Burnt Oak tube station
Burnt Oak is a London Underground station in Burnt Oak, north London, on Watling Avenue, off the A5. The station is on the Edgware branch of the Northern line, between Edgware and Colindale stations, in Travelcard Zone 4. Burnt Oak is on Watling Avenue, separated by the rail tracks; the station serves a moderate residential area. Rows of shops are along Watling Avenue. Barnfield Primary School, Burnt Oak Brook, Goldbeaters Primary School, Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Center and Edgware Community Hospital are nearby; the station was designed by architect Stanley Heaps and opened as Burnt Oak on 27 October 1924, two months after the extension of the Hampstead & Highgate Line from Hendon Central to Edgware had opened. For a while, the station was going to be named "Sheves Hill", this name appears on a version of the Underground map from 1924. On a version "Sheves Hill" is crossed out with "Burnt Oak" printed on the side; the station was provided with a temporary structure before the final ticket office building was constructed in 1925.
The suffix was dropped from the name about 1950. In 2018, it was announced that the station would gain step free access by 2022, as part of a £200m investment to increase the number of accessible stations on the Tube; the station is on the London Underground Northern line, between Edgware and Colindale stations, in Zone 4. The typical off-peak service, in trains per hour is: 10 tph northbound to Edgware 10 tph southbound to Morden via Bank or Kennington via Charing CrossLondon Buses routes 32, 114, 142, 204, 251, 292, 302 and 305, night routes N5 and N16 serve the station. School routes 614 and 644 serve bus stops near the station. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Construction of Watling Avenue from Burnt Oak station to Edgware Road, 14 May 1924 Junction of Watling Avenue and Edgware Road, 1926 Temporary station building constructed for opening of station, 1925 Permanent station building, 1925
Hendon Central tube station
Hendon Central is a London Underground station in North West London on the A41. The station is on the Edgware branch of the Northern line, between Colindale and Brent Cross stations, is on the boundary between Travelcard Zone 3 and Zone 4, its postcode is NW4 2TE. It was opened along with Brent Cross tube station on 19 November 1923 as the first stage of an extension of the Golders Green branch of the Charing Cross and Hampstead Railway; the station served as the terminus of the line's western fork until 18 August 1924 when the second and final section of the extension to Edgware was opened. Hendon Central, like all stations north from Golders Green, is a surface station; when it was built it stood "in lonely glory amid fields", as one writer puts it, south of the old village of Hendon, which has since been swallowed up by London's suburbs. The station is a Grade II listed building, designed in a neo-Georgian style by Stanley Heaps, who designed Brent Cross station in a similar style, with a prominent portico featuring a Doric colonnade.
The fact that the area was undeveloped allowed a hitherto unusual degree of coordination between the station and the surrounding buildings that were constructed over the next few years. The station was intended to be a key architectural feature of a new suburban town. For many years this was a roundabout known as'Central Circus'. Writing in 1932, William Passingham commented the integrated approach taken at Hendon Central as "an outstanding example of the co-ordination of road-planning with passenger station requirements." He noted, only nine years after the station opened, that it had become the centre of an "ever-widening cluster of new houses" and predicted that it would become "the centre of small township", or what would now be called a suburb. London Buses routes 83, 113, 143, 186, 324 and 326 and night route N113 serve the station. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Construction of Hendon Central station, 1922 Partially completed station, 1923 Crowd waiting for the first opening of the station, 19 November 1923 Exterior of station on opening day, 19 November 1923 View of Platforms and tunnel entrances, 1924.
Note rural landscape beyond station awaiting development. Station building, 1929, now incorporated into a larger commercial building
Air raid shelter
Air raid shelters known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air. They are similar to bunkers in many regards, although they are not designed to defend against ground attack. Prior to World War II, in May 1924, an Air Raid Precautions Committee was set up in the United Kingdom. For years, little progress was made with shelters because of the irreconcilable conflict between the need to send the public underground for shelter and the need to keep them above ground for protection against gas attacks. In February 1936 the Home Secretary appointed a technical Committee on Structural Precautions against Air Attack. By November 1937, there had only been slow progress, because of a serious lack of data on which to base any design recommendations, the Committee proposed that the Home Office should have its own department for research into structural precautions, rather than relying on research work done by the Bombing Test Committee to support the development of bomb design and strategy.
This proposal was implemented in January 1939. During the Munich crisis, local authorities dug trenches to provide shelter. After the crisis, the British Government decided to make these a permanent feature, with a standard design of precast concrete trench lining; these turned out to perform poorly. They decided to issue free to poorer households the Anderson shelter, to provide steel props to create shelters in suitable basements. Air raid shelters were built to serve as protection against enemy air raids. However, pre-existing edifices designed for other functions, such as underground stations, cellars in houses or basements in larger establishments, railway arches, above ground, were suitable for safeguarding people during air raids. A used home shelter known as the Anderson shelter would be built in a garden and equipped with beds as a refuge from air raids. Cellars have always been much more important in Continental Europe than in the United Kingdom, in Germany all houses and apartment blocks have been and still are built with cellars.
For this reason, air-raid precautions during World War II in Germany could be much more implemented by the authorities than was possible in the UK. All, necessary was to ascertain that cellars were being prepared to accommodate all the residents of a building. However, the inadequacies of cellars and basements became apparent in the firestorms during the incendiary attacks on the larger German inner cities Hamburg and Dresden; when burning buildings and apartment blocks above them collapsed in the raging winds, the occupants became trapped in these basement shelters, which had become overcrowded after the arrival of inhabitants from other buildings rendered unsafe in earlier attacks. Some occupants perished from carbon monoxide poisoning. Hochbunker, "high-rise" bunkers or blockhouses, were a peculiarly German type of construction, designed to relieve the pressure German authorities were facing to accommodate additional numbers of the population in high-density housing areas, as well as pedestrians on the streets during air raids.
In contrast to other shelters, these buildings were considered bomb-proof. They had the advantage of being built upward, much cheaper than downward excavation. There were no equivalents of hochbunkers in the cities of the Allied countries. Hochbunkers consisted of large concrete blocks above ground with walls between 1 m and 1.5 m thick and with huge lintels above doorways and openings. They had a constant interior temperature of 7 to 10 °C, which made them suitable for laboratories, both during and after the war, they were designated to protect people, administrative centres, important archives, works of art. Their structures took many forms: consisting of square blocks, or of low, long rectangular or triangular shapes; some of the circular towers contained helical floors that curved their way upward within the circular walls. Many of these structures may still be seen to this day, they have been converted into offices, storage space, some have been adapted for hotels and schools, as well as many other peacetime purposes.
In Schöneberg, a block of flats was built over the Pallasstrasse air-raid shelter after World War II. During the Cold War, NATO used the shelter for food storage; the cost of demolishing these edifices after the war would have been enormous, as the attempts at breaking up one of the six so-called Flak towers of Vienna proved. The attempted demolition caused no more than a crack in one of the walls of the tower, after which efforts were abandoned. Only the Zoo Tower in Berlin was demolished. One particular variant of the Hochbunker was the Winkeltürme, named after its designer, Leo Winkel of Duisburg. Winkel patented his design in 1934, from 1936 on, Germany built 98 Winkeltürme of five different types; the towers had a conical shape with walls. The dimensions of the towers varied. Diameters ranged the height between 20 and 25 meters. The
Euston tube station
Euston is a London Underground station served by the Victoria line and both branches of the Northern line. It directly connects with Euston main line station above it; the station is in Travelcard Zone 1. Euston was constructed as two separate underground stations. Three of the four Northern line platforms date from the station's opening in 1907; the fourth Northern line platform and the two Victoria line platforms were constructed in the 1960s when the station was altered to accommodate the Victoria line. Plans for High Speed 2 and Crossrail 2 both include proposals to modify the station to provide interchanges with the new services. On the Northern line's Bank branch the station is between King's Cross St Pancras. On the Charing Cross branch it is between Warren Street. On the Victoria line it is between King's Cross St. Pancras; the station is near Euston Square station allowing connections at street level to the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. An underground station to serve Euston station was first proposed by the Hampstead, St Pancras & Charing Cross Railway in 1891.
The company planned a route to run from Heath Street in Hampstead to Strand in Charing Cross with a branch diverging from the main route to run under Drummond Street to serve Euston, St Pancras and King's Cross stations. Following parliamentary review of the proposals and a change in name to the Charing Cross and Hampstead Railway, permission was granted for the route in 1893, although the branch line was only permitted as far as Euston. For the remainder of the 1890s, the CCE&HR struggled unsuccessfully to raise the necessary capital to fund construction of the new line. Whilst doing so it continued to develop its route proposals. In 1899, parliamentary permission was obtained to modify the route so that the Euston branch was extended northwards to connect to the main route at the south end of Camden High Street; the section of the main route between the two ends of the loop was omitted. In 1900, the CCE&HR was taken over by a consortium led by American financier Charles Yerkes which raised the necessary finance.
In 1900, a proposal was presented to parliament by the Islington and Euston Railway for an extension of the City and South London Railway from Angel to Euston. At the time, the C&SLR was in the process of constructing an extension to Angel from its opened terminus at Moorgate Street; the extension plan was permitted in 1901, but delays in the parliamentary process meant that it had to be re-submitted the following year. The second submission was opposed by the Metropolitan Railway, which saw the extension as competition to its service between King's Cross and Moorgate, the plan was rejected. A third attempt, presented to parliament in November 1902 by the C&SLR itself, was successful and approved in 1903. With funding obtained, tunnelling for the CCE&HR was carried out between September 1903 and December 1905, after which the station buildings and fitting-out of the tunnels commenced; the C&SLR's Euston extension was constructed at the same time from the newly opened Angel station and opened on 12 May 1907, with the station building designed by Sidney Smith located on the east side of Eversholt Street.
The CCE&HR opened on 22 June 1907, its building, designed by Leslie Green, is located at the corner of Drummond Street and Melton Street. Although built and operated as two separate stations by the two companies, the C&SLR and the CCE&HR platforms were sufficiently close together that a deep level interchange was constructed between the passages of the two stations with a small ticket office for passengers changing between the lines. Another passage led to lifts. With the entrance within the main line station able to serve both sets of platforms satisfactorily, the separate station buildings were considered unnecessary, they both closed on 30 September 1914; the CCE&HR building remains, but the C&SLR's building was demolished in 1934 to enable the construction of Euston House for the London and Scottish Railway. Most of the C&SLR's route had been constructed with tunnels 10 feet 2 inches or 10 feet 6 inches in diameter, smaller than the 11 feet 6 inches diameter, adopted as the standard for the CCE&HR and other deep level tube lines.
The smaller tunnel size restricted the capacity of the C&SLR's trains and, in 1912, the C&SLR published a bill for their enlargement. A separate bill was published at the same time by the London Electric Railway, that included plans to construct tunnels to connect the C&SLR at Euston to the CCE&HR's station at Camden Town. Together, the works proposed in these bills would enable trains of each company to run over the route of the other combining the two separate railways; the reconstruction and extension works were postponed during World War I and did not begin until 1922. The C&SLR platforms and the tunnels between Euston and Moorgate were closed for the reconstruction on 8 August 1922, they reopened on 20 April 1924 along with the new link to Camden Town. In 1906, the London and North Western Railway, operator of the main line station, announced proposals to construct an underground station of its own; the company planned to construct new tracks parallel with its line to Watford, the first section of which would have been constructed as a single-track loop 1,588 yards long and 55 feet 6 inches deep beneath the surface station.
The single platform underground station would have been close to the CCE&HR's platforms. The proposal was presented to parliament in November 1906 and received royal assent on 26 July 1907; the LNWR did not
Kennington tube station
Kennington is a London Underground station on Kennington Park Road in Kennington within the London Borough of Southwark. The station is at the junction of the Charing Bank branches of the Northern line, its neighbouring stations to the north are Waterloo on the Charing Cross branch and Elephant & Castle on the Bank branch. The station is in Travelcard Zone 2; the station was opened in 1890 as part of the world's first underground electric railway and its surface building remains unaltered. In the 1920s, the underground parts of the station were reconstructed so that the line could be extended and larger trains could be used. Two additional platforms were provided for interchanges between the two branches. In 1884, the City of London and Southwark Subway was granted parliamentary approval to construct an underground railway from King William Street in the City of London to Elephant & Castle in Southwark. Unlike previous underground railways in London, constructed using the cut and cover method, the CL&SS was to be constructed in a pair of deep-level tunnels bored using tunnelling shields with circular segmental cast-iron tunnel linings.
James Henry Greathead was the engineer for the railway and had used the tunnelling method on the Tower Subway bored under the River Thames in 1869. Construction work began in 1886, in 1887 the railway was granted additional approval for an extension to Kennington and Stockwell; the CL&SS was designed to be operated using a cabled-hauled system of trains, but the haulage method was changed in January 1899 to use electric locomotives, making it the world's first underground electric railway. The CL&SS changed its name to the City and South London Railway early in 1890. From Elephant & Castle northwards, the CL&SS's running tunnels were bored to a diameter of 10 feet 2 inches. Station platform tunnels 200 feet long and 20 by 16 feet were formed in brick construction with an arched top and flat base; the platforms at Kennington and most of the other intermediate stations were constructed at different levels, with one side wall of the upper platform tunnel supported on the side wall of the lower platform tunnel.
Travel between the surface and the platforms was by hydraulic lift or spiral stairs with the lower lift landing being at a level between the two platforms with steps or ramps up and down to the platforms. The station building is a single-storey structure topped by a dome which housed the hydraulic equipment for the lifts, it was designed by T. P. Figgis and occupies the northern corner of the junction of Kennington Park Road and Braganza Street. Before opening, the C&SLR considered naming the station New Street; the station was opened on 18 December 1890 along with the rest of the line. The small diameter of the running tunnels meant that the train carriages were cramped compared to the deep-level tube railways that were constructed with larger diameter tunnels. In 1913, the C&SLR obtained permission to enlarge the tunnels to enable it to use new modern rolling stock, but World War I delayed the works. After the war, the C&SLR obtained renewed permission for the enlargement works; these were undertaken as part of a programme of works including an extension of the Hampstead Tube from Embankment to Kennington.
The UERL planned to enlarge most of the C&SLR's tunnels whilst the railway remained in operation, with enlargement taking place at night and trains running during the day. Special tunnelling shields were constructed with openings. To facilitate the enlargement works, Kennington station was closed on 1 June 1923 and used as a depot for the construction works; the platforms were sidings installed for spoil wagons. A new shaft was sunk from the garden of an adjacent house to provide access to the tunnels and the passenger lifts were used to transfer the wagons between the tunnels and the surface. To achieve a convenient arrangement for the interchange between the existing tunnels and the new ones to Embankment, several changes were made to the organisation of the station below ground. Two new platform tunnels were constructed parallel with and at the same level as the corresponding existing tunnels with the new tunnels on the outside of the existing ones. Linking passages were constructed between each pair of platforms to enable cross-platform interchanges.
Both of the existing platforms had been accessed from the east, so, to make the link to the new northbound tunnel, the platform in the existing northbound tunnel was reconstructed on the other side and the tracks were repositioned. The existing passage between the platforms and the lifts was severed by the new southbound platform so each pair of platforms was connected to new entrance and exit passages leading to and from the lifts; these passages were at a higher level than before, so the bottom landings of the lifts and the emergency stairs were raised by 11 feet to match them. Along with the construction of the new tunnels, the existing station tunnels were increased in length to 350 feet by enlarging the running tunnels; the enlargement was done with standard segmental iron linings rather than the original brick. At the lower levels of the station the platform walls and passages were decorated with a new tiling scheme by Charles Holden matching that used on new stations on the Morden extension and the new stations from Embankment.
Other C&SLR stations were rebuilt during the 1920s modernisation, but the surface building at Kennington station was left unaltered. It is therefore the only station of the C
Mornington Crescent tube station
Mornington Crescent is a London Underground station in Camden Town in north west London, named after the nearby street. The station is on the Charing Cross branch between Euston and Camden Town, it is in Travelcard Zone 2. The station was opened as part of the original route of the Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway on 22 June 1907; the surface building was designed by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's architect Leslie Green. Prior to the station's opening, the name of "Seymour Street" had been proposed. After opening, it was little used. For many years it was open only on weekdays, before 1966 Edgware-bound trains passed through without stopping; the station is situated at the southern end of Camden High Street, where it meets Hampstead Road and Eversholt Street. This junction forms the north-western corner of the boundary of Somers Town, with Camden Town situated to the north and Regent's Park Estate to the south of the station; the station's location on the Northern line is unusual due to the dual-branch nature of that line.
On the Charing Cross branch, Mornington Crescent is between Camden Euston. The City branch runs from Camden Town to Euston, but via tunnels which take an different route to the Charing Cross branch and which do not pass through Mornington Crescent. Although contemporary tube maps show Mornington Crescent to the west of the City branch tunnels, it is in fact to the east of them: the two branches cross over one another at Euston, so that between Euston and Camden Town, the City branch tunnels run to the west of the Charing Cross branch on which Mornington Crescent is situated. Harry Beck's 1933 tube map represented this correctly. On 23 October 1992 the station was shut so that the 85-year-old lifts could be replaced; the intention was to open it within one year. However, the state of neglect meant other work had to be completed, the station was closed until 27 April 1998. A concerted campaign to reopen the station was launched, due to the popular BBC Radio 4 panel game I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue.
The show features the game Mornington Crescent, which takes its name from the station. The station was reopened on 27 April 1998 by the regular cast of the show and a memorial plaque to the late Willie Rushton, one of the longest-serving panelists, was installed at the station in 2002. During the station's rebuilding, the original distinctive light blue tiling pattern was restored to the station; the ticket hall was reconstructed and the original emergency stairs closed. A second lift shaft was converted into a staircase on one side and a series of station facilities on the other. Since its 1998 reopening, the station has been open at the same times as most other stations, including weekends, in an attempt to relieve the pressure on the busy nearby Camden Town station; the station was used as a location for the anthology film Tube Tales. It was portrayed in the film Honest, although the station used was Aldwych. In Allt flyter, Sara meets her mother outside the station during a Christmas trip to London.
Mornington Crescent is a spoof game, featured since the 1970s in the BBC Radio 4 comedy panel show I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue, which satirises complicated strategy games. A Comic Heritage blue plaque honoring Willie Rushton, one of the show's longest-serving panelists, was installed within the station in 2002, it is located behind the ticket barrier at the top of the stairs to the platform. China Miéville mentions this station and its long state of disuse during the 1990s in his novel King Rat using it as scene of a brutal murder by dismemberment via a passing train. In The Atrocity Archives by Charles Stross, the secret main entrance to the secret Government establishment which the protagonist Bob Howard works for is situated in the gentlemen's toilets of Mornington Crescent tube station. In Christopher Fowler's "Bryant & May" mysteries, the offices of the Peculiar Crimes Unit are above Mornington Crescent tube station. Mornington Crescent is used by Robert Rankin in many of his novels as the home of the Ministry of Serendipity, a fictional agency whose main activity is to ensure the British Empire rules the globe, via dealings with alien activity and suchlike, the top secret nature of the ministry being the main reason why the station was only open on weekdays and closed for "repairs" for much of the 1990s.
Belle & Sebastian released a song entitled "Mornington Crescent" on their 2006 album, The Life Pursuit. My Life Story's 1995 album Mornington Crescent takes its name from the station, featuring photos in its sleeve notes; the promotional video for "Be There" by Unkle was filmed in this station. London Buses routes 24, 27, 29, 46, 88, 134, 168, 214, 253, 274 and C2 and night routes N5, N20, N28, N29, N31, N253 and N279 serve the station. Mornington Crescent, the 1820s terrace after which the tube station is named London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Station exterior, 1925 Station exterior, 1930 Ticket hall, 1955
Totteridge & Whetstone tube station
Totteridge & Whetstone is a London Underground station in Whetstone of the London Borough of Barnet, North London. The station is the penultimate one on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between Woodside Park and High Barnet stations, in Travelcard Zone 4, it was first built in 1872. It is on the north side of Totteridge Lane, to the east of the Dollis Brook so narrowly in the latter; the Totteridge & Whetstone station was planned by the Edgware and London Railway and was opened as Whetstone and Totteridge on 1 April 1872 by the Great Northern Railway. The station was on a branch of a line whose main part ran from Finsbury Park to Edgware via Highgate. After the 1921 Railways Act created the Big Four railway companies the line was, from 1923, part of the London and North Eastern Railway; the section of the High Barnet branch north of East Finchley was incorporated into the London Underground network through the "Northern Heights" project which begun in the late 1930s. Totteridge and Whetstone station was first served by Northern line trains on 14 April 1940 and, after a period where the station was serviced by both operators, LNER services ended in 1941.
British Rail freight trains continued to serve the station's goods yard until 1 October 1962, when it was closed. The station retains much of its original Victorian architectural character today; the station is not wheelchair accessible owing to flights of stairs to the two platforms. The station has in the 21st century undergone subtle changes to enable the policy of no ticket offices, chiefly: an automatic double-wide access and buggy-friendly barrier A help desk instead of the ticket office; the station is not manned but is during peak hours. The station has four gates, two toilets, payphones, a car park and waiting rooms. Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but operate every 3–6 minutes between 6:04 and midnight in both directions. London Bus routes 34, 125, 234, 251, 263, 326, 383, 605, 626, 628, 634 and 688 and night route N20 serve the station. Northern Line Embankment, High Barnet London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Station in 1937 during LNER period prior to London Transport's take over Station in 1956