Pacific Ocean Areas (command)
Pacific Ocean Areas was a major Allied military command in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II. It was one of four major Allied commands during the Pacific War, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz of the U. S. Navy headed the command throughout its existence. The vast majority of Allied forces in the theatre were from the U. S. Navy, U. S. Army, however units and/or personnel from New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Fiji and other countries also saw active service. On 24 March 1942, the newly formed British and US Combined Chiefs of Staff issued a directive designating the Pacific theater an area of American strategic responsibility. On 30 March the US Joint Chiefs of Staff divided the Pacific theater into three areas, the Pacific Ocean Areas, the South West Pacific Area, and the Southeast Pacific Area. The JCS designated Admiral Chester W. Nimitz as Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas, US strategic bomber forces in the theatre were under the direct control of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff. All land forces in Alaska and Canada remained under the control of the US Armys Western Defense Command, the Joint Chiefs further divided the Pacific Ocean Areas into the North, Central and South Pacific Areas. Nimitz designated subordinate commanders for the North and South Pacific Areas but retained the Central Pacific Area, including the Hawaiian Department, from 1942-1943, three Army infantry divisions and two Marine divisions fought in the POA. From 1944-1945, five Army infantry divisions and six Marine divisions served in the POA, among allied land force formations was the 3rd New Zealand Division, which fought in the Solomon Islands campaign during 1943-44. U. S. Army Air Forces operated in the POA under the Seventh, Thirteenth, Allied air forces included units of the Royal New Zealand Air Force. In the separate South West Pacific Area, General Douglas MacArthur assumed command, Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley Vice Adm. /Adm. William Halsey, Jr. Vice Adm. John H. Newton Vice Admiral William L. Calhoun Rear Adm. Robert A. Theobald Rear Adm. Thomas C, kinkaid Vice Adm. Frank J. Fletcher United States Navy in World War II Cressman, Robert J. The Official Chronology of the U. S. Navy in World War II, contemporary History Branch, Naval Historical Center. The War in the Pacific—Strategy and Command, The First Two Years, United States Army In World War II. Center Of Military History, United States Army, Nimitz, Chester W. Admiral, Steele, James M. Captain. Operational Archives, Naval History and Heritage Command, Washington Navy Yard, United States Army In World War II. Washington, DC, Center Of Military History, United States Army, the Barrier and the Javelin, Japanese and Allied Pacific Strategies February to June 1942. The U. S. Army Campaigns of World War II, United States Army Center of Military History
Chester W. Nimitz
Chester William Nimitz was a fleet admiral of the United States Navy. Nimitz was the leading U. S. Navy authority on submarines. S, the chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939, Nimitz served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1945 until 1947. He was the United States last surviving officer who served in the rank of fleet admiral and his frail, rheumatic father had died six months earlier, on August 14,1884. The best way to get along with either is to all you can, then do your best. His grandfather became a Texas Ranger in the Texas Mounted Volunteers in 1851 and he then served as captain of the Gillespie Rifles Company in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. Originally, Nimitz applied to West Point in hopes of becoming an Army officer and his congressman, James L. Slayden, told him that he had one appointment available for the United States Naval Academy and that he would award it to the best qualified candidate. Nimitz felt that this was his opportunity for further education. He was appointed to the United States Naval Academy from Texass 12th congressional district in 1901, Nimitz joined the battleship Ohio at San Francisco, and cruised on her to the Far East. In September 1906, he was transferred to the cruiser Baltimore, on January 31,1907, remaining on Asiatic Station in 1907, he successively served on the gunboat Panay, destroyer Decatur, and cruiser Denver. The destroyer Decatur ran aground on a bar in the Philippines on July 7,1908 while under the command of Ensign Nimitz. The ship was pulled free the next day, and Nimitz was court-martialed, found guilty of neglect of duty, and issued a letter of reprimand. Nimitz returned to the United States on board USS Ranger when that vessel was converted to a school ship, in May of that year, he was given command of the flotilla, with additional duty in command of USS Plunger, later renamed A-1. He commanded USS Snapper when that submarine was commissioned on February 2,1910, in the latter command, he had additional duty from October 10,1911 as Commander 3rd Submarine Division Atlantic Torpedo Fleet. On the monitor Tonopah on March 20,1912, he rescued Fireman Second Class W. J. Walsh from drowning, receiving a Silver Lifesaving Medal for his action. In the summer of 1913, Nimitz studied engines at the diesel engine plants in Nuremberg, Germany, returning to the New York Navy Yard, he became executive and engineer officer of Maumee at her commissioning on October 23,1916. Under his supervision, Maumee conducted the first-ever underway refuelings, on August 10,1917, Nimitz became aide to Rear Admiral Samuel S. Robison, Commander, Submarine Force, U. S. On February 6,1918, Nimitz was appointed chief of staff and was awarded a Letter of Commendation for meritorious service as COMSUBLANTs chief of staff. On September 16, he reported to the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, from May 1919 to June 1920, he served as executive officer of the battleship South Carolina
Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet
Pacific Fleet, is the title of the United States Navy officer who commands the United States Pacific Fleet. Originally established in 1907 as a rear admirals billet, the position has been held by a four-star admiral since March 19,1915. As of 27 May 2015, the 62nd and current Commander, Pacific Fleet is Admiral Scott H. Swift. The position has been known by several titles since its inception,1907 to December 6,1922, Commander-in-Chief, U. S. S. Pacific Fleet October 24,2002 to present, Commander, U. S, Fleet Forces Command Official Website U. S
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that later were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, today, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North, Middle and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
Notable people with the surname include, N. Rex Ghormley, American optometrist Robert L. Ghormley, US Navy Admiral Timothy F. Ghormley, US Marine Corps Major General
William Halsey Jr.
William Frederick Halsey Jr. GBE, known as Bill Halsey or Bull Halsey, was an American fleet admiral in the United States Navy. At the start of the War in the Pacific Halsey commanded the task force centered on the carrier Enterprise in a series of raids against Japanese-held targets. He was made commander, South Pacific Area and led the Allied forces over the course of the Battle for Guadalcanal, in 1943 he was made commander of the Third Fleet, the post he held through the rest of the war. Halsey was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, on October 30,1882 and his father was a descendant of Senator Rufus King, who was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat, and Federalist. After waiting two years to receive an appointment to the United States Naval Academy, Halsey decided to study medicine at the University of Virginia and he chose Virginia because his best friend, Karl Osterhause, was there. While there, Halsey joined the Delta Psi fraternity and was also a member of the secretive Seven Society, after his first year, Halsey received his appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, and entered the Academy in the fall of 1900. Halsey graduated from the Naval Academy on February 2,1904, after lettering in football as a fullback and earning several athletic honors. He spent his service years in battleships and sailed with the main battle fleet aboard the battleship USS Kansas as Roosevelts Great White Fleet circumnavigated the globe from 1907 to 1909. Halsey was on the bridge of the battleship USS Missouri on Wednesday, April 13,1904, No explosion occurred, but the rapid burning of the powder burnt and suffocated to death 31 officers and men. This resulted in Halsey dreading the 13th of every month, especially when it fell on a Friday, after his service on the Missouri, Halsey served aboard torpedo boats, beginning with USS Du Pont in 1909. Halsey was one of the few officers who was promoted directly from Ensign to full lieutenant, at that time, the destroyer and the torpedo boat, though extremely hazardous, were the most effective way to bring the torpedo into combat against capital ships. Lieutenant Commander Halseys World War I service, including command of USS Shaw in 1918, in October 1922, he was the naval attaché at the American Embassy in Berlin, Germany. One year later, he was given additional duty as naval attaché at the American Embassies in Christiana, Norway, Copenhagen, Denmark and he then returned to sea duty, again in destroyers in European waters, in command of USS Dale and USS Osborne. In 1934 the chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Admiral Ernest King, offered Halsey command of the aircraft carrier USS Saratoga, Captain Halsey elected to enroll as a cadet for the full 12-week Naval Aviator course rather than the simpler Naval Aviation Observer program. I thought it better to be able to fly the aircraft itself than to just sit back and be at the mercy of the pilot. Halsey earned his Naval Aviators Wings on May 15,1935, at the age of 52 and he went on to command the Saratoga, and later the Naval Air Station Pensacola at Pensacola, Florida. Halsey considered airpower an important part of the navy, commenting, The naval officer in the next war had better know his aviation. Captain Halsey was promoted to admiral in 1938
Richmond K. Turner
Richmond Turner was born in Portland, Oregon on May 27,1885, to Enoch and Laura Francis Turner. His father alternated between being a rancher and farmer, and working as a printer in both Portland and Stockton, California. Young Richmond would spend most of his childhood in and around Stockton, with a stop in Santa Ana. He was appointed to the U. S. Naval Academy from Californias sixth district, his name put forward by Congressman James Carion Needham and he graduated on June 5,1908 and served in several ships over the next four years. On August 3,1910, he married Harriet Hattie Sterling in Stockton, in 1913, Lieutenant Turner briefly held command of the destroyer USS Stewart. After receiving instruction in engineering and service on board the gunboat Marietta, he was assigned to the battleships Pennsylvania, Michigan. From 1919 to 1922, Lieutenant Commander Turner was an officer at the Naval Gun Factory in Washington. He then was gunnery officer of the battleship California, fleet gunnery officer on the Staff of Commander Scouting Fleet, following promotion to the rank of commander in 1925, Turner served with the Bureau of Ordnance at the Navy Department. He had further aviation-related assignments into the 1930s and was officer of the aircraft carrier Saratoga in 1933–34. Captain Turner attended the Naval War College and served on that staff in 1935–38 as head of the Strategy faculty. Turners final field command was the heavy cruiser Astoria, on a mission to Japan in 1939. Turner was Director of War Plans in Washington, D. C. in 1940–41 and was promoted to rear admiral late in 1941 and it was therefore Turner who made the decision not to send the Commander of the U. S. Prange wrote, If Turner thought a Japanese raid on Hawaii, to be a 50-percent chance, it was his clear duty to say so plainly in his directive to Kimmel. He won the battle for dominance of War Plans over Intelligence, If his estimates had enabled the U. S. to fend off. The Japanese threat at Pearl Harbor, Turner would deserve the appreciation of a grateful nation, by the same token, he could not justly avoid his share of the blame for failure. See also Edwin T. Layton, Kimmels chief intelligence officer, in December 1941, Turner was appointed assistant chief of staff to the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet, serving until June 1942. He was then sent to the Pacific to take command of the Amphibious Force, over the next three years, he held a variety of senior Amphibious Force commands as a rear admiral and vice admiral. He helped plan and execute amphibious operations against enemy positions in the south, central and he would have commanded the amphibious component of the invasion of Japan
Millard Fillmore Harmon, Jr. was a lieutenant general in the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaign in World War II. He was presumed to have perished in February 1945 on a flight when the plane carrying him disappeared in transit. Harmon, Frank Maxwell Andrews, Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. and Lesley J. McNair and he was born in 1888 at Fort Mason, California. He was from a family, his father Millard F. Harmon. Sr. was a colonel, one brother, Hubert R. Harmon and he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1912 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the infantry, serving with the 28th and 9th Infantry Regiments. In 1914 he was ordered to the Philippines, and two years later detailed to the newly organized Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps and that year he accompanied the Mexican Punitive Expedition and did aerial patrol work along the border. Two weeks before the United States entered World War I, Harmon, in July 1920, Harmon, now a major and stationed at France Field in Panama, transferred to the Army Air Service, precursor of the Air Corps. In April of the year, he returned to Washington where he served as a member of the Advisory Board of the Air Service. During the years of peace, he continued his training, graduating from the Command and General Staff School, from 1927 to 1930, he was Commandant of the Air Corps Primary Flying School at March Field, California. During which time he came into contact with the men then entering aviation training. He commanded Barksdale Field and the 20th Pursuit Group for four years, in 1936, as a lieutenant colonel, he went to Hawaii to command Luke Field and the 5th Bombardment Group. In 1938 he returned to the United States to become Assistant Commandant of the Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field, after two years of service there, he was assigned for brief periods to Randolph Field, Texas, and Hamilton Field, California. On Oct.1,1940, while he was in command at Randolph Field, on his return to the United States, he was assigned as Commanding General of IV Interceptor Command, Fourth Air Force. On July 11,1942 he was appointed general. In December of that year he was assigned as acting Commanding General of the Air Force Combat Command, on January 26,1942, he became Chief of the Air Staff, Army Air Forces. In July 1942, General Harmon was appointed Commanding General of U. S. Army Forces in the South Pacific Area, in November, Admiral Halsey assumed command of the South Pacific, and the two formed a perfect team. On February 2,1943, Harmon was promoted to lieutenant general, at the same time, he was dual-hatted as Deputy Commander of the Twentieth Air Force carrying out those operations, under the command of General Arnold. Harmon desired his command of AAFPOA to be more than an administrative, service, however this role brought him into conflict with Arnolds objective of maintaining absolute control of Twentieth Air Force operations independent of any theater commands
John S. McCain Sr.
John Sidney McCain, Sr. nicknamed Slew, was a U. S. Navy admiral. He held several assignments during the Pacific campaign of World War II. McCain was a pioneer of aircraft carrier operations and he died four days after the formal Japanese surrender ceremony. He was the father of Admiral John S. McCain Jr. they became the first father-son pair ever to four star admiral rank in the U. S. Navy. He was the grandfather of U. S, Senator from Arizona and 2008 Republican presidential nominee Navy Captain John S. McCain III and the great-grandfather of John S. McCain IV. All four generations graduated from the United States Naval Academy, McCain was born in Carroll County, Mississippi, the son of planter John Sidney McCain and wife Elizabeth-Ann Young, who married in 1877. His grandparents were William Alexander McCain and Mary Louisa McAllister, who were married in 1840. To practice for its entrance exams, he decided to take the ones for the United States Naval Academy, in doing so, he would leave behind his Mississippi plantation and adopt the Navys itinerant life. At the Naval Academy, his performance was lackluster and he failed his annual physical on account of defective hearing, but the condition was waived due to the great need for officers. When he graduated in 1906, he ranked 79 out of 116 in his class, and he married Catherine Davey Vaulx, who was eight years his senior, on August 9,1909, at Colorado Springs, Colorado. Soon after earning his commission, McCain sailed aboard the Great White Fleets world cruise from 1907 to 1909 and his next assignment was to the Asiatic Squadron, after which the Navy ordered him to the naval base at San Diego, California. During 1914 and 1915 he was officer and engineering officer aboard the armored cruiser USS Colorado. In September 1915, he joined the armored cruiser USS San Diego, with U. S. entry into World War I, McCain and San Diego served on convoy duty in the Atlantic, escorting shipping through the first dangerous leg of their passages to Europe. Based out of Tompkinsville, New York, and Halifax, the San Diego operated in the weather-torn, McCain left the San Diego in May 1918, two months before she was sunk, when he was assigned to the Bureau of Navigation. In the 1920s and early 1930s, McCain served aboard the USS Maryland, the USS New Mexico, and his first command was the USS Sirius. In 1935, McCain enrolled in flight training, graduating at 52 in 1936, he became one of the oldest men to become a naval aviator and from 1937 to 1939 he commanded the aircraft carrier the USS Ranger. In January 1941, after promotion to admiral, he commanded the Aircraft Scouting Force of the Atlantic Fleet. Physically short in stature and of rather thin frame, McCain was known for being gruff and very profane, he liked to drink and he also showed courage and was regarded as a natural, inspirational leader of men