South West Africa

South West Africa was the name for modern-day Namibia when it was under South African administration, from 1915 to 1990. The colony of German South West Africa from 1884-1915, it was made a League of Nations mandate of the British-ruled Union of South Africa following Germany’s losses in World War I. Although the mandate was abolished by the UN in 1966, South African rule continued despite it being illegal under international law; the territory was administered directly by the South African government from 1915 to 1978, when the Turnhalle Constitutional Conference laid the groundwork for semi-autonomous rule. During an interim period between 1978 and 1985, South Africa granted South West Africa a limited form of home rule, culminating in the formation of a Transitional Government of National Unity. In 1990, South West Africa was granted independence as the Republic of Namibia with the exception of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, which continued to remain under South African rule until 1994.

As a German colony from 1884, it was known as German South West Africa. Germany had a difficult time administering the territory, which experienced many insurrections against the harsh German rule those led by guerilla leader Jacob Morenga; the main port, Walvis Bay, the Penguin Islands were annexed by the UK in 1878, becoming part of the Cape Colony in 1884. Following the creation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, Walvis Bay became part of the Cape Province; as part of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty in 1890, a corridor of land taken from the northern border of Bechuanaland, extending as far as the Zambezi river, was added to the colony. It was named the Caprivi Strip after the German Chancellor Leo von Caprivi. In 1915, during South West Africa Campaign of World War I, South Africa captured the German colony. After the war, it was declared a League of Nations Class C Mandate territory under the Treaty of Versailles, with the Union of South Africa responsible for the administration of South West Africa.

From 1922, this included Walvis Bay, under the South West Africa Affairs Act, was governed as if it were part of the mandated territory. South West Africa remained a League of Nations Mandate until World War II with the collapse of the League of Nations; the Mandate was supposed to become a United Nations Trust Territory when League of Nations Mandates were transferred to the United Nations following World War II. The Prime Minister, Jan Smuts, objected to South West Africa coming under UN control and refused to allow the territory's transition to independence, instead seeking to make it South Africa's fifth province in 1946. Although this never occurred, in 1949, the South West Africa Affairs Act was amended to give representation in the Parliament of South Africa to whites in South West Africa, which gave them six seats in the House of Assembly and four in the Senate; this was to the advantage of the National Party, which enjoyed strong support from the predominantly Afrikaner and ethnic German white population in the territory.

Between 1950 and 1977, all of South West Africa's parliamentary seats were held by the National Party. An additional consequence of this was the extension of apartheid laws to the territory; this gave rise to several rulings at the International Court of Justice, which in 1950 ruled that South Africa was not obliged to convert South West Africa into a UN trust territory, but was still bound by the League of Nations Mandate with the United Nations General Assembly assuming the supervisory role. The ICJ clarified that the General Assembly was empowered to receive petitions from the inhabitants of South West Africa and to call for reports from the mandatory nation, South Africa; the General Assembly constituted the Committee on South West Africa to perform the supervisory functions. In another Advisory Opinion issued in 1955, the Court further ruled that the General Assembly was not required to follow League of Nations voting procedures in determining questions concerning South West Africa. In 1956, the Court further ruled that the Committee had the power to grant hearings to petitioners from the mandated territory.

In 1960, Ethiopia and Liberia filed a case in the International Court of Justice against South Africa alleging that South Africa had not fulfilled its mandatory duties. This case did not succeed, with the Court ruling in 1966 that they were not the proper parties to bring the case. There was a protracted struggle between South Africa and forces fighting for independence after the formation of the South West Africa People's Organisation in 1960. In 1966, the General Assembly passed resolution 2145 which declared the Mandate terminated and that the Republic of South Africa had no further right to administer South West Africa. In 1971, acting on a request for an Advisory Opinion from the United Nations Security Council, the ICJ ruled that the continued presence of South Africa in Namibia was illegal and that South Africa was under an obligation to withdraw from Namibia immediately, it ruled that all member states of the United Nations were under an obligation not to recognise as valid any act performed by South Africa on behalf of Namibia.

South West Africa became known as Namibia by the UN when the General Assembly changed the territory's name by Resolution 2372 of 12 June 1968. SWAPO was recognised as representative of the Namibian people and gained UN observer status when the territory of South West Africa was removed from the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. In 1977, South Africa transferred control of Walvis Bay back to the Cape Province, thereby making it an exclave; the territory became the independent Republic of Namibia on 21 March 1990, although

USS Shark (SSN-591)

USS Shark, a Skipjack-class submarine, was the seventh ship of the United States Navy to be named for the shark. Her keel was laid down on 24 February 1958 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company in Newport News, Virginia, she was launched on 16 March 1960 sponsored by Mrs. Louis Shane, Jr. and commissioned on 9 February 1961 with Lieutenant Commander John F. Fagan, Jr. in command. After preliminary testing and fitting out, Shark sailed to the Caribbean Sea in May for her shakedown cruise; the submarine returned to her building yard for post-shakedown repairs and final acceptance by the Navy. Shark sailed for the Mediterranean Sea and duty with the Sixth Fleet on 12 August 1961; this was the first deployment in the area for a nuclear submarine, Shark was deployed there until 14 November 1961. In the September-October phase of the tour, Shark visited Athens and hosted the entire Greek Royal family aboard for a cruise both above and underwater. On 29 January 1962, the submarine steamed to Bermuda in the British West Indies, for two weeks of type training.

She was next deployed to the North Atlantic from 15 March to 23 May. During this period, Shark paid a one-week visit to England. On 25 August, she departed for another two months in the North Atlantic. On her return trip to Norfolk, she underwent an availability period that lasted until 7 January 1963. Shark participated in SUBFALLEX in the North Atlantic from 7 August to 24 October, with a week spent in Faslane, Scotland; the remainder of 1963 was either spent in port, in local operations, or conducting antisubmarine warfare exercises in the Caribbean. On 22 March 1964, Shark returned on 21 May. On 25 June 1964, she sailed to Charleston, South Carolina, for her first shipyard overhaul which lasted until 7 June 1965. On 7 April 1965, at the shipyard, Shark was presented the Navy Unit Commendation for meritorious service from 5 April to 9 May 1964, a period in which she "achieved results of great value and importance to the United States Navy in the field of antisubmarine warfare capabilities."

The submarine put to sea for sea trials on 7 June. One month she suffered damage to the forward oxygen system which necessitated additional repairs at Charleston, South Carolina. On 9 October, she passed her sea trials and sailed to Key West, for two weeks of torpedo tube tests and a wire-guided torpedo development project. Shark returned to Norfolk on 25 October 1965 and conducted type training, individual ship exercises, antisubmarine warfare exercises until 8 January 1966; the boat operated in the Caribbean until 7 February. She was there again for further trials in October. Shark stood out of Norfolk on 7 January 1967 for the North Atlantic and conducted special operations until 24 March. Two weeks of this period were spent at Scotland. On 12 April, she was presented her second Navy Unit Commendation for operations in 1966 in which "Shark contributed to the knowledge of the United States Navy in the field of antisubmarine warfare." Shark departed Norfolk on 16 May for Halifax, Nova Scotia, the first visit of a nuclear ship to a Canadian port.

The submarine operated with Royal Canadian Navy ASW units before returning to her home port. In 1967 Shark was used in a Naval Department educational film for public relations. On 11 June 1967, Shark prepared for her first refueling period at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard and did not put to sea again until March 1968; the remainder of 1968 and 1969 was spent performing special operations. Shark was in drydock at Norfolk from 1 January 1970 to 9 August 1971; the remainder of the year and 1972 was spent in refresher training and undergoing various trials along the East Coast, with the exception of a deployment to the Sixth Fleet from 31 May to 19 November 1972. Mare Island Naval Shipyard for overhaul September 1981 to May 1983. Returned to New London Connecticut. History from 1972 to 1986 needed, she would take part in another deployment with the Atlantic Fleet in 1974 before returning to Pascagoula for a reactor refueling in August. This refueling and overhaul would take more than two years; when the Shark returned to the ocean, her homeport was changed to Conn..

In 1978, the Shark would have a busy schedule, taking part in UNITAS exercises with a number of South American navies and deploying to Mediterranean as part of the Sixth Fleet. In 1980, the Shark took part in exercises with the Royal Canadian Navy. Shark was deactivated, in commission, formally decommissioned and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 15 September 1990. Shark was the last Skipjack to be taken out of service, she entered the Nuclear Powered Ship and Submarine Recycling Program in Bremerton, Washington, on 1 October 1995 and on 28 June 1996 ceased to exist. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Additional history and recycling photos at Bremerton, 600+ crew list, Paris Match article about SSN-591.

Omar Espinosa

Omar Espinosa is a guitarist and producer, best known for being the rhythm guitarist of the original lineup of Escape the Fate, from mid 2004 to late 2007. In 2003, Omar Espinosa was asked to be lead guitarist in the rock band Lovehatehero, he left the year after to be a part of Escape the Fate, who became known in the local Nevada scene soon after. On 26 September 2006, the band released their first EP and album, There's No Sympathy for the Dead and Dying Is Your Latest Fashion, on Epitaph Records. In late 2007, during the Black on Black Tour with Blessthefall, Espinosa left for personal issues. After leaving Escape the Fate, he wrote and recorded a few songs with the band The Black and White City. Omar started the band Perfect Like Me, He along with the other members released an EP entitled She's Poison. Omar decided to leave Perfect Like Me in 2010, as a partial withdrawal from music and out of devotion to his family. In 2010 and 2011, Espinosa produced for the band Sky Diamond City. In 2011, Espinosa co-wrote two songs with the band Falling in Reverse.

Falling in Reverse is fronted by Espinosa's friend and former bandmate from Escape the Fate, Ronnie Radke. The songs he contributed to are "Don't Mess with Ouija Boards" and "Goodbye Graceful" which appear on the album The Drug in Me Is You; the album was released on 26 July 2011. As of 19 January 2012, Espinosa has rejoined Perfect Like Me. On 6 February, Omar Espinosa made a guest appearance on stage performing "Situations" and "Not Good Enough for Truth in Cliche" from Espinosa and Radke's former band Escape the Fate. Despite these developments, his return to music making is temporary, as a result of this Omar decided to leave Perfect Like Me in April 2012. During late 2012 and early 2013, Omar starting releasing new material with friends and uploading them to his soundcloud account. In June 2012, he announced he was announcing more projects, he released 3 clips during December 2012 – January/February 2013 titled "Phenoketylnurics", "Madness", "Brütal", alongside close friend/former Perfect Like Me member, Bryan Ross, under the pseudonym "Rockernaut" Rockernaut Studio was founded in Westminster, Colorado by Omar Espinosa.

It has running now for 2 years. Since its launch, Omar has worked with artists such as his former band mate Ronnie Radke and Skip the Foreplay, he is working on his solo project "Son of the Empire". The EP will feature artists such as Tyler Smith from The Word Alive and Ronnie Radke From Falling In Reverse And Max Green from Violent New Breed; the album is set to release in January 2014 with talks of a music video to follow. Omar has 4 children, he resides in Los Angeles. He is a member of the Church of Scientology. Escape the FateEscape the Fate There's No Sympathy for the Dead Dying Is Your Latest Fashion Situations Perfect Like MeShe's Poison Son of the EmpireTBA Sky Diamond City"Siblings" and "What's it Called?" Falling in Reverse"Don't Mess With Ouija Boards" and "Goodbye Graceful" "Rolling Stone" Aim 2 Miss"Admiral Octo" and "Senior Fish" Falling in Reverse's tumblr blog Mibba Forums, Falling in Reverse, Falling in Reverse Ronnie Radkes interviews in Jail on Escape the Spirit of Metal, Biography of LoveHateHero Falling in Reverse Fansite and Omar