South Korea

South Korea the Republic of Korea is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and sharing a land border with North Korea. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia under Gwanggaeto the Great, its capital, Seoul, is a major global city and half of South Korea's over 51 million people live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world. The Korean Peninsula was inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic period, its first kingdom was noted in Chinese records in the early 7th century BC. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea into Silla and Balhae in the late 7th century, Korea was ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty; the succeeding Korean Empire was annexed into the Empire of Japan in 1910. After World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S.-administered zones, with the latter becoming the Republic of Korea in August 1948.

In 1950, a North Korean invasion began the Korean War and after its end in 1953, the country's economy began to soar, recording the fastest rise in average GDP per capita in the world between 1980 and 1990. The June Struggle led to the end of authoritarian rule in 1987 and the country is now the most advanced democracy with the highest level of press freedom in Asia, it has the 10th highest social mobility in the world, with 17% of children born to parents in the bottom half of educational attainment ending up in the top quarter. South Korea is the G20 and the Paris Club. South Korea is a developed country and the world's 12th-largest economy by nominal GDP, its citizens enjoy the world's fastest Internet connection speeds and the most dense high-speed railway network. It was named the second best country in the world to raise kids in the 2020 UN Child Flourishing Index, with the best chance at survival and well-being due to good healthcare and nutrition; the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, South Korea is a global leader in many technology and innovation driven fields.

Since 2014, South Korea has been named the world's most innovative country by the Bloomberg Innovation Index for 6 consecutive years. Since the 21st century, South Korea has been renowned for its globally influential pop culture such as K-pop, TV dramas and cinema, a phenomenon referred to as the Korean Wave; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically.

After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. However, it is not a direct translation of the Korean name; as a result, the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state.

Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to both Koreas collectively, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon instead; the Korean Peninsula was inhabited as early as the Lower Paleolithic period. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon was noted in Chinese records in the early 7th century. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. Three of the commanderies retreated westward within a few decades; as Lelang commandery was destroyed and rebuilt around this time, the place moved toward Liaodong.

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Fresno River Viaduct

The Fresno River Viaduct is a bridge under construction to carry California High-Speed Rail over Route 145, the Fresno River, Raymond Road in Madera County, California. It is the first permanent structure constructed as part of California High-Speed Rail; the bridge site is located just east of the city limits of Madera, California 20 miles northwest of the planned Fresno high-speed rail station, 10 miles southeast of the planned Chowchilla Wye. Because the site is downstream of the John Franchi Diversion Dam, the riverbed is dry unless heavy rains cause the dam to overtop; the bridge will be 1600 feet long and 25 feet high, will run parallel to the BNSF Railway bridge over the Fresno River. Construction began in June 2015. Initial work consisted of pouring concrete. In August 2015, temporary cofferdams were erected to excavate sand to construct the bridge's structural supports. By the end of October 2015, the work on the piles had ended and the rebar skeletons of the 16 columns had been erected.

In late March 2016, concrete began to be poured for the bridge's superstructure. In October 2016, the final span of the bridge was being constructed and the rest of the deck was complete, with preparations commencing for installation of the deck's barrier wall. A year in September 2017, the bridge's structure was complete, although track and electrical work remained for a future phase of construction. Fresno River Viaduct – California High-Speed Rail

Living Streets (UK)

Living Streets is the United Kingdom charity for everyday walking. It was founded in 1929 as the Pedestrians’ Association and became known as the Pedestrians’ Association for Road Safety in 1952; the current name was adopted in 2001. Its mission is to get people of all generations enjoying the benefits that this simple act brings and to ensure all our streets are fit for walking. Voting member of the International Federation of Pedestrians. For more than 85 years Living Streets has been a beacon for walking. In its early days its campaigning led to the UK’s first zebra crossings and speed limits. Now Living Streets’ campaigns and local projects deliver real change to overcome barriers to walking and the charity’s groundbreaking initiatives, such as the world’s biggest Walk to School campaign, encourage millions of people to walk. A young journalist, Tom Foley, became aware of the issue of road safety and contacted Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, increasingly concerned about the subject. Together they formed the Pedestrians’ Association and its first meeting was held in 1929.

This was announced: The Association was formed at a meeting held in the Essex Hall, London, on 13 August 1929. The meeting was convened jointly by Messrs J. J. Bailey and T. C. Foley, was one by private invitation to people who had written to Viscount Cecil about pedestrians’ grievances or who had written to T. C. Foley following a letter he had sent to the press; the Pedestrians’ Association explained its purpose as follows: in view of the serious danger of motor traffic today, an association be formed for the defence of public rights of pedestrians. Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, president from 1929 until 1944, was a high profile peer and had established the League of Nations, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937. The following year the Road Traffic Act 1930 removed the existing 20 mph speed limit for motor cars at a time when UK road casualties were running at a rate of 7,000 per year, they helped write the first Highway Code, first published in full in 1934. During the 1930s its campaigns helped to persuade the British Government to introduce the driving test, to reinstate a speed limit for motorcars and pedestrian crossings.

A speed limit of 30 mph in urban areas and for driving tests was within the Road Traffic Act 1934. As a result of lobbying during World War Two, the association lobbied the government to amend its regulations to allow pedestrians to carry a small hand torch and to paint the sides of the road white, to increase pedestrian safety. In 1950, following his retirement, Hore-Belisha was made vice-president, and in 1952 the organisation changed its name to the Pedestrians’ Association for Road Safety. The organisation changed its name to Living Streets in 2001 The charity has around 100 local branches and affiliated groups across the UK, undertakes consultancy work for local authorities; the charity is best known for its Walk to School campaign, going for over 20 years and supports over one million children in 4000 schools to walk more. Living Streets’ WOW – year-round walk to school challenge and Walk to School Week make up the campaign, one of the UK’s leading behaviour change campaigns for young people.

Other high profile campaigns the charity has played an integral part in, include a recent appeal to all London Mayoral candidates to pedestrianise Oxford Street. New Mayor, Sadiq Khan has committed to carrying out this work by 2020. Living Streets has made headway, along with the Guide Dogs, on giving power to local authorities to limit pavement parking only to roads which need it; the charity’s work in Scotland has provoked further development, with commitment for cutting pavement parking by the current government. The annual Charles Maher Award recognises an individual or organisation that has championed walking in their community; the award was set up in honour of Charles Mayer, a campaigner and longstanding supporter of Living Streets. Awardees: 2019 - Brenda Puech, Living Streets local campaigner and Local Group Chair, based in Hackney 2018 - Alison Blamire, Causey Development Trust2017 - Morag Rose, Loiterers' Resistance Movement2016 2015 - Holly Newby Turning Point Official website Faith Lawson obituary