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South Vietnam

South Vietnam the Republic of Vietnam, was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War. It received international recognition in 1949 as the "State of Vietnam", a constitutional monarchy; the country was renamed the "Republic of Vietnam" in 1955. Its capital was Saigon. South Vietnam was bordered by North Vietnam to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, Thailand across the Gulf of Thailand to the southwest, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia across the South China Sea to the east and southeast; the Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 26 October 1955, with Ngô Đình Diệm as its first president, after having served as premier under Emperor Bảo Đại, exiled. Its sovereignty was recognized by the United States and 87 other nations, it had membership in several special committees of the United Nations, but its application for full membership was rejected in 1957 because of a Soviet veto.

South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam, Cochinchina, a subdivision of French Indochina, the southern half of Central Vietnam or Annam, a French protectorate. After the Second World War, the anti-Japanese Việt Minh guerrilla forces, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Democratic Republic of Vietnam in Hanoi in September 1945, issuing a Declaration of Independence modeled on the US one from 1776. In 1949, anti-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bảo Đại. Bảo Đại was deposed by Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. Diệm was killed in a military coup led by general Dương Văn Minh in 1963, a series of short-lived military governments followed. General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu led the country after a US-encouraged civilian presidential election from 1967 until 1975; the beginnings of the Vietnam War occurred in 1955 with an uprising by the newly organized National Liberation Front for South Vietnam and supported by the North Vietnam, with backing from China and the Soviet Union.

Larger escalation of the insurgency occurred in 1965 with American intervention and the introduction of regular forces of Marines, followed by Army units to supplement the cadre of military advisors guiding the Southern armed forces. A regular bombing campaign over North Vietnam was conducted by offshore US Navy airplanes and aircraft carriers joined by Air Force squadrons through 1966 and 1967. Fighting peaked up to that point during the Tet Offensive of February 1968, when there were over a million South Vietnamese soldiers and 500,000 US soldiers in South Vietnam. On the war the initial guerrilla war turned into a more conventional fight as the balance of power became equalized. An larger, armored invasion from the North commenced during the Easter Offensive following US ground-forces withdrawal, had nearly overran some major northern cities until beaten back. Despite a truce agreement under the Paris Peace Accords, concluded in January 1973, after a torturous five years of on and off negotiations, fighting continued immediately afterwards.

The regular North Vietnamese army and Việt Cộng auxiliaries launched a major second combined-arms conventional invasion in 1975. Communist forces overran Saigon on 30 April 1975. On July 2, 1976, the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the official name of the South Vietnamese state was Việt Nam Cộng hòa and the French name was referred to as République du Viêt Nam. The North was known as the "Democratic Republic of Vietnam". Việt Nam was the name adopted by Emperor Gia Long in 1804, it is a name used in ancient times. In 1839, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed the country Đại Nam. In 1945, the nation's official name was changed back to "Vietnam"; the name is sometimes rendered as "Viet Nam" in English. The term "South Vietnam" became common usage in 1954, when the Geneva Conference provisionally partitioned Vietnam into communist and non-communist parts. Other names of this state were used during its existence such as Free Vietnam and the Government of Viet Nam.

Before World War II, the southern third of Vietnam was the concession of Cochinchina, administered as part of French Indochina. A French governor-general in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina while Cochinchina was under a French governor, but the difference from the other parts with most indigenous intelligensia and wealthy were naturalized French The northern third of Vietnam (then the colony of Tonkin was under a French resident general. Between Tonkin in the north and Cochinchina in the south was the protectorate of Annam, under a French resident superior. A Vietnamese emperor, Bảo Đại, residing in Huế, was the nominal

William Bassett (d. 1667)

William Bassett was an English artisan, a migrant to North America. Bassett came to Plymouth on the ship Fortune in November 1621 as a single man, according to author Charles Banks. During his long life he was involved in many colony governmental activities and business ventures, being one of the original members of the "Purchaser" investment group of 1626. In his years he described himself as a blacksmith, but Banks indicates that in addition to being a worker in metals, he was a gunsmith. According to one author, in records of the time, his last name was also spelled as "Basset", he uses Basset for him in his book. Other historical records show his name spelled "Bassett". Nothing is known of his life in England, although he was believed to have been born in England sometime before 1600, as early as about 1590, since he was betrothed twice in Leiden in 1611, he was a Pilgrim from St. Peter's parish, Kent. At some point Bassett was a Leiden Separatist and was recorded there as a master mason from Sandwich, Kent.

Although some historians disagree, most sources agree that William Bassett from Sandwich, Kent lived in Leiden in 1611 and was betrothed there to Mary Butler, William Brewster, Roger Wilson, Anna Fuller, Rose Lisle were to be witnesses, but Mary died before the marriage. He was betrothed on July 29, 1611 to Margaret Oldham, with Edward Southworth, Roger Wilson, Elizabeth Neal, Wybra Pontus as witnesses, with their marriage being August 13, 1611. William Bassett arrived in Plymouth in November 1621 on the ship Fortune most with his wife Elizabeth, although Banks states he was unmarried upon arrival. In the Land Division of 1623 he was allotted two acres indicating he had taken a wife before that date. Wife Elizabeth and his children William and Elizabeth were in the 1627 division, but his wife died later. In Governor William Bradford's Letter Book, Bassett is one of 27 names of those men who were creditors hoping to realize profit from the colony and who signed an agreement as "Purchasers" to allow privileges to the eight Undertakers in return for their assumption of the colony debt.

Bassett was a signatory on this agreement as "William Basset". The Undertakers being colony leaders who assumed the colony debt from the London Adventurers in return for a monopoly of the fur trade, he moved to Duxbury by 1637, to Bridgewater by 1656. He served on a number of juries and committees, was a deputy for Duxbury to the Plymouth court, he was a blacksmith, a number of smith's tools are listed in his inventory, which contained a number of theological books. In 1658, in records of the time, William Bassett is listed as the Constable of Sandwich. On November 8, 1666 William Bassett, who described himself as a blacksmith of Bridgewater, sold four lots to John Sprague of Duxbury, Bassett's wife Mary gave her consent. John Sprague was the husband of Bassett's daughter Ruth. Bassett wed four times: In 1611 he was a widower of Cecily Light, Leiden, he is shown as a hodman from Sandwich, Kent in Leiden betrothal to Mary Butler who died before the third banns. He was a Pilgrim from Sandwich. Margaret Oldham on August 13, 1611 in Leiden.

She died before 1621. Elizabeth ______ by 1621 in Leiden, she died sometime after 1634. Mary Lapham after June 5, 1651 and before December 12, 1664, she was still living in Bridgewater on March 28, 1690. Children of William and Elizabeth Bassett: William was born in Plymouth about 1624 and died in Sandwich on May 29, 1670, he had three children. Elizabeth was born in Plymouth about 1626, she married Thomas Burgess on November 1648 in Sandwich. They divorced June 1661 in the first divorce in Plymouth Colony, he was brought to court for an act of uncleanness with Lydia Gaunt and the court allowed Elizabeth to keep small things "that are in William Bassett's hands". Sarah was born in Plymouth about 1628 and died on January 20, 1711/12, she married Mayflower passenger Peregrine White, son of Pilgrim William White and brother of Mayflower passenger Resolved White, before March 6, 1648/9. They resided in Marshfield, she and her husband were buried in Marshfield. Peregrine White's step-father was Pilgrim Edward Winslow.

A memorial stone was erected in Winslow Cemetery in honor of Peregrine White, his brother Resolved and their wives Sarah and Judith, daughter of William Vassall, as well as others prominent in early Plymouth Colony. Nathaniel was born about 1630 and died on January 17, 1710/11, he lived first in Marshfield and in Yarmouth. He had ten children, he married: 1. Dorcas Joyce, daughter of John Joyce, about 1661. 2. Hannah _____. Joseph was born about 1632 and died in 1712, he had eight children. He married: 1. Mary ____ by about 16??. 2. Martha Hobart on October 16, 1677. Ruth was born about 1634 and died after March 22, 1693/94, she married: 1. John Sprague, son of Francis Sprague, by 1635 and had seven children. 2. _____ Thomas. Note: the burial place of all of Bassett's children is unknown with the exception of Sarah. In his will dated April 3, 1667, William Bassett mentioned his unnamed wife, his son Joseph, his son William's son William, he died sometime between the date of his will and the date his will was sworn, June 5, 1667.

It is assumed. His wife Mary swore to his inventory; the burial place of William Bassett is unknown. On June 2, 1669 William Bassett of Sandwich, oldest son of William Bassett, sometime of Bridgewater, confirmed land to his youngest brother, Joseph Bassett of Bridgewater. On June 6, 1683, Goodwife Sprague (Ruth Ba

Project commissioning

Project commissioning is the process of assuring that all systems and components of a building or industrial plant are designed, tested and maintained according to the operational requirements of the owner or final client. A commissioning process may be applied not only to new projects but to existing units and systems subject to expansion, renovation or revamping. In practice, the commissioning process is the integrated application of a set of engineering techniques and procedures to check and test every operational component of the project: from individual functions up to complex amalgamations. Commissioning activities in the broader sense are applicable to all phases of the project from the basic and detailed design, procurement and assembly until the final handover of the unit to the owner, sometimes including an assisted operation phase; the main objective of commissioning is to affect the safe and orderly handover of the unit from the constructor to the owner, guaranteeing its operability in terms of performance, reliability and information traceability.

Additionally, when executed in a planned and effective way, commissioning represents an essential factor for the fulfillment of schedule, costs and quality requirements of the project. For complex projects, the large volume and complexity of commissioning data, together with the need to guarantee adequate information traceability leads to the use of powerful IT tools, known as commissioning management systems, to allow effective planning and monitoring of the commissioning activities; the International Association of Commissioning Engineers was formed in 2015 by a group of Commissioning Professionals, launched in January 2016. IACE is preparing accredited qualifications to fill the gap in the academic landscape for Commissioning Engineers. There is no formal education or university degree which addresses the training or certification of a Project Commissioning Engineer. Various short training courses and on-line training are available, but they are designed for qualified engineers. Commissioning for buildings is a specific discipline in itself, there are qualifications available for this.

Commissioning of large civil and industrial projects is a complex and sophisticated technical specialty which may be considered as a specific and independent engineering discipline. It can be as important as the more traditional ones, i.e. civil, chemical, electrical, instrumentation, automation, or telecom engineering. Large projects for which this statement can be made include chemical and petrochemical plants and gas platforms and pipelines, metallurgical plants and cellulose plants, coal handling plants and hydroelectric plants, bridges and railroads. Building commissioning Building enclosure commissioning Ship commissioning