Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1948, it has been divided between two distinct sovereign states: South Korea. Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, several minor islands near the peninsula. Korea is bordered by China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, neighbours Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan. During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Baekje and Silla, together known as the "Three Kingdoms of Korea". In the second half of the 1st millennium and Goguryeo were conquered by Silla, leading to the "Unified Silla" period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north following the collapse of Goguryeo. Unified Silla collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium Goryeo, a revival of Goguryeo, defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as one single state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo.
Goryeo, whose name developed into the modern exonym "Korea", was a cultured state that created the world's first metal movable type in 1234. However, multiple invasions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century weakened the nation, which agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin which ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, Goryeo fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 1392; the first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the part of the dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire's effort to modernize, it was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by Imperial Japan until the end of World War II in August 1945.
In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. S. occupation. These circumstances soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence; the Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea's division into two political entities: North Korea, South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty; this status contributes to the high tensions. Both governments of the two Koreas claim to be the sole legitimate government of the region. "Korea" is the modern spelling of "Corea", a name attested in English as early as 1614.
Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, of the Chinese 高麗. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo's time. Korea's introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. Goryeo's name was a continuation of Goguryeo the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century; the original name was a combination of the adjective go with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either *Guru or *Gauri. With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling "Korea" appeared and grew in popularity; the name Korea is now used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk; the name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula.
Although written in Hanja as 韓, 幹, or 刊, this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning "big" or "great" in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Central Asia. In North Korea, China and Japan, Korea as a whole is referred to as. "Great Joseon" was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon, who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108 BC by China's Han Empire; this go is the Hanja 古 and
Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e. without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they hold, but whether this renunciation causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved; the massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
In some rare cases, laws for mass naturalization were passed. As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another, many western democracies were not ready to naturalize large numbers of people; this included the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century, but they included the aristocratic Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, the Spanish refugees. As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation, wherein their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land. Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of migrants, most of them economic migrants.
For economic, political and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, such as by marriage to a national – jus matrimonii – or by having ancestors who are nationals of that country, in order to reduce the scope of this category. However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrant population in an illegal status, albeit with some massive regularizations, for example, in Spain by José Luis Zapatero's government and in Italy by Berlusconi's government; the People's Republic of China gives citizenship to persons with one or two parents with Chinese nationality who have not taken residence in other countries. The country gives citizenship to people born on its territory to stateless people who have settled there. Furthermore, individuals may apply for nationality if they have a near relative with Chinese nationality, if they have settled in China, or if they present another legitimate reason. In practice, only few people gain Chinese citizenship.
The naturalization process starts with a written application. Applicants must submit three copies, written with a ball-point or fountain pen, to national authorities, to provincial authorities in the Ministry of Public Security and the Public Security Bureau. Applicants must submit original copies of a foreign passport, a residence permit, a permanent residence permit, four two-and-a-half inch long pictures. According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application"; the Indian citizenship and nationality law and the Constitution of India provides single citizenship for the entire country. The provisions relating to citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the Constitution of India. Relevant Indian legislation is the Citizenship Act 1955, amended by the Citizenship Act 1986, the Citizenship Act 1992, the Citizenship Act 2003, the Citizenship Ordinance 2005.
The Citizenship Act 2003 received the assent of the President of India on 7 January 2004 and came into force on 3 December 2004. The Citizenship Ordinance 2005 was promulgated by the President of India and came into force on 28 June 2005. Following these reforms, Indian nationality law follows the jus sanguinis as opposed to the jus soli; the Italian Government grants Italian citizenship for the following reasons. Automatically Jus sanguinis: for birth. Following declaration By descent. Indonesian nationality is regulated by Law No. 12/2006. The Indonesia
A visa is a conditional authorisation granted by a territory to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that territory. Visas may include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, areas within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits or an individual's right to work in the country in question. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a territory and thus are, in most countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry, can be revoked at any time. A visa most takes the form of a sticker endorsed in the applicant's passport or other travel document. Immigration officials were empowered to permit or reject entry of visitors on arrival at the frontiers. If permitted entry, the official would issue a visa, when required, which would be a stamp in a passport.
Today, travellers wishing to enter another country must apply in advance for what is called a visa, sometimes in person at a consular office, by post or over the internet. The modern visa may be a sticker or a stamp in the passport, or may take the form of a separate document or an electronic record of the authorisation, which the applicant can print before leaving home and produce on entry to the visited territory; some countries do not require visitors to apply for a visa in advance for short visits. Visa applications in advance of arrival give countries a chance to consider the applicant's circumstances, such as financial security, reason for travelling, details of previous visits to the country. Visitors may be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the port of entry; some countries require that their citizens, as well as foreign travellers, obtain an "exit visa" to be allowed to leave the country. Uniquely, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty.
Some countries—such as those in the Schengen Area—have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists requiring a visa before travelling was at its lowest level in 2015. In Western Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century and visas were not necessary for moving from one country to another; the high speed and large movements of people traveling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used. Passports and visas became necessary as travel documents only after World War I. Long before that, in ancient times and visas were the same type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become separate secondary travel documents, with passports acting as the primary travel documents; some visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at the country's embassy or consulate, or through a private visa service specialist, specialised in the issuance of international travel documents.
These agencies are authorised by the foreign authority, embassy, or consulate to represent international travellers who are unable or unwilling to travel to the embassy and apply in person. Private visa and passport services collect an additional fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents, submitting them to the appropriate authority. If there is no embassy or consulate in one's home country one would have to travel to a third country and try to get a visa issued there. Alternatively, in such cases visas may be pre-arranged for collection on arrival at the border; the need or absence of need of a visa depends on the citizenship of the applicant, the intended duration of the stay, the activities that the applicant may wish to undertake in the country he visits. The issuing authority a branch of the country's foreign ministry or department, consular affairs officers, may request appropriate documentation from the applicant; this may include proof that the applicant is able to support himself in the host country, proof that the person hosting the applicant in his or her home exists and has sufficient room for hosting the applicant, proof that the applicant has obtained health and evacuation insurance, etc.
Some countries ask for proof of health status for long-term visas. The exact conditions depend on the category of visa. Notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, the HIV test requirement is sometimes not enforced. Other countries require a medical test that includes an HIV test for a short-term tourism visa. For example, Cuban citizens and international exchange students require such a test approved by a medical authority to enter Chilean territory; the issuing authority may require applicants to attest that they have no criminal convictions, or that they not participate in certain activities. Some countries will deny visas if travellers' passports show evidence of citizenship of, or travel to, a country, considered hostile by that country. For example, some Arabic-oriented countries will not issue visas to nationals of Israel and those whose passports bear evidence of visiting Israel. Many countries demand strong evid
Government of South Korea
The Executive and Legislative branches operate at the national level, although various ministries in the executive branch carry out local functions. Local governments contain executive and legislative bodies of their own; the judicial branch operates at both the local levels. The South Korean government's structure is determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea; this document has been revised several times since its first promulgation in 1948. However, it has retained many broad characteristics; as with most stable three-branch systems, a careful system of checks and balances is in place. For instance, the judges of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the executive, by the legislature; when a resolution of impeachment is passed by the legislature, it is sent to the judiciary for a final decision. At the national level, the legislative branch consists of the National Assembly of South Korea; this is a unicameral legislature. Most of its 300 members are elected from single-member constituencies.
The members of the National Assembly serve for four years. The National Assembly is charged with deliberating and passing legislation, auditing the budget and administrative procedures, ratifying treaties, approving state appointments. In addition, it has the power to recommend the removal of high officials; the Assembly forms 17 standing committees to deliberate matters of detailed policy. For the most part, these coincide with the ministries of the executive branch. Bills pass through these committees. However, before they reach committee, they must have gained the support of at least 20 members, unless they have been introduced by the president. To secure final passage, a bill must be approved by a majority of those present. After passage, bills are sent to the president for approval; each year, the budget bill is submitted to the National Assembly by the executive. By law, it must be submitted at least 90 days before the start of the fiscal year, the final version must be approved at least 30 days before the start of the fiscal year.
The Assembly is responsible for auditing accounts of past expenditures, which must be submitted at least 120 days before the start of the fiscal year. Sessions of the Assembly may be either extraordinary; these sessions are open-door by default but can be closed to the public by majority vote or by decree of the Speaker. In order for laws to be passed in any session, a quorum of half the members must be present. Seven political parties are represented in the National Assembly; the executive branch is headed by the president. The president is elected directly by the people, is the only elected member of the national executive; the president serves for one five-year term. The president is head of government, head of state, commander in chief of the South Korean armed forces; the president is vested with the power to declare war, can propose legislation to the National Assembly. He or she can declare a state of emergency or martial law, subject to the Assembly's subsequent approval; the President can veto bills, subject to a two-thirds majority veto override by the National Assembly.
However, the president does not have the power to dissolve the National Assembly. This safeguard reflects the experience of authoritarian governments under the First and Fourth Republics; the president is assisted in his or her duties by the Prime Minister of South Korea as well as the Presidential Secretariat. The Prime Minister is appointed by the president upon the approval of the National Assembly, has the power to recommend the appointment or dismissal of the Cabinet ministers; the officeholder is not required to be a member of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister is assisted in his/her duties by the Prime Minister's Office which houses both the Office for Government Policy Coordination and the Prime Minister’s Secretariat, the former of, headed by a cabinet-level minister and the latter by a vice minister-level chief of staff. In the event that the president is unable to fulfill his duties, the Prime Minister assumes the president's powers and takes control of the state until the President can once again fulfill his/her duties or until a new president is elected.
In the event that they are suspected of serious wrongdoing, the president and cabinet-level officials are subject to impeachment by the National Assembly. Once the National Assembly votes in favor of the impeachment the Constitutional Court should either confirm or reject the impeachment resolution, once again reflecting the system of checks and balances between the three branches of the government; the State Council is the highest body and national cabinet for policy deliberation and resolution in the executive branch of the Republic of Korea. The Constitution of the Republic of Korea mandates that the Cabinet be composed of between 15 and 30 members including the Chairperson, the Cabinet includes the President, the Prime Minister, the Vice Prime Minister, the cabinet-l
South Korean passport
Republic of Korea passports are issued to citizens of South Korea to facilitate international travel. Like any other passports, they serve as proof for passport holders' personal information, such as nationality and date of birth. South Korean passports indicate the holder's resident registration number, unless the holder does not have one. Republic of Korea passports are issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and printed by the Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation since 1973. Ordinary passport: Issued to normal citizens. Ordinary passports are issued for five, or ten years of validity. Official passport: Issued to members of the National Assembly and civil servants. Diplomatic passport: Issued to diplomats and nationals who serve under diplomatic terms are given this special passport; these passports guarantee special treatment in other countries. South Korean passports are dark green, with the National Emblem of the Republic of Korea emblazoned in gold in the centre of the front cover.
The word'대한민국' and'REPUBLIC OF KOREA' are inscribed above the Emblem whereas'여권','PASSPORT' and the international e-passport symbol are inscribed below the Emblem. In North Korea the word is spelled 려권, whereas in South Korea the same word is written 여권. Photo of the passport holder Type PM passports can be used for multiple entries while PS passports are valid for a single entry. PR passports are for Koreans who are permanent residents of countries other than Korea.. However, the PR type passport has been abolished as of 2017/12/21 and permanent residents of other countries now get a normal passport Issuing country code - KOR Passport number Surname - Given names Nationality - Republic of Korea Date of birth Date of issue Date of expiry Sex Personal ID number. Issuing authority - Ministry of Foreign Affairs Hangul name The note inside Republic of Korea passports are written in both Korean and English; the message in the passport, written by the South Korea's Minister of Foreign Affairs, states: In Korean: 대한민국 국민인 이 여권소지인이 아무 지장 없이 통행할 수 있도록 하여 주시고 필요한 모든 편의 및 보호를 베풀어 주실 것을 관계자 여러분께 요청합니다.
In English: The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea requests all whom it may concern to permit the bearer, a national of the Republic of Korea, to pass without delay or hindrance and to give every possible assistance and protection in case of need. The textual portions of passports is printed in both Korean; the Korean government has been issuing biometric passports since February 2008 for diplomats and government officials. They have been issuing this type of passports to all of their citizens since August 25, 2008. Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs formed the'Committee for promoting e-passports' in April 2006, it was scheduled to issue biometric passports in the second half of 2008. On September 4, 2007, the media reported that the Korean government decided to revise its passport law to issue biometric passports which include fingerprint information, first to the diplomats in the first quarter of 2008, the rest of the public in the second half of the year; some civil liberties have caused some controversy over the fingerprinting requirement because the ICAO only requires a photograph be recorded on the chip.
On February 26, 2008, the Korean National Assembly passed a revision of the passport law. A new biometric passport was issued to diplomats in March, to the general public shortly thereafter. Fingerprinting measures would not be implemented immediately; the appearance of the new biometric passports is identical to the former machine-readable versions, they both have 48 pages. However, the space for visas was reduced by six pages; these pages are now reserved for identification purposes and other information, as well as the bearer's contacts. In the new biometric passports, the main identification page has moved to the second page from inside the front cover; the note from the Foreign Affairs Minister is still shown on the front page and the signature is shown on the page after photo identification. The new biometric passport incorporates many security features such as colour shifting ink, ghost image, infrared ink, laser perforation of the passport number, latent image, security thread, solvent sensitive ink, steganography.
Inside the backcover, a caution for the biometric chip is written both in Korean, "주의 – 이 여권에는 민감한 전자칩이 내장되어 있습니다. 접거나 구멍을 뚫는 행위 또는 극한 환경에의 노출로 여권이 손상될 수 있으니 취급에 주의하여 주시기 바랍니다." and in English, "This passport contains sensitive electronics, For best performance please do not bend, perforate or
Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states. Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationality is a matter of international dealings. There is no international convention which determines the nationality or citizenship status of a person; this is defined by national laws, which can vary and can conflict. Multiple citizenship arises because different countries use different, not mutually exclusive, criteria for citizenship. Colloquial speech refers to people "holding" multiple citizenship but, each nation makes a claim that a particular person is considered its national; some countries do not permit dual citizenship. This may be by requiring an applicant for naturalization to renounce all existing citizenship, or by withdrawing its citizenship from someone who voluntarily acquires another citizenship, or by other devices.
Some countries do not permit a renunciation of citizenship. Some countries permit a general dual citizenship while others permit dual citizenship but only of a limited number of countries. Most countries which permit dual citizenship may still not recognize the other citizenship of its nationals within its own territory. For example, in relation to entry into the country, national service, duty to vote, etc, it may not permit consular access by another country for a person, its national. Some countries prohibit dual citizenship holders from serving in their militaries or on police forces or holding certain public offices. Up until the late 19th century, nations decided whom they claimed as their citizens or subjects, did not recognize any other nationalities they held. Many states did not recognize the right of their citizens to renounce their citizenship without permission, due to policies that originated with the feudal theory of perpetual allegiance to the sovereign; this meant that people could hold multiple citizenships, with none of their nations recognizing any other of their citizenships.
Until the early modern era, when levels of migration were insignificant, this was not a serious issue. However, when non-trivial levels of migration began, this state of affairs sometimes led to international incidents, with countries of origin refusing to recognize the new nationalities of natives who had migrated, when possible, conscripting natives who had naturalized as citizens of another country into military service; the most notable example was the War of 1812, triggered by British impressment of American seamen who were alleged to be British subjects into naval service. In the aftermath of the 1867 Fenian Rising, Irish-Americans who had gone to Ireland to participate in the uprising and were caught were charged with treason, as the British authorities considered them to be British subjects; this outraged many Irish-Americans, to which the British responded by pointing out that, just like British law, American law recognized perpetual allegiance. As a result, Congress passed the Expatriation Act of 1868, which granted Americans the right to renounce their U.
S. citizenship. Britain followed suit with a similar law, years signed a treaty agreeing to treat British subjects who had become U. S. citizens as no longer holding British nationality. During this time, diplomatic incidents had arisen between the United States and several other European countries over their tendency to conscript naturalized American citizens visiting their former homelands. In response, the US government negotiated agreements with various European states known as the Bancroft Treaties, under which the signatories pledged to treat the voluntary naturalization of a former citizen or national with another sovereign nation as a renunciation of their citizenship; as a result, the theory of perpetual allegiance fell out of favor with governments during the late 19th century. With the consensus of the time being that dual citizenship would only lead to diplomatic problems, more governments began prohibiting it, revoking the nationality of citizens holding another nationality. By the mid-20th century, dual nationality was prohibited worldwide, although there were exceptions.
For example, a series of U. S. Supreme Court rulings permitted Americans born with citizenship in another country to keep it without losing their U. S. citizenship. At the 1930 League of Nations Codification Conference, an attempt was made to codify nationality rules into a universal worldwide treaty, the 1930 Hague Convention, whose chief aims would be to abolish both statelessness and dual citizenship; the 1930 Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws proposed laws that would have reduced both, but in the end was ratified by only twenty nations. However, the consensus against dual nationality began to erode due to changes in social mores and attitudes. By the late 20th century it was becoming accepted again. Many states were lifting restrictions on dual citizenship. For example, the British Nationality Act 1948 removed restrictions on dual citizenship in the United Kingdom, the 1967 Afroyim v. Rusk ruling by the U. S. Supreme Court prohibited the U. S. government from involuntarily stripping citizenship from Americans over dual citizenship, the Canadian Citizenship Act, 1976, removed restrictions on dual citizenship in Canada.
The number of states allowing multiple citizenship further increased after a treaty in Europe requiring signatories to limit dual citizenship lapsed in the 1990s, countries with high emigration rates began permitting it to maintain links with their respective diasporas. The rights of citizenship are determined
Chinese people in Korea
There has been a recognisable community of Chinese people in Korea known as Chinese Koreans, since the 1880s. Most early migrants came from Shandong province on the east coast of China. However, the reform and opening up of the People's Republic of China and the normalisation of People's Republic of China – South Korea relations has resulted in a new wave of Chinese migration to South Korea. In 2009, more than half of the South Korea's 1.1 million foreign residents were PRC citizens. There is a small community of PRC citizens in North Korea; when writing in English, scholars use a number of different terms to refer to Chinese people in Korea derived from Sino-Korean vocabulary. One common one is yeohan hwagyo or lühan huaqiao, meaning "Chinese staying in Korea"; the Korean reading is shortened to hwagyo, which means "overseas Chinese" but in English literature refers to the overseas Chinese of Korea. Other authors call them huaqiao, but this term might be used to refer to overseas Chinese in any country, not just Korea, so sometimes a qualifier is added, for example "Korean-Huaqiao".
The terms "Chinese Korean" and "Korean Chinese" are seen. However, this usage may be confused with Koreans in China, who are referred to by both such names. Jizi came to Korea during the Shang dynasty and established Gija Joseon and Wiman of Gojoseon came from Han dynasty China and established Wiman Joseon. Chinese colonists settled in the Four Commanderies of Han after the Han dynasty conquered Wiman Joseon in Lelang Commandery. At Lelang Han colonies of peasants were settled there. Other minority ethnicities from China such as the Xianbei and Jurchen migrated into the Korean peninsula. Fleeing from the Mongols, in 1216 the Khitans invaded Goryeo and defeated the Korean armies multiple times reaching the gates of the capital and raiding deep into the south, but were defeated by Korean General Kim Chwi-ryeo who pushed them back north to Pyongan, where the remaining Khitans were finished off by allied Mongol-Goryeo forces in 1219; these Khitans are the origin of the Baekjeong. Xianbei descendants among the Korean population carry surnames such as Mo 모 Chinese: 慕.
One of Mencius' descendants founded the Sinchang Maeng clan. A Chinese descended from a student of Confucius founded the Muncheon Gong clan and Gimpo Gong clan in Korea. During the Yuan dynasty, one of Confucius' descendants, one of the Duke Yansheng Kong Huan's 孔浣 sons, named Kong Shao 孔紹, moved from China to Goryeo era Korea and established a branch of the family there called the Gong clan of Qufu after marrying a Korean woman during Toghon Temür's rule; this branch of the family received aristocratic rank in Joseon era Korea. 曲阜孔氏 곡부 공씨 Two Japanese families, a Vietnamese family, an Arab family, a Uighur family, four Manchuria originated families, three Mongol families, 83 Chinese families migrated into Korea during Goryeo. Goryeo era Korea accepted; the Lý were of Chinese ethnicity. Fujian province, Jinjiang village was the origin of Lý Thái Tổ 李公蘊, the ancestor of the Lý dynasty ruling family. China, Fujian was the home of Lý Công Uẩn; the ethnic Chinese background of Lý Công Uẩn has been accepted by Vietnamese historian Trần Quốc Vượng.
Chen Li went to Korea. The Chinese rebel leader Ming Yuzhen's son Ming Sheng went to Korea and founded the Yeonan Myeong clan, Seochok Myeong clan and Namwon Seung clan. Individual Chinese are recorded on the Korean peninsula as early as the 13th century, with some going on to found Korean clans. However, there was little recognisable community until July 1882, when the Qing Dynasty sent Admiral Wu Changqing and 3,000 troops at the request of the Korean government to aid in quelling a rebellion. Accompanying the troops were some 40 Chinese merchants and other civilians. In August that same year, Qing Superintendent for Trade for the Northern Ports Li Hongzhang lifted restrictions on coastal trade and signed the Regulations for Maritime and Overland Trade Between Chinese and Korean Subjects, two further agreements the following year, which granted Chinese merchants permission to trade in Korea. Unlike in other Asian countries, 90% of the early overseas Chinese in Korea came from Shandong, rather than the southern coastal provinces of Guangdong and Fujian.
During the late 19th and early 20th century Shandong was hard hit by famine and banditry in its northwest, caused many to migrate to other parts of Shandong and Korea. See Shandong people. Chinese merchants did well in competition with the Japanese due to their superior access to credit, they were not confined to port cities, many did business in inland parts of Korea. Speaking, Japanese traders were more interested in quick profits, while the Chinese established relationships with customers; the earliest Chinese school in Korea, the Joseon Hwagyo Primary School, was established in 1902 in Incheon. By 1910, when Korea formally came under Japanese rule, the number of Chinese in Korea had risen to 12,000. Chinese migrants established schools in Seoul in 1910, Busan in 1912, Sinuiju in 1915, Nampho in 1919, Wonsan in 1923; the number of Chinese in Korea would expand to 82,661 by 1942, but contracted to 12,648 by 1945 due to economic hardships faced duri