Arbeia was a large Roman fort in South Shields, Tyne & Wear, now ruined, and, reconstructed. It was first excavated in the 1870s and all modern buildings on the site were cleared in the 1970s, it is managed by Wear Museums as Arbeia Roman Fort and Museum. The fort stands on the Lawe Top. Founded in 120 AD, The Roman Fort guarded the main sea route to Hadrian's Wall, it became the maritime supply fort for Hadrian's Wall, contains the only permanent stone-built granaries yet found in Britain. It was occupied. A possible meaning for "Arbeia" is "fort of the Arab troops", referring to the fact that part of its garrison at one time was a squadron of Mesopotamian boatmen from the Tigris. From archaeological evidence, such as the gravestone of Victor, described below, it is known that a squadron of Spanish cavalry, the First Asturian, was stationed there, it was common for forts to be manned by units from elsewhere in the empire, though enough these would assimilate and end up by recruiting locally. Through the course of history of Arbeia, the fort has had several guises.
It was a huge supply base for the Roman army, having hosted 600 Roman troops and is said to be the birthplace of the Northumbrian King Oswin. Two monuments in the museum at Arbeia testify to the cosmopolitan nature of its shifting population. One commemorates a British woman of the Catuvellauni tribe, she was first the slave the freedwoman and wife of Barates, a merchant from Palmyra who, evidently missing her set up a gravestone after she died at the age of 30. The second commemorates Victor, another former slave, freed by Numerianus of the Ala I Asturum, who arranged his funeral when Victor died at the age of 20; the stone records that Victor was "of the Moorish nation". The museum holds an altarpiece to a unknown god and a tablet with the name of the Emperor Alexander Severus chiselled off; the Reconstruction of the fort has been accomplished using research, undertaken following excavations, standing where it had existed during the Roman occupation of Britain. A Roman gatehouse and Commanding Officer's house have been reconstructed on their original foundations.
The gatehouse holds many displays related to the history of the fort, its upper levels provide an overview of the archaeological site. Arbeia Roman Fort & Museum Tyne and Wear Museums
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, domestically as Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign, the House of Lords, the House of Commons; the two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London. The House of Lords includes two different types of members: the Lords Spiritual, consisting of the most senior bishops of the Church of England, the Lords Temporal, consisting of life peers, appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister, of 92 hereditary peers, sitting either by virtue of holding a royal office, or by being elected by their fellow hereditary peers.
Prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections to 650 single member constituencies held at least every five years under the first-past-the-post system; the two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London. By constitutional convention, all government ministers, including the Prime Minister, are members of the House of Commons or, less the House of Lords and are thereby accountable to the respective branches of the legislature. Most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. However, the Leader of the House of Lords must be a peer; the Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland, both Acts of Union stating, "That the United Kingdom of Great Britain be represented by one and the same Parliament to be styled The Parliament of Great Britain".
At the start of the 19th century, Parliament was further enlarged by Acts of Union ratified by the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland that abolished the latter and added 100 Irish MPs and 32 Lords to the former to create the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 formally amended the name to the "Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", five years after the secession of the Irish Free State in 1922. With the global expansion of the British Empire, the UK Parliament has shaped the political systems of many countries as ex-colonies and so it has been called the "Mother of Parliaments". However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it in reference to the political culture of "England" rather than just the parliamentary system. In theory, the UK's supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the powers of the House of Lords are limited to only delaying legislation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union 1800. The principle of ministerial responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an antiquated electoral system, under which constituencies of vastly different sizes existed. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, could elect two members, as could the borough of Dunwich, which had completely disappeared into the sea due to land erosion. Many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, the electoral system for the House of Commons was progressively regularised.
No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive. The supremacy of the British House of Commons was reaffirmed in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Commons passed the so-called "People's Budget", which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners; the House of Lords, which consisted of powerful landowners, rejected the Budget. On the basis of the Budget's popularity and the Lords' consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, which sought to restrict the powers of the House of Lords; when the Lords refused to pass the bill, Asquith countered with a promise extracted from the King in secret before the second general election of 1910 and requested the creation of several hundred Liberal peers, so as to erase the Conservative majority in the House of Lords. In the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill.
The Parliament Act 1911, as it became, prevented the Lords from blocking a money bill, allowed them to delay any other bill for a maximum of three sessions, after which it could become law over their objections. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, t
Cleadon is a suburban village in South Tyneside, North East England in the county of Tyne and Wear, the historic County Durham. In 2001 the population of Cleadon was 4,795, increasing for the South Tyneside ward of Cleadon and Boldon at the 2011 Census to 8,457. Nearby villages or population centres include East Boldon and Jarrow; the village is around 5 miles from the city of Sunderland and 10 miles from the city of Newcastle. There has been a village on the site of Cleadon for over a thousand years. Cleadon has a traditional village pond, the remnants of an ice age lake and dates to Roman times, an early history of South Shields suggests that there may have once been a Roman watchtower or turret on Cleadon Hills; the name of the village is derived from'Cliffa-dun' meaning a hill with a cliff, which over years became Clevendona, Clevedon, in the 17th century Cleydon. The village was first mentioned in print in the Boldon Book, a survey of the local area completed in 1183; the oldest houses in the village, one of which contains a priest hole, date to the 15th century.
Located on the main north–south road of England, Cleadon was a popular rest spot for those passing back and forth from London to Scotland. During the 19th century, Charles Dickens stayed for a time in Cleadon House on Front Street. A story he was told by resident George Cooper Abbs was a possible inspiration for the character Miss Havisham in Great Expectations. Cleadon village and its environs suffered some bomb damage during the Second World War. Bombs fell in Whitburn Road, Bywell Road and on Boldon Flats, some of these incidents resulting in fatalities. A'stick' of bombs fell on a line between the Whiteleas Isolation Hospital. In another incident a bomb fell on Cleadon Farm and some livestock were killed, the Cleadon Cottage Homes suffered some damage; the bombing of the village, on some occasions at least, could have been due to its proximity to a'Hedgehog', a decoy designed to simulate burning buildings, situated at Welland's Farm, at the foot of Cleadon Hills in nearby Whitburn. A container of propaganda leaflets was found on Cleadon Hills during the war years, dropped from an enemy aircraft.
Cleadon Hills is a ridge of high ground standing between the coast. Around 260 million years ago the hills were, together with others in the area, a group of small low islands in a tropical lagoon referred to as the Zechstein Sea; the ruined windmill on the hills was constructed in the 1820s. The mill is built on the highest part of Cleadon Hills on a slight artificial mound; the building incorporates a stone reefing stage, a feature, peculiar to windmills in the area. The mill was damaged in a storm at some time during the 1870s, suffered the indignity of being a target for gunnery practice during the First World War. A photograph dating from the 1920s shows the rotating cap and the windshaft more or less intact but without the sails, which were destroyed during the storm that put the mill out of business. Nowadays the entrances to the mill are barred and locked, the remains of internal machinery that were visible in the mill during the 1970s are now gone, although broken fragments of a millstone remain.
A local legend relates the story of Elizabeth Gibbon, a heartbroken woman who threw herself from the top of the mill tower and whose ghost haunts the ruin of the mill to this day. The windmill was operated by the Gibbon family at the time the storm took place, which lends some weight to the tale of Elizabeth's suicide. On Cleadon Hills is a former water pumping station, which once provided water to the South Shields area; the site is dominated by the landmark Cleadon Water Tower, in fact a chimney for the former steam-powered pumps, visible for miles around, as far south as the Headland in Hartlepool. It is Grade II listed; the works were built for the Sunderland and South Shields Water Company to a design by Thomas Hawksley from 1860 to 1862. The facility was typical of the grand Victorian waterworks style of the day, resembles its sister station at Ryhope Engines Museum, built a few years later, it was one of a chain of wells that stretched from Cleadon in the north to Hesledon in the south, which were constructed to exploit the reserves of clean fresh water that lay trapped in the permeable limestone.
Little is known about the engine that drove the pumps, it was described as a'high class' beam engine of 130 hp, driving a pump that drew water from a well 258 feet deep and 12 feet in diameter, the water standing 18 feet deep at the bottom. The works were electrified in 1930 and the steam plant removed; the chimney itself is 100 feet tall and the balcony is 82 feet above ground level. It was designed to resemble the well-known Italian campanile bell towers, was placed above the works on the highest part of the hill to facilitate boiler draughting and the dispersal of smoke and steam. While the other buildings have since been converted into homes, the chimney has been threatened with demolition at least once, notwithstanding the fact that it now houses a number of radio aerials, generates revenue in the form of rent, it was together with the Paper Mill chimneys at Grangetown, south of Sunderland, used as a navigation landmark by Luftflotte 5 of the Luftwaffe, operating from Stavanger in Norway and Ålborg in Denmark during the Second World War, while engaged in attacks against Belfast and Liverpool.
The reservoir was covered with a large concrete dome believed to the biggest of its type constructed, still in place today. Two pill boxes were constructed on the South Side on Cleadon Hill
Emma Louise Lewell-Buck is a British Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for South Shields since winning a by-election in 2013. She is South Shields' first female MP. From a family of shipyard workers, Lewell-Buck was born in South Shields, she is a direct descendant of the inventor of the lifeboat. Lewell-Buck studied politics and media studies at Northumbria University, before gaining a master's degree in social work from Durham University; as a social worker, she specialised in child protection, represented the Primrose ward in Jarrow as a South Tyneside councillor from 2004 to 2013. Lewell-Buck won the safe Labour seat of South Shields with a reduced majority at a 2013 by-election following David Miliband's decision to leave the House of Commons. In June 2013, she became a member of the Environment and Rural Affairs Select Committee replacing Thomas Docherty. In October 2013 she was appointed Private Parliamentary Secretary to Ivan Lewis, Labour's shadow Northern Ireland Secretary.
In 2014, she claimed that some people were "having to bury their relatives in their back gardens" as she proposed a Funeral Services Bill intended to require funeral providers to offer a low-cost optionIn July 2015, she was elected as a member of the Work and Pensions Select Committee. In January 2016, Lewell-Buck became shadow minister for devolution and local government in Jeremy Corbyn's shadow cabinet reshuffle. On 29 June 2016, Lewell-Buck announced her resignation from the post, commenting that she was "heartbroken at the state of the Party"; this was a reference to a string of shadow cabinet resignations during the summer leadership crisis. In October 2016, she was re-appointed to Jeremy Corbyn's front bench team as Shadow Education Minister responsible for children and families' policy, she resigned from this position in March 2019 after voting against the Labour whip in a vote on a second Brexit referendum. Lewell-Buck joined the All-Party Parliamentary Group chaired by the Bishop of Truro.
The group launched an inquiry into the root causes behind hunger, food poverty and the rise in demand of food banks across the UK, published its final report in the House of Commons on 8 December 2014. After the report Lewell-Buck said in Parliament "Food poverty is a clear consequence of the Government's ideological assault on the social safety net and the people who rely on it. One hungry person is a complete disgrace, but thousands of hungry people are a national disaster."In November 2017 Lewell-Buck introduced a Private Members' Bill, the Food Insecurity Bill, "to require the Government to monitor and report on food insecurity and to make provision for official statistics on food insecurity." The bill was passed for second reading to be heard 2 February 2018. During Lewell-Buck's election campaign of 2013, she said helping to bring jobs to the unemployed of South Shields was a priority. In November 2013 she organised a jobs fair in her constituency, repeated in November 2014 after she pledged to make it into an annual event.
Lewell-Buck is concerned about the large number of children in care. Lewell-Buck said the rise was due to government cuts to support services like Sure Start, which could help children stay with their families. Lewell-Buck said, “The government is missing valuable opportunities to keep children in the care of their families. Not only does that add pressure to budgets decimated by austerity, it leaves children and their families with deep and enduring emotional scars.” Lewell-Buck courted controversy in 2015 when she employed her husband Simon as a researcher, despite knowing that he was suspended from his previous role as a carer and had been removed from a nursing course due to allegations of elder abuse. This prompted several senior Labour party members to write to party leader Jeremy Corbyn to request her suspension. Mr. Buck, himself a labour member was subsequently suspended from the party. Although the Labour party stated that they took the matter "very seriously", no further action was taken.
Official website Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Emma Lewell-Buck's councillor home page
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
County Durham is a county in North East England. The county town is a cathedral city; the largest settlement is Darlington followed by Hartlepool and Stockton-on-Tees. It borders Tyne and Wear to the north east, Northumberland to the north, Cumbria to the west and North Yorkshire to the south; the county's historic boundaries stretch between the rivers Tyne and Tees, thus including places such as Gateshead, South Shields and Sunderland. During the Middle Ages, the county was an ecclesiastical centre, due to the presence of St Cuthbert's shrine in Durham Cathedral, the extensive powers granted to the Bishop of Durham as ruler of the County Palatine of Durham; the county has a mixture of mining and heavy railway heritage, with the latter noteworthy in the southeast of the county, in Darlington and Stockton It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination. Many counties are named after their principal town, the expected form here would be Durhamshire, but this form has never been in common use.
The ceremonial county is named Durham, but the county has long been known as County Durham and is the only English county name prefixed with "County" in common usage. Its unusual naming is explained to some extent by the relationship with the Bishops of Durham, who for centuries governed Durham as a county palatine, outside the usual structure of county administration in England; the situation regarding the formal name in modern local government is less clear. The structural change legislation which in 2009 created the present unitary council refers to "the county of County Durham" and names the new unitary district "County Durham" too. However, a amendment to that legislation, refers to the "county of Durham" and the amendment allows for the unitary council to name itself "The Durham Council". In the event the council retained the name of Durham County Council. With either option, the name does not include County Durham; the former postal county was named "County Durham" to distinguish it from the post town of Durham.
The ceremonial county of Durham is administered by four unitary authorities. The ceremonial county has no administrative function, but remains the area to which the Lord Lieutenant of Durham and the High Sheriff of Durham are appointed. County Durham: the unitary district was formed on 1 April 2009 replacing the previous two-tier system of a county council providing strategic services and seven district councils providing more local facilities, it has 126 councillors. The seven districts abolished were:Chester-le-Street, including the Lumley and Sacriston areas Derwentside, including Consett and Stanley City of Durham, including Durham city and the surrounding areas Easington, including Seaham and the new town of Peterlee Borough of Sedgefield, including Spennymoor and Newton Aycliffe Teesdale, including Barnard Castle and the villages of Teesdale Wear Valley, including Bishop Auckland, Willington and the villages along Weardale The Borough of Darlington: before 1 April 1997, Darlington was a district in a two-tier arrangement with Durham County Council.
The Borough of Hartlepool: until 1 April 1996 the borough was one of four districts in the short-lived county of Cleveland, abolished. The part of the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees, north of the centre of the River Tees. Stockton was part of Cleveland until that county's abolition in 1996; the remainder of the borough is part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire. The county is parished. Durham Constabulary operate in the area of the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington. Ron Hogg was first elected the Durham Police and Crime Commissioner for the force on 15 November 2012; the other areas in the ceremonial county fall within the police area of the Cleveland Police. Fire service areas follow the same areas as the police with County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service serving the two unitary districts of County Durham and Darlington and Cleveland Fire Brigade covering the rest. County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service is under the supervision of a combined fire authority consisting of 25 local councillors: 21 from Durham County Council and 4 from Darlington Borough Council.
The North East Ambulance Service NHS Trust are responsible for providing NHS ambulance services throughout the ceremonial county, plus the boroughs of Middlesbrough and Redcar and Cleveland, which are south of the River Tees and therefore in North Yorkshire, but are part of the North East England region. Air Ambulance services are provided by the Great North Air Ambulance; the charity operates 3 helicopters including one at Durham Tees Valley Airport covering the County Durham area. Teesdale and Weardale Search and Mountain Rescue Team, are based at Sniperly Farm in Durham City and respond to search and rescue incidents in the county. Around AD 547, an Angle named Ida founded the kingdom of Bernicia after spotting the defensive potential of a large rock at Bamburgh, upon which many a fortification was thenceforth built. Ida was able to forge and consolidate the kingdom. In AD 604, Ida's grandson Æthelfrith forcibly merged Bernicia and Deira to create the Kingdom of Northumbria. In time, the realm was expanded through warfare