Tarawa is an atoll and the capital of the Republic of Kiribati, in the central Pacific Ocean. The atoll is best known by outsiders as the site of the Battle of Tarawa during World War II, Tarawa has a large lagoon,500 square kilometres total area, and a wide reef. Although naturally abundant in fish and shellfish of all kinds, marine resources are being strained by the large, drought is frequent, but in normal years rainfall is sufficient to maintain breadfruit and banana trees as well as coconut and pandanus. North Tarawa consists of a string of islets, with the most northern islet being Buariki, the islets are separated in places by wide channels that are best crossed at low tide. On South Tarawa, the construction of causeways has now created a strip of land from Betio in the West to Buota in the Northeast. The climate is pleasant from April to October, with predominant northeastern winds, from November to March, western gales bring rain and occasional cyclones. For example, the average is 3,000 mm in the north and 500 mm in the south of the Gilbert Islands.
Most of these islands are in the dry belt of the oceanic climatic zone. Tarawa atoll has three subdivisions, Betio Town Council, on Betio Islet, Teinainano Urban Council, from Bairiki to Bonriki Eutan Tarawa Council. South Tarawa hosts the capital of the Republic of Kiribati, the House of Assembly is in Ambo, and the State House is in Bairiki. The offices of the ministries of the government range from Betio at the south-west extreme to Nawerewere. The settlements on Tarawa include, Taborio, which has Immaculate Heart College, four resident diplomatic missions exist, the Embassies of Taiwan and Cuba and the High Commissions of Australia and New Zealand. In Kiribati mythology, Tarawa was the earth when the land, thus after calling the sky karawa and the ocean marawa, he called the piece of rock that Riiki had stood upon when he lifted up the sky as, Tarawa. Nareau created the rest of the islands in Kiribati and Samoa, people arrived on these islands thousands of years ago, and there have been migrations to and from Kiribati since antiquity.
Evidence from a range of sources, including carbon dating and DNA analyses, the people of Kiribati are still excellent seafarers, capable of making ocean crossings in locally-made vessels using traditional navigation techniques. Thomas Gilbert, captain of the East India Company vessel Charlotte, was the first European to describe Tarawa and he named it Matthew Island, after the owner of his ship, the Charlotte. He named the lagoon, Charlotte Bay, Tarawa Post Office opened on 1 January 1911. Sir Arthur Grimble was an administrative officer based at Tarawa. and became Resident Commissioner of the Gilbert
Anote Tong is an I-Kiribati politician with Chinese heritage who served as President of Kiribati from 2003 to 2016. He won the election in July 2003 with a plurality of votes cast against his older brother, Dr. Harry Tong. The elections were contested by the opposition, due to allegations of electoral fraud and he was re-elected on 17 October 2007 for a second term. In 2012, Tong was reelected for a term, although with a significantly smaller percentage than in the previous two elections. He is married to an I-Kiribati woman, First Lady Nei Meme, Tong is originally from the island of Maiana, located in central Kiribati. During the campaign, he promised to review the lease of a spy and satellite tracking base used by the Peoples Republic of China and to take appropriate actions at the right time. On 7 November, he established relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan, Tong was overwhelmingly re-elected to his seat in parliament in the August 2007 parliamentary election. On 17 October 2007, he was re-elected as president by a large majority, the opposition boycotted the election due to the exclusion of two opposition candidates, including Tongs brother Harry.
Tong was re-elected to a third, and final, four-year term as President in the January 2012 election, Tong won a little over 40% of the popular vote. He defeated two challengers, including his nearest rival, Tetaua Taitai, by more than 2,000 votes, Tong reappointed Teima Onorio to a third term as Vice President of Kiribati on 19 January 2012, as part of his cabinet appointments for his third term. He retired from politics after the Kiribati parliamentary election, 2015–16, after the National Council of Women voiced its discontent, President Tong stated that the defeat was unfortunate, but it does not mean that we will not continue to support the womens issues. As a government, we will do it via other means and this variably leaves the door open for womens rights to become an even greater issue than it already is in Kiribati. Tong stood front and center in the push to create the Phoenix Islands Protected Area, due partly to this effort, Tong received in 2012 a Peter Benchley Ocean Award for creating one of the Worlds largest and most biologically rich marine protected areas.
He has been criticized, due to his hesitation in closing the preserve to fishing, Tong has been at the forefront of raising global awareness about catastrophic risks caused by climate change. Tong directed Kiribati’s purchase of approximately 20 square kilometers of land in Fiji in 2014 as a refuge for his people. This follows advice from the IPCC following its fifth assessment that many Pacific Island states such as Kiribati could be submerged by rising sea levels within a few decades. Anote Tong, dubbed as a ‘climate warrior’, pioneered the notion of ‘migration with dignity’ to avoid the people of Kiribati from becoming ‘climate refugees’, the marine park was adopted as a UNESCO World Heritage List site. Tong currently serves on the Board of Conservation International, President Tong has been awarded leadership and environmental prizes for his work both in environmental protection and his advocacy on climate change and its effects
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, graupel, Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and precipitates. Thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated, Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers, moisture that is lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain is occurring. A stationary front is often present near the area of freezing rain, provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus.
Eventually, the droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy, thundersnow is possible within a cyclones comma head and within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation, on the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the trough, or intertropical convergence zone. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 cubic kilometres of it over the oceans and 107,000 cubic kilometres over land. Given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
Precipitation may occur on celestial bodies, e. g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most likely takes the form of frost. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 km3 of it over the oceans, given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall, Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City and has established congregations, according to the church, it has over 70,000 missionaries and a membership of over 15 million. It is ranked by the National Council of Churches as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States and it is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening. Adherents, often referred to as Latter-day Saints, or, less formally, view faith in Jesus Christ and his atonement as fundamental principles of their religion. The church has a canon which includes four scriptural texts, the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants. The current president is Thomas S. Monson, individual members of the church believe that they can receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives.
The president heads a hierarchical structure with various levels reaching down to local congregations, drawn from the laity, lead local congregations. Male members, after reaching age 12, may be ordained to the priesthood, Women do not hold positions within the priesthood, but do occupy leadership roles in some church auxiliary organizations. Both men and women may serve as missionaries, and the church maintains a large missionary program which proselytizes, faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health and Sabbath observance, and contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing. The LDS Church was formally organized by Joseph Smith on April 6,1830, Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion. In 1831, the moved to Kirtland and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, Missouri. However, in 1833, Missouri settlers brutally expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County, the Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections.
Smith regrouped with the church in Far West, Missouri. Believing the Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that the Saints be exterminated or driven from the State, in 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, which became the churchs new headquarters. Nauvoo grew rapidly as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who flooded into Nauvoo, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates. He established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow people to become gods in the afterlife. He introduced the church to an accounting of his First Vision. This vision would come to be regarded by the LDS Church as the most important event in history since the resurrection of Jesus
An islet is a very small island. As suggested by its origin as islette, an Old French diminutive of isle, use of the term implies small size, but little attention is given to drawing an upper limit on its applicability. Cay or Key – an islet formed by the accumulation of sand deposits atop a reef Motu – A reef islet formed by broken coral and sand. River island – A small islet within the current of a river, rock – A rock, in the sense of a type of islet, is an uninhabited landform composed of rock, lying offshore, and having at most minimal vegetation. Sandbar – An exposed sandbar is another type of islet, Sea stack – A thin, vertical landform jutting out of a body of water. Skerry – A small rocky island, usually defined to be too small for habitation, subsidiary islets – A more technical application is to small land features, isolated by water, lying off the shore of a larger island. Likewise, any emergent land in an atoll is called an islet. Tidal island – Often small islands lie off the mainland of an area, being connected to it in low tide.
In the Caribbean and West Atlantic, islets are often called cays or keys, rum Cay in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys off Florida are examples of islets. In the Channel Islands, they are identified by the suffix -hou from the Norse -holm. In Scotland and Ireland, they are often called inches, from the Gaelic innis, which originally meant island, in Ireland they are often termed skerries. In and around Polynesia, islets are widely known by the term motu, in and around the River Thames in England, small islands are known as aits or eyots. One long-term dispute over the status of such an islet was that of Snake Island, there are thousands of islets on Earth, approximately 24,000 islands and islets in the Stockholm archipelago alone. The following is a list of example islets from around the world, Islands or Rocks, Is that the Real Question. The Treatment of Islands in the Delimitation of Maritime Boundaries, in Myron H. Nordquist, John Norton Moore, Alfred H. A. The Law of the Sea Convention, US Accession and Globalization
Betio is the largest township of Kiribatis capital city, South Tarawa, and the countrys main port. The settlement is located on an islet at the extreme southwest of the atoll. Betio Post Office opened on 5 April 1957 and closed in 1964, due to changing currents resulting from the construction of the causeway Bikeman Island, northeast of Betio, has been submerged since the early 1990s. The island was the scene of the Battle of Tarawa during World War II, relics of the Japanese invasion, and the subsequent American assault on the islet in 1943, remain there. After the battle the airstrip was renamed Hawkins Field, the airstrip no longer exists, but its effect can be seen in the stunted growth of palms along its length. Many bunkers remain, as well as the remains of military equipment and it was the scene of a massacre by beheading of New Zealand military and civilian coastwatchers by Japanese forces prior to the US landings. The massacre was in retaliation to an American air raid, persistent rumours eventually reached the families, and it is believed that the shooting of Japanese prisoners held in a New Zealand POW camp was done in retaliation for this massacre.
The New Zealand camp guard who fired on the Japanese prisoners during the riot was the brother of one of the coastwatchers executed on Betio. The RCS Nimanoa was a ketch, whereas Saidu Maru was a steel-hulled vessel, part of which is still visible on the reef off Red Beach. S. In the 2nd and 3rd levels in Call of Duty, World at War -Final Fronts you are a Marine and you have to take over Betio island for its airfield. One of the American missions on Battlestations, Pacific sees you supporting the Marines who are going to take over the island. The last mission set of Medal of Honor, Pacific Assault is set during the Battle of Tarawa, both games feature the merchant ship and the pier. Betio is depicted in the Franco-Belgian comic Tarawa, atoll sanglant by Jean-Michel Charlier, in chapter 16 of Snow Falling on Cedars by David Guterson, Ishmael recalls his experience as a World War II Marine radioman during the siege of this island. Betio is featured in the game Heroes of the Pacific, where you must fly a mission over Betio in a P-38 Lightning.
You also, on the day of the invasion, support the invasion by suppressing pillboxes, Betio is one of the multiplayer maps in Rising Storm, a Pacific theater expansion to Red Orchestra 2 Betio appears in the popular ArmA II modification, Hell in the Pacific. 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marines 2nd Marine Division bear the nickname the Betio Bastards stemming from their service during World War 2 on Tarawa
It is administratively separate from neighbouring South Tarawa, and is governed by the Eutan Tarawa Council, based at Abaokoro village. North Tarawa has an area of 15.26 km2. It is made up of several islets, the widest part of North Tarawa can be found in the village of Buariki, Buota was joined by a bridge to South Tarawa in 1995 and has since increased in population and is becoming more like part of urban South Tarawa. Abatao is not accessible by road, but the channel can be walked at low tide. For people in Abatao and Buota, it is easier to access schools, clinics. Apart from the bridge from Buota to Tanaea, small causeways connect the villages of Tebwangoroi and Taratai, the atoll has a protected area that is designated as the North Tawara Conservation Area. Abaokoro accommodates the main service infrastructures such as the offices of Eutan Tarawa Council, the secondary school. With the rapid growth of population in South Tarawa, people are choosing to settle in North Tarawa in greater numbers, especially in Abatao and Buota, there are 14 villages in North Tarawa.
Only 16% of the workforce are in employment, but a further 17% earn cash from market oriented activities. There is a trade in local food, building materials and other items from North Tarawa. North Tarawa has a place in Kiribati mythology, the tree of life or tree of knowledge or Uekera was planted in Buariki village in North Tarawa by Nei Tekanuea. Spirits who lived in a tree in Samoa migrated northward carrying branches from the tree and it was these spirits, together with Nareau the Wise who created the islands of Tungaru Tarawa was governed as one island, under a king, until Colonial times. The colonial administrative centre of Kiribati was originally located at Taratai in North Tarawa, the administrative centre was moved to South Tarawa, which remains the capital of Kiribati to this day. There are regular services from urban South Tarawa to the main villages of North Tarawa. The road from South Tarawa ends at the channel between Buota and Abatao, but this channel can be walked at low tide, so that the southern islets of North Tarawa can be accessed on foot.
The Island Council operates a guest house at Abaokoro, providing accommodation for Government workers and other visitors. There are several independent homestays and lodges in North Tarawa
Kiribati, officially the Republic of Kiribati, is an island nation in the central Pacific Ocean. The permanent population is just over 100,000, more than half of live on Tarawa Atoll. The nation comprises 33 atolls and reef islands and one raised coral island and they have a total land area of 800 square kilometres and are dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometers. Their spread straddles the equator and the 180th meridian, although the International Date Line is indented to bring the Line Islands in the day as the Kiribati Islands. The International Date Line circumscribes Kiribati by swinging far to the east, almost reaching the 150°W meridian, Kiribatis easternmost islands, the southern Line Islands south of Hawaii, have the most advanced time on Earth, UTC+14 hours. Kiribati became independent from the United Kingdom in 1979, the capital and now most populated area, South Tarawa, consists of a number of islets, connected by a series of causeways. These comprise about half the area of Tarawa Atoll, Kiribati is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the IMF and the World Bank, and became a full member of the United Nations in 1999.
The name Kiribati was adopted at independence and it is local enunciation of Gilberts. This name derives from the archipelago that forms the nation. It was named the Gilbert Islands after the British explorer Thomas Gilbert and he sighted many of the islands in 1788 while mapping out the Outer Passage route from Port Jackson to Canton. The Kiribati archipelago was named Îles Gilbert, in about 1820, by Russian admiral Adam von Krusenstern, both their maps, published in 1820, were written in French. The archipelagos name was incorporated in the entire Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony from 1916, the spelling of Gilberts in the Gilbertese language as Kiribati may be found in books in Gilbertese prepared by missionaries and others. It is often suggested that the name for the Gilbert Islands proper is Tungaru. The pronunciation differs, Kiribas is the pronunciation as ti in Kiribatese makes an s sound. The area now called Kiribati has been inhabited by Micronesians speaking the same Oceanic language since sometime between 3000 BC and AD1300, the area was not isolated, invaders from Samoa and Fiji, introduced Polynesian and Melanesian cultural aspects, respectively.
Intermarriage tended to blur cultural differences and resulted in a significant degree of cultural homogenisation, chance visits by European ships occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries, as these ships attempted circumnavigations of the world or sought sailing routes from the south to north Pacific Ocean. The passing trade gave rise to European, Chinese and other residents from the 1830s, they included beachcombers, castaways and missionaries. In 1892 local authorities on each of the Gilbert Islands agreed to Captain Davis RN declaring them part of a British protectorate with the nearby Ellice Islands
Sea level rise
Sea level rise refers to an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans, resulting in an increase in global mean sea level. Sea level rise is attributed to global climate change by thermal expansion of the water in the oceans and by melting of Ice sheets. Melting of floating ice shelves or icebergs at sea raises sea levels only slightly, Sea level rise at specific locations may be more or less than the global average. Local factors might include tectonic effects, subsidence of the land, currents, Sea level rise is expected to continue for centuries. IPCC Summary for Policymakers, AR5,2014, indicated that the mean sea level rise will continue during the 21st century, very likely at a faster rate than observed from 1971 to 2010. A January 2017 NOAA report suggests a range of GMSL rise of 0.3 –2.5 m possible during the 21st century, Sea level rises can considerably influence human populations in coastal and island regions and natural environments like marine ecosystems. On the timescale of centuries to millennia, the melting of ice sheets could result in even higher sea level rise, partial deglaciation of the Greenland ice sheet, and possibly the West Antarctic ice sheet, could contribute 4 to 6 m or more to sea level rise.
Various factors affect the volume or mass of the ocean, leading to changes in eustatic sea level. The two primary influences are temperature, and the mass of water locked up on land and sea as water in rivers, glaciers. Over much longer timescales, changes in the shape of oceanic basins. Since the Last Glacial Maximum about 20,000 years ago, sea level has risen by more than 125 m, with rates varying from tenths of a mm/yr to 10+mm/year, as a result of melting of major ice sheets. During the rest of the early Holocene, the rate of sea level rise varied from a low of about 6.0 -9.9 mm/yr to as high as 30 -60 mm/yr during brief periods of accelerated sea level rise. In sharp contrast, the period between 14,300 and 11,100 calendar years ago, which includes the Younger Dryas interval, was an interval of reduced sea level rise at about 6.0 -9.9 mm/yr. Meltwater pulse 1C was centered at 8,000 calendar years, such rapid rates of sea level rising during meltwater events clearly implicate major ice-loss events related to ice sheet collapse.
The primary source may have been meltwater from the Antarctic ice sheet, other studies suggest a Northern Hemisphere source for the meltwater in the Laurentide ice sheet. For example, this research included studies of Roman wells in Caesarea and these methods in combination suggest a mean eustatic component of 0.07 mm/yr for the last 2000 years. Since 1880, as the Industrial Revolution took center stage, the ocean began to rise briskly, climbing a total of 210 mm through 2009 causing extensive erosion worldwide, Sea level rose by 6 cm during the 19th century and 19 cm in the 20th century. Evidence for this includes geological observations, the longest instrumental records, for example, geological observations indicate that during the last 2,000 years, sea level change was small, with an average rate of only 0. 0–0.2 mm per year
The Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean about halfway between Papua New Guinea and Hawaii. They form the part of Kiribati. The atolls and islands of the Gilbert Islands are arranged in an approximate north-to-south line, as the crow flies it is approximately 420 nautical miles between the northernmost island and the southernmost, Arorae. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands. The International Hydrographic Organization considers the Gilberts wholly within the South Pacific Ocean, another method of grouping the Gilbert Islands is by former administrative districts, the Northern and Southern Gilberts. A group of the southern Gilberts is called the Kingsmill Group, the Gilberts form a continuous chain of seamounts with the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands to the north. In official north-south order, the islands and atolls are, The Northern Gilberts geographically and traditionally encompass Butaritari, Marakei and they have unique tonal accents with differences particularly noted amongst Butaritari and Makin inhabitants.
Traditionally and Makin were ruled by a chief who lived on Butaritari Island, the northern Gilberts have a greater mean rainfall in comparison to the southern and central Gilberts allowing cultivation of a wider crop range. Butaritari and Makin supply most of the bananas sold in Kiribati, the cultivation of taro or babai has been historically easier in the northern Gilberts due to a higher water table and regular rainfall. The Central Gilberts or nuka have traditionally included Maiana, Kuria, the latter three are considered the main islands that have unique historical and cultural characteristics which distinguish the Central Gilberts from the north and south. Tembinok, the last king of Abemama and Aranuka died in the part of the 20th century. The Southern Gilberts include the atolls of Nonouti and North Tabiteuea, Nikunau, Tamana, the islands had been inhabited by Micronesians for several millennia. In 1606 Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sighted Butaritari and Makin, which he named the Buen Viaje Islands, Captain John Byron passed through the islands in 1764 during his circumnavigation of the globe as captain of HMS Dolphin.
French captain Louis Duperrey was the first to map the whole Gilbert Islands archipelago and he commanded La Coquille on its circumnavigation of the earth. Two ships of the United States Exploring Expedition, USS Peacock and USS Flying Fish, under the command of Captain Hudson, while in the Gilberts, they devoted considerable time to mapping and charting reefs and anchorages. A British protectorate was first proclaimed over the Gilberts by Captain Davis of HMS Royalist on 27 May 1892, British official Arthur Mahaffy visited the Islands in 1909. He noted that the villages are kept in order and the roads are scrupulously clean. A hospital was on island, as well