U.S. Route 6
U. S. Route 6 called the Grand Army of the Republic Highway, honoring the American Civil War veterans association, is a main route of the U. S. Highway system. While it runs east-northeast from Bishop, California to Provincetown, the route has been modified several times; the highway's longest-lasting routing, from 1936 to 1964, had its western terminus at Long Beach, California. During this time, US 6 was the longest highway in the country. In 1964, the state of California renumbered its highways, most of the route within California was transferred to other highways; this dropped the highway's length below that of US 20. US 6 is a diagonal route, whose number is out of sequence with the rest of the U. S. Highway grid in the western US; when it was designated in 1926, US 6 only ran east of Pennsylvania. Subsequent extensions replacing the former U. S. Route 32 and U. S. Route 38, have taken it south of US 30 near Chicago, Illinois, US 40 near Denver, Colorado, US 50 at Ely, US 70 near Los Angeles, due to its north–south alignment in that state.
US 6 does not serve a major transcontinental corridor, unlike other highways. George R. Stewart, author of U. S. 40: Cross Section of the United States of America considered US 6, but realized that "Route 6 runs uncertainly from nowhere to nowhere, scarcely to be followed from one end to the other, except by some devoted eccentric". In the famous "beat" novel On the Road by Jack Kerouac, protagonist Sal Paradise considers hitchhiking on US 6 to Nevada, but is told by a driver that "there's no traffic passes through 6" and that he'd be better off going via Pittsburgh; the modern US 6 in California is a short, two-lane, north–south surface highway from Bishop to the Nevada state line. Prior to a 1964 highway renumbering project, US 6 extended to Long Beach along what is now US 395, California 14, Interstate 5, Interstate 110/California 110, California 1. Despite the renumbering having removed all freeway portions, it is still part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. US 6's former routing included a short segment of the famous Arroyo Seco Parkway.
US 6 begins at US 395 in Bishop and heads north between farms and ranches in the Chalfant Valley at the base of the 14,000-foot western escarpment of the White Mountains. After about 30 miles Benton is reached, which has a gas station. California 120 begins here, heading west past Mono Lake through Lee Vining, over Tioga Pass, through Yosemite National Park to the San Joaquin Valley. US 6 continues north to the Nevada state line. From the California border, US 6 heads northeast through the semidesert Queen Valley with Boundary Peak, Nevada's highest summit, Montgomery Peak in California on the right; these twin peaks are the northmost high summits of the White Mountains, both over 13,000 ft. The highway climbs into the Pinyon-Juniper zone and crosses Montgomery Pass 7,167 ft. From the pass, US 6 descends into barren shadscale desert, passing Columbus Salt Marsh on the left merging with US 95 from Coaldale Junction to Tonopah. Nevada Test and Training Range begins about 15 mi southeast of Tonopah.
Just east of Tonopah, US 6 continues east across a series of desert mountain ranges and valleys, including the Monitor Range. At Warm Springs, State Route 375 known as the "Extraterrestrial Highway", departs to the southeast and US 6 assumes a northeasterly alignment across the Reveille, Pancake and White Pine Ranges. Rainfall increases eastward, so valleys become less barren and peaks over 11,500 ft add scenic interest. Ely is the largest city on Route 6 in Nevada. US 50 joins Route 6 at Ely. East of Ely, Routes 6/50 cross the Schell Creek Range, known for verdant forests and meadows, for a large deer and elk population; the highway descends to Spring Valley crosses the Snake Range at Sacramento Pass, north of Nevada's second-highest mountain, Wheeler Peak, where a branch road accesses Great Basin National Park. Beyond the pass, US 6 passes just north of Baker, a Mormon farming community, reaches the Utah state line. US 6 enters and leaves Utah concurrent with US 50. However, the two routes are different through the state.
US 50 is the shorter route. US 6 is the former route of US 50. US 6 forms an arch-shaped route with Spanish Fork at the apex. US 6 is now concurrent with Interstate 70 for a significant portion of its length from the Utah state line to Denver. Within the city limits, US 6 follows Denver's 6th Avenue; the highway travels north and it follows Interstate 76 for most of its length east of Denver. It is unsigned; the highest altitude along US 6 is 11,990 feet at Loveland Pass, where it crosses the Continental Divide. It continues down Clear Creek Valley until it reaches I-70, where it is overlapped until I-70 leaves Clear Creek Valley. US 6 continues into Denver, where it turns into a freeway with six lanes. East of Denver, it continues east while joined with I-76 until it reaches Sterling, where it diverges from the interstate; the last town in Colorado that it passes is Holyoke. From the Colorado state line, US 6 starts going southeast; the first town it goes into is Imperial. US 6 conjoins with US 34 near Culbertson.
US 6 moves to the northeast, through Hastings. At Hastings, US 34 moves north. US 6 parallels Interstate 80 north of Milford. At Lincoln, US 6 becomes West "O" Street Cornhusker Highway and moves north of I-80 outside of the city, paralleling I-80 to Gretna. There US 6 moves due north an
Scott Geoffrion was an NHRA drag racing driver. He was a former two-time Pro Stock World Championship runner-up and a nine-time national event winner, he died on May 8, 2006 of an apparent heart attack in California. Geoffrion reached the final round 28 times in his career that spanned more than 200 races from 1987 through 2004, he didn't score his first victory until his 10th final round, in Memphis in 1993, where he defeated Pro Stock legend Bob Glidden. ESPN's obituary listed him as "a character, a charmer, a drag racer who wanted to enjoy himself as much as he wanted to win." In 1987, Geoffrion began his Pro Stock career as a team driver for Warren Johnson, but it wasn't long before Geoffrion's talents were recognized and he was offered a factory car alongside Darrell Alderman. Throughout the early 1990s, Geoffrion and his Team Mopar teammate, Darrell Alderman, generated an aura throughout the sport. Alderman and Geoffrion became known as "The Dodge Boys" and Mopar's Pro Stock hinged on that brand for the next several years.
During that time, Alderman added two more championships to his 1991 title while Geoffrion provided Mopar with a formidable 1-2 punch that resulted in his two runner-up points finishes in 1992 and 1994. Geoffrion logged a career six top 10 finishes; the two racers gave Mopar a hip, youthful image that complemented the company's performance marketing strategies. Geoffrion and Alderman could be seen at every national event talking to fans, signing autographs, amplifying their "Butch and Sundance" personas with fan-friendly humor and gregarious attitudes, it was a high-water mark for Chrysler's modern day Pro Stock battle plan and Geoffrion was a perfect fit. Geoffrion sat out the 2001 season after being released from the Dodge camp following three lackluster seasons but resurfaced in a Ford with new team owner Hurley Blakeney of Nitro Fish Racing and scored his final top 10 finish in 2003, a season in which he was runner-up twice. Geoffrion was the Vice-President for National Electronic Alloys, Inc. of Santa Ana, California up until his death at the age of 40.
In September 1992, Geoffrion became the first NHRA Pro Stock competitor to break the 7.10 second mark when he completed a 7.099-second pass at Maple Grove Raceway in Mohnton, Pennsylvania. On October 7, 2000, Geoffrion set an NHRA Pro Stock record in his Hemi-powered Dodge R/T, he passed through the Memphis Motorsports Park timing lights at a record-shattering 6.809-second elapsed time during qualifying for the 13th annual AutoZone Nationals. The following day he backed up the national record with a run of 6.868 secs. in his first-round victory over teammate Darrell Alderman The historic pass eclipsed Warren Johnson's 6.822-second effort set Oct. 23, 1999 at the Texas Motorplex in Ennis
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Perinton, New York
Perinton is a town in Monroe County, New York, United States. The population was 46,462 at the 2010 census; the village of Fairport is within the town on the Erie Canal. Perinton is adjacent to the coterminous town and village of East Rochester, the towns of Victor, Macedon and Penfield; the hamlet of Egypt is in southeastern Perinton. Egypt Fire Department, Lollypop Farm, Egypt Park are major Egypt landmarks; the southwestern portion of Perinton is called Bushnell's Basin and is home to the Bushnell's Basin Fire Department, Hitching Post Plaza, Richardson's Canal House. In 1788, Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham purchased 2.6 million acres of land in the wilderness of Western New York. William Walker of Canandaigua purchased 36 square miles of the land and hired his brother Caleb and his cousin Glover Perrin to survey and divide the land into 66 equal lots; the area was known as Range 4, in the governmental unit of Northfield. In 1793, Glover Perrin, his family, his six siblings and their families, became the first permanent white settlers in the area.
They settled in the flat and well-watered areas in the hamlet of Egypt and Perinton Center. Early commercial ventures included mills, blacksmith shops and inns. By the late 1820s, the village of Fairport, located within the town on the Erie Canal, was becoming a booming canal town. Fairport, was not incorporated as a village until 1867. From the 1850s to the 1950s, Perinton's history was Fairport's history; the village was an active canal port and a booming industrial town, echoing a trend, occurring nationwide. As a result of the availability of cheap and easy transportation, which by the 1850s included the railroad as well as the canal, companies like the DeLand Chemical Company, the Cobb Preserving Company, Taylor's Oil of Life, the American Can Company and thrived. Services, including a fire department, a public library, street lighting, parks, enhanced the life of the town and village. Residential areas, with homes built in a variety of architectural styles, were built around the bustling village center.
The town of Perinton, outside of Fairport, remained rural until the 1950s. Today farms still exist in Perinton, but are surrounded by suburban subdivisions and industrial parks, an impressive number of parks and open spaces; the village of Fairport still maintains the ambience of a canal town and capitalizes on the recreational aspects of that canal. Most residents of the town of Perinton reside within both the Fairport Central School District and the Fairport postal district; the town of Perinton was named one of the nation's 100 best places to live in 2008 by RelocateAmerica.com. Richardson's Tavern was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980; the town was recognized with the designation "Trail Town USA" by the American Hiking Society and bills itself as such in public displays. Among other hiking areas, the town includes the Crescent Trail, a 35-mile system of footpaths through both public and private land. Parks and recreational areas in the town include: Beechwoods Park: hiking trail Egypt Park: baseball, playground Fellows Road Park: tennis, basketball, playground, exercise trail, indoor space for rent Garnsey Arboretum: hiking, nature trail Horizon Hill: indoor space and small pavilion Indian Hill: hiking Kreag Road Park: baseball, tennis, canal access, outdoor shelter Perinton Park: rowing boathouse, tennis, playground, hiking trail, canal access, indoor space for rent Perinton Recreation Center: soccer, playground, hiking trail Potter Park: soccer, tennis, teen center, skating rink Powder Mills Park: downhill skiing, cross-country skiing, playground, fish hatchery Spring Lake Park: fishing, baseball White Brook Nature Area According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 34.6 square miles, of which 34.2 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 1.04%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 46,090 people, 17,591 households, 12,964 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,350.6 people per square mile. There were 18,041 housing units at an average density of 528.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.90% White, 1.72% African American, 0.11% Native American, 2.84% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.45% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.43% of the population. There were 17,591 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.3% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.06. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 28.1% from 45 to 64, 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $69,341, the median
Drag racing is a type of motor racing in which automobiles or motorcycles compete two at a time, to be first to cross a set finish line. The race follows a short, straight course from a standing start over a measured distance, most 1⁄4 mi, with a shorter becoming popular, as it has become the standard for Top Fuel dragsters and funny cars, where some major bracket races and other sanctioning bodies have adopted it as the standard, while the 1⁄8 mi is popular in some circles. Electronic timing and speed sensing systems have been used to record race results since the 1960s; the history of automobiles and motorcycles being used for drag racing is nearly as long as the history of motorized vehicles themselves, has taken the form of both illegal street racing, as an organized and regulated motorsport. This article covers the legal sport. Push starts to get engines running were necessary until the National Hot Rod Association mandated self-starters in 1976. After burnouts, cars would be pushed back by crews.
Don Garlits was the first to do burnouts across the starting line, now standard practise. Each driver backs up to and stages at the starting line. Before each race, each driver is allowed to perform a burnout, which heats the driving tires and lays rubber down at the beginning of the track, improving traction; the cars run through a "water box". Modern races are started electronically by a system known as a Christmas tree, which consists of a column of lights for each driver/lane, two light beam sensors per lane on the track at the starting line. Current NHRA trees, for example, feature one blue light three amber, one green, one red; when the first light beam is broken by a vehicle's front tire, the vehicle is "pre-staged", the pre-stage indicator on the tree is lit. When the second light beam is broken, the vehicle is "staged", the stage indicator on the tree is lit. Vehicles may leave the pre-stage beam, but must remain in the stage beam until the race starts. Once one competitor is staged, their opponent has a set amount of time to stage or they will be disqualified, indicated by a red light on the tree.
Otherwise, once both drivers are staged, the system chooses a short delay at random starts the race. The light sequence at this point varies slightly. For example, in NHRA Professional classes, three amber lights on the tree flash followed 0.4 seconds by a green light. In NHRA Sportsman classes, the amber lights illuminate in sequence from top to bottom, 0.5 seconds apart, followed 0.5 seconds by the green light. If a vehicle leaves the starting line before the green light illuminates, the red light for that lane illuminates instead, the driver is disqualified. In a handicap start, the green light automatically lights up for the first driver, the red light is only lit in the proper lane after both cars have launched if one driver leaves early, or if both drivers left early, the driver whose reaction time is worse, as a red light infraction is only assessed to the driver with the worse infraction, if both drivers leave early. If both drivers leave early, the green light is automatically lit for the driver that left last, they still may win the pass.
Several measurements are taken for each race: reaction time, elapsed time, speed. Reaction time is the period from the green light illuminating to the vehicle leaving the starting line. Elapsed time is the period from the vehicle leaving the starting line to crossing the finish line. Speed is measured through a speed trap covering the final 66 feet to the finish line, indicating average speed of the vehicle in that distance. Except where a breakout rule is in place, the winner is the first vehicle to cross the finish line, therefore the driver with the lowest combined reaction time and elapsed time; because these times are measured separately, a driver with a slower elapsed time can win if that driver's advantage in reaction time exceeds the elapsed time difference. In heads-up racing, this is known. In categories where a breakout rule is in effect, if a competitor is faster than his or her predetermined time, that competitor loses. If both competitors are faster than their predetermined times, the competitor who breaks out by less time wins.
Regardless, a red light foul is worse than a breakout, except in Junior Dragster where exceeding the absolute limit is a cause for disqualification. Most race events use a traditional bracket system, where the losing car and driver are eliminated from the event while the winner advances to the next round, until a champion is crowned. Events can range from 16 to over 100 car brackets. D
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for