Swansea, is a coastal city and county known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales. Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr on the southwest coast; the county area includes the Gower Peninsula. Swansea is the twenty-fifth largest city in the United Kingdom. According to its local council, the City and County of Swansea had a population of 241,300 in 2014; the last official census stated that the city and urban areas combined concluded to be a total of 462,000 in 2011. During the 19th-century industrial heyday, Swansea was the key centre of the copper-smelting industry, earning the nickname Copperopolis. Archaeological finds in the Swansea area come from the Gower Peninsula, include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age; the Romans occupied the area. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawe which passes through the city centre and the Loughor which marks the northern border with Carmarthenshire; the Welsh name, translates to Mouth of the Tawe.
It first appears c.1150 as Aper Tyui. Swansea is thought to have developed as a Viking trading post, its English name may derive from Sveinn's island – Old Norse: Sveinsey – the reference to an island may refer either to a bank at the mouth of the River Tawe or to an area of raised ground in marshes. An alternative explanation derives the place name from the Norse personal name Sweyn and ey, which can mean "inlet"; this explanation supports the tradition. The name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea; the earliest known form of the modern name, appears in the first charter, granted sometime between 1158 and 1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen certain rights to develop the area. In 1215 King John granted a second charter. A town seal, believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse. Following the Norman conquest, a marcher lordship was established under the title of Gower, it included land around Swansea Bay as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, the peninsula itself.
Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter at some point between 1158 and 1184. From the early 1700s to the late 1800s, Swansea was the world's leading copper-smelting area. Numerous smelters along the River Tawe received copper and other metal ores shipped from Cornwall and Devon, as well as from North and South America and Australia; the industry declined in the late 1800s, none of the smelters are now active. The port of Swansea traded in wine, wool, cloth and in coal. After the invention of the reverbatory furnace in the late 1600s, copper smelting was able to use coal rather than more-expensive charcoal. At the same time, the mines of Cornwall were increasing copper production. Swansea became the ideal place to smelt the Cornish copper ores, being close to the coalfields of South Wales and having an excellent port to receive ships carrying Cornish copper ore; because each ton of copper ore smelted used about three tons of coal, it was more economical to ship the copper ore to Wales rather than send the coal to Cornwall.
The first copper smelter at Swansea was established followed by many more. Once smelting was established, the smelters began receiving high-grade ore and ore concentrates from around the world. More coal mines opened to meet demand from northeast Gower to Llangyfelach. In the 1850s Swansea had more than 600 furnaces, a fleet of 500 oceangoing ships carrying out Welsh coal and bringing back metal ore from around the world. At that time most of the copper matte produced in the United States was sent to Swansea for refining.. Smelters processed arsenic, zinc and other metals. Nearby factories produced pottery; the Swansea smelters became so adept at recovering gold and silver from complex ores that in the 1800s they received ore concentrates from the United States, for example from Arizona in the 1850s, Colorado in the 1860s. The city expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, was termed "Copperopolis". From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea's population grew by 500%—the first official census indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become larger than Glamorgan's county town and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfil.
However, the census understated Swansea's true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough. Swansea's population was overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr. Much of Swansea's growth was due to migration from within and beyond Wales—in 1881 more than a third of the borough's population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, just under a quarter outside Wales. Copper smelting at Swansea declined in the late 1800s for a number of reasons. Copper mining in Cornwall declined; the price of copper dropped from £112 in 1860 to £35 in the 1890s. In the early 1900s, mining shifted to lower-grade copper deposits in North and South America, the lower-grade ore could not support transportation to Swansea; the Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from
Pontypridd is both the county town of Rhondda Cynon Taf in Wales and a community. Colloquially known as "Ponty", it is 12 miles north of Cardiff. Pontypridd comprises the electoral wards of Cilfynydd, Graig, Pontypridd Town,'Rhondda', Rhydyfelin Central/Ilan and Treforest, falls within the Welsh Assembly and UK parliamentary constituency by the same name; the town sits at the junction of the Rhondda and Taff/Cynon valleys, where the River Rhondda flows into the Taff south of the town at Ynysangharad War Memorial Park. Pontypridd community had a population of 32,700 according to census figures gathered in 2011. While Pontypridd Town Ward itself was recorded as having a population of 2,919 as of 2001; the town lies alongside the dual carriageway north-south A470, between Merthyr Tydfil. The A4054, running north and south of the town, was the former main road, like the A470, follows the Taff Valley. South of the town is the A473, for Pencoed. To the west is the A4058, which follows the River Rhondda to Porth and the Rhondda Valley beyond.
The name Pontypridd derives from the name Pont-y-tŷ-pridd, Welsh for "bridge by the earthen house", a reference to a succession of wooden bridges that spanned the River Taff at this point. Pontypridd is noted for its Old Bridge, a stone construction across the River Taff built in 1756 by William Edwards; this was Edwards' third attempt, and, at the time of construction, was the longest single-span stone arch bridge in the world. Rising 35 feet above the level of the river, the bridge forms a perfect segment of a circle, the chord of, 140 feet. Notable features are the three holes of differing diameters through each end of the bridge, the purpose of, to reduce weight. On completion, questions were soon raised as to the utility of the bridge, with the steepness of the design making it difficult to get horses and carts across; as a result, a new bridge, the Victoria Bridge, paid for by public subscription, was built adjacent to the old one in 1857. Pontypridd was known as Newbridge from shortly after the construction of the Old Bridge until the 1860s.
The history of Pontypridd is tied to the coal and iron industries. Sited as it is at the junction of the three valleys, it became an important location for the transportation of coal from the Rhondda and iron from Merthyr Tydfil, first via the Glamorganshire Canal, via the Taff Vale Railway, to the ports at Cardiff, to Newport; because of its role in transporting coal cargo, its railway platform is thought to have once been the longest in the world during its heyday. Pontypridd was, in the second half of the 19th century, a hive of industry, was once nicknamed the ‘Wild West’. There were several collieries within the Pontypridd area itself, including: Albion Colliery, Cilfynydd Bodwenarth Colliery, Pontsionnorton Daren Ddu Colliery, Graigwen & Glyncoch Dynea Colliery, Rhydyfelen Gelli-whion Colliery, Graig Great Western/Gyfeillion Colliery, Hopkinstown Lan Colliery, Hopkinstown Newbridge Colliery, Graig Pen-y-rhiw Colliery, Graig Pontypridd/Maritime Collieries, Graig & Maesycoed Pwllgwaun Colliery/'Dan's Muck Hole', Pwllgwaun Red Ash Colliery, Cilfynydd Ty-Mawr Colliery, Hopkinstown & Pantygraigwen Typica Colliery, Hopkinstown & Pantygraigwen and Victoria Colliery, MaesycoedAs well as the deep-mined collieries, there were many coal levels and trial shafts dug into the hillsides overlooking the town from Cilfynydd, Graig and Hafod.
The Albion Colliery in the village of Cilfynydd in 1894 was the site of one of the worst explosions within the South Wales coalfield, with the death of 290 colliers. Other instrumental industries in Pontypridd were the Brown Lenox/Newbridge Chain & Anchor Works south-east of the town, Crawshay's Forest Iron, Steel & Tin Plate Works and the Taff Vale Iron Works, both in Treforest near the now University of South Wales; the town is home to a hospital, Dewi Sant Hospital. Pontypridd Urban District Council was established in 1894, operated until 1974, when it was incorporated into Taff Ely Borough Council. In turn, that authority was incorporated into the unitary Rhondda Cynon Taf Council in 1995. Pontypridd Town Council continues to function as a community council. Labour is the dominant political force, has been since the First World War; the community elects twenty three town councillors from eleven community wards, namely Cilfynydd, Graig, Ilan, Rhondda, Rhydfelen Central, Rhydfelen Lower and Treforest.
Pontypridd community comprises the town centre itself, as well as the following key villages/settlements: Cilfynydd Coedpenmaen Glyntaff Glyncoch Graig Graigwen & Pantygraigwen Hawthorn Hopkinstown Maesycoed Pontsionnorton Pwllgwaun Rhydyfelin Trallwn Treforest Upper Boat Pontypridd serves as the postal town for the community of Llantwit Fardre under the CF38 postcode district, although this area is not considered part of Pontypridd. Pontypridd came into being because of transport, as it was on the drovers' route from the south Wales coast and the Bristol Channel, to Merthyr, onwards into the hills of Brecon. Although initial expansion in the valleys occurred at Treforest due to the slower speed of the River Taff at that point, the establishment of better bridge building meant a natural flow of power to Pontypridd; the establ
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Rhymney Valley is one of the South Wales valleys. After the abolition of the counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire in 1974, Rhymney Valley was created as one of the districts of Mid Glamorgan; the valley encompasses the villages of Abertysswg, Pontlottyn, Tir-Phil, New Tredegar, Rhymney, Ystrad Mynach and Llanbradach, the towns of Bargoed and Caerphilly. Created as a glacial valley, now the Rhymney River flows south to Rumney, a district of Cardiff; the river is the ancient boundary between Monmouthshire. Groesfaen, Deri and Fochriw are located in the Darran Valley and not the Rhymney Valley; this valley joins the Rhymney Valley at Bargoed Llanbradach is a large village in the Rhymney Valley between Ystrad Mynach and Caerphilly, This valley is one of the South Wales Valleys, its history follows theirs: sparsely populated until the nineteenth century. The Rhymney Valley produced a miner poet, Idris Davies of Rhymney, famous for his poems associated with the locality and the struggles of its people.
The 1990s brought improved road connections to the valley—a dual carriageway running north from Caerphilly—increasing access to and from Cardiff and the M4 motorway, increasing the numbers of commuters from the valley to Cardiff. The area is now one of the most populous in Wales; the Rhymney Valley hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1990. There is a legend to explain, it is said. They asked help from an owl; as the fairies burnt the giant's body, the ground burned away. The Rhymney Valley Gorsedd Stones are located above Byrn Bach park, Tredegar on the site of the 1990 National Eisteddfod of Wales hosted by the Rhymney Valley; the stone circle consists of 12 standing stones arranged in a circle 25m across with the tallest being 1.8m high a thirteenth stone marks the entrance to the circle. In the center is a flat stone known as the Logan stone. Stone circles of this type were erected on all sites of the National Eisteddfod until 2005 when as a cost cutting exercise fibre-glass stone circles were used for the first time.
51°46'35.6"N 3°16'46.1"W The Rhymney Valley railway runs through the valley. Davies, John; the Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6. Evans, Marion, A Portrait of Rhymney with cameos of Pontlottyn, Princetown and Fochriw, volume 1. ISBN 1-874538-40-9. Evans, Marion, A Portrait of Rhymney with cameos of Ponylottyn, Princetown and Fochriw, volume 2. ISBN 1-874538-70-0. Evans, Marion, A Portrait of Rhymney with cameos of Pontlottyn, Princetown and Fochriw, volume 3. ISBN 1-874538-41-7. Evans, Marion, A Portrait of Rhymney with cameos of Pontlottyn, Princetown and Fochriw, volume 4. ISBN 1-874538-02-6. Evans, Marion, A Portrait of Rhymney with cameos of Pontlottyn, Princetown and Fochriw, volume 5. ISBN 978-1-905967-20-9. Evans, The History of Andrew Buchan's Rhymney Brewery. ISBN 978-1-905967-07-0
North Wales Police
North Wales Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing North Wales. The headquarters are in Colwyn Bay, with divisional headquarters in St Asaph and Wrexham. Gwynedd Constabulary was formed in 1950 by the amalgamation of Caernarfonshire Constabulary, Anglesey Constabulary and Merionethshire Constabulary. In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 created an administrative county of Gwynedd covering the western part of the police area; as a result of this, the force was renamed North Wales Police on 1 April 1974. Under proposals made by the Home Secretary on 6 February 2006, the force would merge with Dyfed-Powys Police, Gwent Police and South Wales Police to form a single strategic force for all of Wales; the proposals were shelved. The North Wales Police Authority consisted of 17 members, of whom 9 were councillors, 3 were magistrates and 5 were independent members; the councillors were appointed by a Joint Committee of the unitary authority councils of Anglesey, Denbighshire, Flintshire and Wrexham.
The Police Authority was replaced by the Office of the North Wales Police and Crime Commissioner in November 2012. On 4 May 2011, North Wales Police completed a major restructure, moving from 3 territorial divisions to a single North Wales-wide Policing function. North Wales Police is a partner in the following collaboration: North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit North Wales and Cheshire Firearms Alliance Wales Extremism and Counter Terrorism Unit In recent years North Wales Police has attracted a great deal of media attention above and beyond its size. Many have attributed this phenomenon to its former Chief Constable Richard Brunstrom, who accepts he is obsessed with speeding motorists, he has courted controversy and publicity through his vocal views on speeding motorists and the legalisation of drugs. The Sun newspaper dubbed him the "Mad Mullah of the Traffic Taleban." Despite this negative publicity he has earned respect for learning the Welsh language promoting the normalisation of its use within the force at all levels and conversing publicly through it on numerous occasions.
He is credited with modernising the organisation's infrastructure in comparison with other areas of Britain. In April 2007, Brunstrom came under fire for an incident in which he showed a photograph of the severed head of a biker in a press meeting without the family's permission. Brunstrom maintains that it was a "closed" meeting, a point made both on the invitation and verbally, that no details of the picture should have been leaked, it drew criticism because the photo enabled the media to identify the deceased, since he was wearing a distinctive T-shirt with an anti-police message on it, which gained a lot of attention during the inquest. Motorcycle News magazine handed in a 1,600 signature petition to the Independent Police Complaints Commission in London requesting Brunstrom be removed, The Independent Police Complaints Commission confirmed that it would carry out an independent review into the incident. Other people note that the motorcyclist, killed, caused the accident that disabled the other car driver, so Brunstrom has a valid point that motoring is an important area to focus on.
North Wales Police has attracted attention due to its investigation into allegations of anti-Welsh comments by TV personality Anne Robinson and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. The force was believed to have carried out these investigations following complaints from members of the public; the 10-month investigation into the Prime Minister was dropped on 11 July 2006 due to a lack of evidence. It had cost £1,656, whereas the Anne Robinson investigation cost £3,800; as with all other territorial police force North Wales Police have police community support officers. As of 31 March 2011 North Wales Police have 159 PCSOs. Unlike the majority of police forces in England and Wales North Wales Police is only one out of three forces that issue its PCSOs hand cuffs The only other forces that do this are Dyfed-Powys Police and British Transport Police; the issuing of handcuffs to PCSOs has been controversial. Sir Philip Myers, 1974 to 1982 David Owen, 1982 to 1994 Michael Argent, 1994 to 2001 Richard Brunstrom, 2001 to 2009 Mark Polin, 2010 to 2018 Gareth Pritchard, Temporary Chief Constable, 2018 to Present List of police forces in Wales sorted by region Policing in the United Kingdom North Wales Fire and Rescue Service North Wales Police North Wales Police and Crime Commissioner North Wales YouTube channel
Bridgend is a town in Bridgend County Borough in Wales, 20 miles west of the capital Cardiff and 20 miles east of Swansea. The river crossed by the original bridge, which gave the town its name, is the River Ogmore, but the River Ewenny passes to the south of the town. A part of Glamorgan, Bridgend has expanded in size since the early 1980s – the 2001 census recorded a population of 39,429 for the town and the 2011 census reported that the Bridgend Local Authority had a population of 139,200 — up from 128,700 in 2001; this 8.2% increase was the largest increase in Wales except for Cardiff. The town is undergoing a redevelopment project, with the town centre pedestrianised and ongoing works including Brackla Street Centre redevelopment to Bridgend Shopping Centre, Rhiw Car Park redevelopment, ongoing public realm improvements and the upgrade of the Bridgend Life Centre and demolition of Sunnyside offices to accommodate a large retirement complex. Several prehistoric burial mounds have been found in the vicinity of Bridgend, suggesting that the area was settled before Roman times.
The A48 between Bridgend and Cowbridge has a portion, known locally as "Crack Hill", a Roman road and the'Golden Mile' where it is believed Roman soldiers were lined up to be paid. The Vale of Glamorgan would have been a natural low-level route west to the Roman fort and harbour at Neath from settlements in the east like Cardiff and Caerleon. In the decades after the Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England in 1066, the Normans looked westwards to create new seats for lords loyal to William the Conqueror. Groups of Norman barons arrived in Wales, in the south and east created what would become the Welsh Marches, while the north and west remained unconquered due to the harsh terrain. At Coity, the local Welsh chieftain Morgan Gam had a stronghold. Sometime in the 11th century, Norman Lord Payn de Turberville approached Morgan to turn over control of Coity Castle to Turberville. Morgan Gam agreed, on condition that Turberville either fought Morgan for the land, or took Gam's daughter Sybil's hand in marriage.
Turberville married Sybil and became Lord of Coity, rebuilt the castle. Newcastle Castle and Ogmore Castle were built by Robert Fitzhamon and William de Londres, respectively. About 2 miles north-east of Ogmore Castle, Maurice de Londres founded the fortified Benedictine Ewenny Priory in 1141; these three castles provided a "defensive triangle" for the area — a quadrilateral if Ewenny Priory is included. Bridgend developed at a ford on the River Ogmore, on the main route between east and west Wales. Just north of the town is the confluence of three rivers, the Ogmore, the Llynfi, the Garw. South of Bridgend, the River Ewenny flows into the Bristol Channel. In the 15th century, a stone bridge was built as a permanent connection between the two sides of the Ogmore; this bridge had four arches, but in the 18th century, a massive flood washed two of them away. The rest of the bridge still stands and remains a focal point of the town: aesthetic restoration took place in 2006. Bridgend grew into an agricultural town.
It became a status it retained until the late 20th century. The discovery of coal in the South Wales Valleys north of Bridgend had a massive impact on the town; the first coal mining operations opened north of Bridgend in the 17th century. Bridgend itself never had coal deposits and remained a market town for some time, but the valleys of the three rivers grew into an important part of the South Wales coalfields. Ironworks and brickworks were established in the same period by John Bedford, although the ironworks faltered after his death and ceased operating in 1836; the Great Western Railway arrived and Bridgend was at the junction between the main London to Fishguard line and the branch to the three valleys. Frequent coal trains took coal down the valleys. Several quarries opened around Bridgend town centre. An engine works was opened in the town and a larger farmers' market opened in the town centre, where it remained until the 1970s. In 1801, the population of what is now Bridgend County was around 6000.
By the beginning of the 20th century this had risen to 61,000. By this time Bridgend was a bustling market town with prosperous valleys to the north, a thriving community and good links to other towns and cities. In the Second World War, Bridgend had a prisoner of war camp at Island Farm and a large munitions factory at Waterton, as well as a large underground munitions storage base at Brackla; this was an overspill of the Royal Woolwich. At its peak, the arsenal had many of them women. Large numbers of them were transported by bus from the valleys; the factory complex had three sites in Bridgend, all linked together by a large network of railways. Many reminders of the factory sites remain to this day - Brackla Ordnance Site. In March 1945, 87 POWs from Island Farm escaped through a tunnel. While Bridgend was as important during the war as any other part of Wales, although it was photographed by the Luftwaffe, it was never blitzed, although the area around Bridgend did suffer bombing ra
Police community support officer
A police community support officer, or as written in legislation community support officer is a uniformed member of police staff in England and Wales, a role created by Section 38 of the Police Reform Act 2002, given Royal Assent by Queen Elizabeth II on 24 July 2002. They are non-warranted but are provided a variety of police powers and the power of a Constable in various instances by the forty-three territorial police forces in England and Wales and the British Transport Police. PCSOs were first recruited by the Metropolitan Police. Proposals for PCSOs in Northern Ireland were prevented by a budget shortfall in the Police Service of Northern Ireland, as well as fears that the introduction of uniformed and unarmed PCSOs in Northern Ireland would mean they would then become a "legitimate target" in the eyes of the IRA who have attacked other civilians working for the police in Northern Ireland in the past; the Police Reform Act 2002 does not apply to Scotland, which does not have PCSOs. In Scotland, PCSO stands for police custody and security officers known by the slang nickname "turnkeys", who play a rather different role to that performed by PCSOs in England and Wales.
As of 2012, there were 15,820 PCSOs in Wales. PCSO numbers had, like those of police constables, been falling in previous years due to economic cuts. At their prior peak in 2009, 16,814 PCSOs were employed. PCSOs represent 6.8 % of total police employees in Wales. The Metropolitan Police has the highest contingent of PCSOs, accounting for a quarter of PCSOs in England and Wales; the service with the second largest contingent As of 2012 was Greater Manchester Police with 837 PCSOs, 5% of the total. As of 2012, pay for PCSOs varied from force to force from between around £16,000 to around £27,000 per year. Most PCSOs work within a Safer Neighbourhood or Neighbourhood Policing team that contains PCSOs, & special constables and beat managers; these teams are led by a neighbourhood inspector. Day-to-day duties include high visibility patrolling, tackling anti-social behaviour, dealing with minor offences, crowd control and directing traffic at public events, helping direct traffic at roadblocks or scenes of accidents, gathering criminal intelligence and supporting front-line policing.
The Home Office have limited the powers designated to PCSOs to maintain the distinction between them and police officers. Some PCSOs are attached to Road Policing Units, British Transport Police PCSOs are deployed as part of station teams; as with many aspects of PCSOs, the specifics of each job description vary depending on the relevant force. Police forces will recruit PCSOs through adverts placed in newspapers and on the Internet and by posters in public places; some may use open days as a method of attracting applicants, the same way constables are recruited. The recruitment of PCSOs has helped some police forces increase the representation of ethnic minorities among their employees. Unlike with police constables, there is no set selection procedure for PCSOs and the process varies between forces. Despite this, section 38 of the Police Reform Act 2002 requires that chief constables or Commissioners in charge of police forces have a duty to ensure a recruit "is a suitable person to carry out the functions for the purposes of which they are designated" and is "capable of carrying out those functions".
PCSOs will be selected through a process that involves: an application form. Welsh PCSOs must have basic abilities to speak the Welsh language; as with a police constable any applicant failing any stage of the recruitment process has to wait six months before applying again. Having passed the application process a new PCSO enters the training process. Unlike police constables, there is no set training procedure for PCSOs so the training given varies from force to force. Despite this, section 38 of the Police Reform Act 2002 requires that chief constables or commissioners to ensure a recruit "Has received adequate training in the carrying out of those functions and in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties to be conferred on him by virtue of their designation"; the original PCSOs recruited in 2002 by the Metropolitan Police received only 3 weeks' training, criticised as too little. The training period was raised, new Metropolitan Police PCSOs are now trained for six weeks. Training in other forces takes between four and eleven weeks, with the length of training depending on how close the PCSOs' authority comes to that of a regular police officer.
PCSOs are trained including: radio procedure. Written examinations are performed during training. Upon successful completion of training, there may be a passing out parade. After training a new PCSO is sent out on patrol with a tutor—usually an experienced PCSO—until they are able to patrol on their own. All PCSOs go through a twelve-month probationary period aft