in a siege. For the first time in the six year long rebellion, the insurgents had numerical superiority in numbers and artillery along with adequate cooperating seapower from the French allies; the little known sea Battle of the Capes a few miles off the American Virginia coast was the nail in the coffin to assure colonial independence as the War ended a year and a half with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
The Cape Henry Memorial commemorates The First Landing of the settlers. Nearby, the historic Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first in the United States. Of historical interest, the passenger station built in 1902 and served by the original Norfolk Southern Railway was restored late in the 20th century and is used as an educational facility by Fort Story, an army base located at Cape Henry, established in 1914. First Landing State Park occupies and protects the rest of the cape itself, as well as some of the nearby area. Shore Drive, a locally well-known road, facilitates viewing of the rest of the shoreline in Cape Henry. NPS Cape Henry website Cape Henry Lighthouse info