Cherry Creek (Colorado)
Cherry Creek is a tributary of the South Platte River, 48.0 miles long, in Colorado in the United States. Cherry Creek rises in the high plateau, east of the Front Range, in northwestern El Paso County, it flows north, through Castlewood Canyon State Park where it is spanned by the historic Cherry Creek Bridge, past Parker and through portions of Centennial and Aurora, into southeast Denver. It flows northwest through Denver, becoming an urban stream and joining the South Platte River at Confluence Park in central Denver just west of downtown and 5 miles east of the foothills, near the site where the city of Denver was founded in 1858; the 140-foot-high Cherry Creek Dam, completed in 1950, forms Cherry Creek Reservoir in Cherry Creek State Park, providing flood control and irrigation. The dam lies southeast and southwest of the Denver and Aurora city limits approximately 8 miles, as the crow flies, from the creek's confluence with the South Platte; the creek lends its name to the Cherry Creek neighborhood in south-central Denver, in particular to its Cherry Creek Shopping Center.
In addition, the creek runs through the suburban Cherry Creek Public Schools. The Cherry Creek Bike Path follows the creek from Confluence Park in downtown Denver through Cherry Creek State Park and south towards Parker and Castlewood Canyon. Cherry Creek was the focus of the early part of the Pikes Peak Gold Rush in 1858 and 1859, when gold was discovered at the "Cherry Creek diggings," in what was western Kansas Territory; the first edition of the Rocky Mountain News on 23 April 1859 identified itself on the masthead as being located at "Cherry Creek, K. T." Gold was discovered at Russellville in the upper Cherry Creek drainage, in the Platte River near its confluence with Cherry Creek. Speer Boulevard, running along Cherry Creek, is part of Denver's parks and parkway system, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the creek itself is locally well known for its population of crayfish. Some local inhabitants eat these crustaceans; the creek is home to a large population of small fish.
Large fish are absent, except when the Cherry Creek Dam is opened and floodwaters carry fish such as rainbow trout, brown trout, mature sunfish and northern pike downstream. The creek's ecosystem was damaged during a drought in the first few years of the 21st century. Plants along the banks, damaged by the drought, dropped organic debris into the water, increasing biochemical oxygen demand substantially. Decreased flow limited the ecosystem's capacity to supply needed oxygen. Decreased flow prevented the washing away of pollutants such as NPK fertilizers and organic solvents. Water temperatures rose during this period, compounding the problem; as of 2005, the creek is healthier. The area around the creek is known for its snake population, which includes garter snakes, western hognose snakes and rattlesnakes. Amphibians native to Colorado can be found at the creek as well; these include, the plains leopard frog, woodhouse's frog, the striped chorus frog. The bullfrog, a non-native species, is located in the Cherry Creek.
In recent years, bullfrogs have contributed to the decimation of native amphibian species populations at the creek. For some of its distance, notably in the region of Four Mile Historical Park, the creek is flanked on each side by 15 metres of woods and scrub; this corridor is deliberately left semi-wild, though there is a dirt bike track on the northern bank. This corridor is one of the few places within the Denver metro area where the creek's namesake plant, the chokecherry, can still be seen in a wild state. Large trees such as cottonwood are common. Edible plants such as wild asparagus and prickly pear are found. Virginia creeper and imported plants such as the Russian olive, dandelion are present. Despite the limited area this corridor offers, beaver, foxes and deer are not uncommon sights along the creek; the beaver have lodges upstream of Denver, but swim downstream to forage. Petrified wood is common in the creek, it is washed down, sometimes in large pieces, from'petrified forests' upstream.
Fossil mammal bones have been found. Historical records kept at what is now Four Mile Historical Park indicate that prior to the construction of the Cherry Creek Dam, the creek's water level rose and fell regularly. Since the dam's completion, this flood cycle has been interrupted. Now, the flow is regulated exclusively by the dam's operators; the level of the creek is kept constant except when water needs to be vented from the Cherry Creek Reservoir. When the dam's floodgates are opened for this venting, the creek's level may rise as much as two feet, sometimes in less than an hour. List of Colorado rivers Cherry Creek Reservoir conditions and fishing reports
Interstate 25 is a major interstate highway in the western United States. It is a north–south highway, serving as the main route through New Mexico and Wyoming. I-25 stretches from Interstate 10 at New Mexico, to Interstate 90 in Buffalo, Wyoming, it passes near Albuquerque, New Mexico. The I-25 corridor is rural in Wyoming, excluding the Albuquerque, Colorado Springs, Denver areas; the part of I-25 in Colorado passes just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. That stretch was involved in a large-scale renovation named the Transportation Expansion Project in Denver, the COSMIX; these projects and others in New Mexico were necessary because these stretches of I-25 were inadequately designed and constructed, because urban areas like Albuquerque, Colorado Springs, Denver had tripled and quadrupled in population much earlier than anyone had anticipated back in the 1950s and 1960s. Major highway work for the T-REX project ended on August 22, 2006; the COSMIX project was completed in December 2007.
Several other smaller improvement projects for I-25 are still ongoing within New Mexico and Colorado. I-25 begins at Interstate 10's exit 144 in Las Cruces, just south of the New Mexico State University campus. I-25 is concurrent with U. S. Route 85 at this point, carries this concurrency for the entire length of its run in New Mexico. Three exits provide access to the city, including one for U. S. Route 70; when I-25 reaches Truth or Consequences, it is parallel to Elephant Butte Lake State Park. From Las Cruces to Santa Fe I-25 follows the route of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro; as I-25 nears Albuquerque, it has interchanges with highways such as U. S. Route 380 and a concurrency with US 60. Further north, State Road 6, former U. S. Route 66, meets up with I-25 in Los Lunas. Through Albuquerque I-25 is named the Pan American Freeway and there are frequent exits to city streets. A major interchange with Interstate 40 is named the Big I, it was given an honorable mention by the United States Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration for excellence in urban highway design in 2002.
Leaving Albuquerque to the north, I-25 curves to the northeast. Continuing'northbound' at Santa Fe, I-25 heads southeast for 45 miles traveling through the Santa Fe National Forest and crossing Glorieta Pass, it turns north again at Blanchard toward Las Vegas. The highway maintains a north and northeast orientation as it leaves New Mexico traversing Raton Pass and enters Colorado. From Santa Fe to Trinidad, Colorado I-25 approximates part of the route of the Santa Fe Trail. For its entire length in the state, I-25 shares its alignment with US-85, although US-85 is unsigned. Interstate 25 has many nicknames through the state's larger cities. In Denver it is called the Valley Highway, as the highway parallels the course of the South Platte River throughout the downtown area and is sunken below ground level; the section in El Paso County is named the Ronald Reagan Highway, through Pueblo it is named the John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway. I-25 enters Colorado 14 miles south of the city of Trinidad, it is the main north–south route through Colorado with a length of 300 miles.
The Interstate exits Colorado in the north about 8 miles south of Cheyenne, Wyoming. I-25 serves all the major cities in Colorado that are east of the Rocky Mountains, such as Denver, Colorado Springs, Fort Collins, Greeley. For the entire distance in Colorado, from the north to the south, the Rocky Mountains are visible. There are several important military and air bases and institutions along this route, such as Buckley Air Force Base, the Cheyenne Mountain Complex headquarters of NORAD, Fort Carson, Peterson Air Force Base, the United States Air Force Academy. I-25 crosses the Palmer Divide between Denver and Colorado Springs, providing some of the highway's most scenic views of the Rocky Mountains and its foothills. Blizzards and high winds on this stretch are notorious for causing traffic problems during the winter months; the section of I-25, between the northern border of Pueblo County and the New Mexico state line is named the "John F. Kennedy Memorial Highway", in honor of President Kennedy's support of water resources development in the Arkansas River Valley.
I-25 enters Wyoming 8 miles south of Cheyenne. After traveling through Cheyenne, Interstate 25 continues north to Douglas, passing many plateaus and railroad tracks. Long trains can be seen moving alongside this highway. Around Douglas, this interstate highway curves somewhat to the west toward Casper. Once through Casper, I-25 turns due north, it goes as far as Buffalo, where it ends at an intersection with Interstate 90. Interstate 90 provides the connection to Montana; the section between Romeroville, N. M. and Los Lunas, New Mexico follows the original alignment of U. S. Highway 66, shortened and realigned to run due west from Santa Rosa. Now, replaced with Interstate 40. New Mexico I‑10 / US 85 / US 180 on the Las Cruces–University Park line. I-25/US 85 share an unsigned concurrency to Fountain, Colorado. US 70 in Las Cruc
The Platte River is a major river in the state of Nebraska and is about 310 mi long. Measured to its farthest source via its tributary the North Platte River, it flows for over 1,050 miles; the Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, which itself is a tributary of the Mississippi River which flows to the Gulf of Mexico. The Platte over most of its length is a muddy, shallow, meandering stream with a swampy bottom and many islands—a braided stream; these characteristics made it too difficult for canoe travel, it was never used as a major navigation route by European-American trappers or explorers. The Platte is one of the most significant tributary systems in the watershed of the Missouri, draining a large portion of the central Great Plains in Nebraska and the eastern Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming; the river valley played an important role in the westward expansion of the United States, providing the route for several major emigrant trails, including the Oregon, California and Bozeman trails.
The first Europeans to see the Platte were French explorers and fur trappers about 1714. This expression is close to the French words "rivière plate", the probable origin of the name Platte River; the Platte River is formed in western Nebraska east of the city of North Platte, Nebraska by the confluence of the North Platte and the South Platte Rivers, which both arise from snowmelt in the eastern Rockies east of the Continental Divide. In central north Colorado is the North Park valley, ringed by mountains of 12,000 feet height; the head of the North Platte River is all of Jackson County. The nearest Colorado town is the county seat; the rugged Rocky Mountains Continental Divide surrounding Jackson County have at least twelve peaks over 11,000 feet in height. From Jackson County, the North Platte flows north about 200 miles out of the Routt National Forest and North Park near what is now Walden to Casper, Wyoming. Shortly after passing Casper, the North Platte turns to the east-southeast and flows about 350 miles to the city of North Platte, Nebraska.
In Colorado and Wyoming, the North Platte is narrower and much swifter flowing than it is in Nebraska, where it becomes a slow flowing, shallow braided stream. The North Platte River has been dammed about eight times for water storage and irrigation purposes in Wyoming and Nebraska as it flows to its confluence with the South Platte River; the upper reaches of the river in the Rockies in Colorado and Wyoming are popular for recreation rafting and lure and fly fishing for rainbow, cutthroat trout and other sport fish. In western Nebraska, the banks and riverbed of the North Platte provide a green oasis amid an otherwise semi-arid region of North America. Today, by the time the North Platte reaches Paxton, Nebraska it is much smaller due to the extensive water taken from it for irrigation; the North Platte River was up to a mile wide in many places, as evinced by the old streambed and historic written records. The South Platte River drainage includes about 28,000 square miles in the north east corner of Colorado, parts of southeastern Wyoming in the vicinity of the city of Cheyenne and a small part of the southwest corner of Nebraska.
The South Platte drains a large part of the Front Range mountains east of the continental divide. The part of the river labeled the South Platte is formed in Park County, located southwest of Denver, in the South Park grassland basin and mountains east of the continental divide, it is formed by the confluence of the South Fork South Platte River and Middle Fork South Platte River 15 miles southeast of Fairplay, Colorado. After the South and Middle fork join, the South Platte flows east-southeast till it exits Elevenmile Reservoir. From Greeley, the South Platte turns east and flows about 200 miles to its confluence with the North Platte River near the city of North Platte, Nebraska; the South Platte River has been dammed about 20 times for water storage, drinking water and irrigation purposes in Colorado as it flows to its confluence with the North Platte River. The total number of dams in the South Platte drainage may exceed 1,000 as nearly all major streams have at least one dam on them; the South Platte River serves as the principal source of water for arid eastern Colorado.
The South Platte River valley provided a major emigration path to Denver. The wagon trails followed the south side of the Platte/North Platte River. Wagon trains were ferried or waded in low water years across the swampy-bottomed South Platte River in several places to stay on the south side of the North Platte River where the trails were located. Miners who went on to Denver followed the South Platte River trail into Colorado. After the North Platte and the South Platte rivers join to form the Platte River, over most of its length it is a muddy, shallow, meandering stream with a swampy bottom and many islands—a braided stream, its muddy water, many shallow channels and islands and ever-changing mud bars made it too difficult for canoe travel. The Platte flows in a large arc, east-southeast to near Fort Kearny and east-northeast, across Nebraska south of Grand I
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Chatfield Dam and Reservoir is a dam and artificial lake located on the South Platte River, south of Littleton, Colorado. The dam and reservoir were built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers as a response to the disastrous flood of 1965. In addition to its primary purpose of flood control, it serves as one of many water supply reservoirs for the city of Denver, Colorado. In 1966, the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission projected a total federal cost of $74 million. Construction of the project was begun in 1967 and the dam was completed in 1975; the massive breastworks of the dam measure 13,136 feet in length with a maximum height of the dam of 147 feet above the streambed. The normal depth of the lake is 47 feet at its deepest point; this means. The lake drains an area of more than 3,000 square miles; the 1,500 acre lake has a conservation storage capacity of 27,000 acre⋅ft with a flood-control pool of over 350,000 acre⋅ft The reservoir is surrounded by Chatfield State Park, a recreation area with boating, horseback riding and camping.
A secondary inflow from the south is Plum Creek. A tertiary inflow from the west is Deer Creek. There are 212 bird species that are found at Chatfield Reservoir; these birds either permanently live there or just go there to rest after long migrations. There is a Chatfield bird watch list; the bald eagle, white pelican and burrowing owl have been seen. The Chatfield Reservoir Reallocation Project, slated to begin in fall, 2017, will create an additional 20,600 acre feet of water storage in the reservoir, raising its level by about 12 feet; the project will require that some of the surrounding park's facilities be moved back from the new, higher lake levels. Cherry Creek Dam & Reservoir Bear Creek & Reservoir Tri-Lakes Projects - U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Chatfield Lake Area Map - Colorado Parks & Wildlife Chatfield conditions and fishing reports Chatfield Storage Reallocation Project website
The City of Brush is a Statutory City located in Morgan County, United States. The city population was 5,463 at the 2010 United States Census. Brush, Colorado was named for Jared L. Brush, a Colorado cattle pioneer. Brush had never lived in Brush, instead helping to settle what is now known as Greeley. Brush served as Lieutenant Governor of Colorado, liked to visit "his town" often; the town was incorporated by election in 1884. Brush is located at 40°15′29″N 103°37′56″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.4 square miles, all of it land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Brush has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,117 people, 1,836 households, 1,233 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,120.0 people per square mile. There were 1,923 housing units at an average density of 796.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the population in the city was 75.81% White, 0.39% African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 20.19% from other races, 2.91% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.00% of the population. There were 1,836 households out of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.8% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.29. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,333, the median income for a family was $39,094. Males had a median income of $24,431 versus $20,371 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,672. About 5.4% of families and 10.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.1% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over.
Agriculture and ranching make up a large part of the local economy. The Brush Rodeo, known as the largest amateur rodeo in the world, is held each July; the Morgan County Fair showcases the community's 4-H livestock. The Brush Industrial Park contains a 272-bed prison in a correctional complex, vacant since 2010. In 2017, plans were to use an outbuilding as a treatment center for autistic spectrum disorders; the Brush High School mascot is the Beetdigger, signifying the importance of the annual sugar beet crop. The football team, winner of multiple state championships, plays its games at Beetdigger Stadium. Brush School District Re 2J Thomson Elementary School•Address: 422 Ray Street Beaver Valley Elementary School•Address: 2710 Mill Street Brush Middle School•Address: 401 Howard Street Brush High School•Address: 400 West Avenue Interstate 76 connects Brush to Denver, located 93 miles southwest. To the northeast, Brush is linked with Interstate 80 in Big Springs, via Sterling, Colorado. Business Loop 76 runs on Edison Street.
US 6 connects Provincetown, Massachusetts to Bishop, via Nevada, Illinois and 9 other states. US 34 links Granby, Colorado with Berwyn, passing through Nebraska and Iowa. In Colorado, it connects Brush to Loveland. State Highway 71 runs from US 350, near La Junta to Nebraska state border, where it becomes Nebraska Highway 71. Pat Day, 1992 Kentucky Derby winner and a member of the jockey Hall of Fame, was born in Brush. Colorado cities and towns Morgan County, Colorado Colorado metropolitan areas Fort Morgan, CO Micropolitan Statistical Area City of Brush website CDOT map of the City of Brush