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Southam

Southam is a small market town and civil parish in the Stratford-on-Avon district of Warwickshire, England. Southam is situated on the River Stowe, which flows from Napton-on-the-Hill and joins Warwickshire's River Itchen at Stoneythorpe, just outside the town; the town is about 7 1⁄2 miles east of Leamington Spa, about 10 miles from Rugby and Daventry, 13 miles south of Coventry and 14 miles north of Banbury. The 2001 census recorded a parish population of 6,509. Southam was a Royal manor until AD 998; when Coventry Priory was founded in 1043, Leofwine's son Leofric, Earl of Mercia granted Southam to it. The Domesday Book records the manor as "Sucham"; the Priory, which in the 12th century became the first Coventry Cathedral, kept Southam until the 16th century when it surrendered all its estates to the Crown in the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The current Manor House is dates from the early 17th century; the present parish church of St James was built in the 14th century. In the 15th century the spire was added and the chancel was rebuilt.

The nave's clerestory and present roof were added in the 16th century, along with the present west door. St James' is a Grade I listed building. In the medieval era the town minted its own local currency because local people found regular English currency too high in value for everyday use. In the English Civil War Charles I used Southam's mint to make new coins to pay his troops; the building is now the Old Mint public house. Southam's Holy Well, in the picturesque Stowe river valley, is a Grade II listed building and scheduled Ancient Monument, was first recorded in the year 998; the Well was used in medieval times by local monks and for hundreds of years as the town's principal water supply. Water from a natural mineral spring feeds the semi-circular Well and pours through the mouths of carved stone gargoyles into the river; the water from the Well was said to cure eye complaints. The Holy Well and paths were renovated in 2007 using a National Lottery grant including wheelchair access and oak seats designed by artist Will Glanfield as part of his Southam Stories project, fall within the unspoilt Stowe valley Area of Restraint as a protected landscape of special significance and value to the town.

In the 1540s John Leland visited the town and described it as "a modest market town of a single street". William Shakespeare mentions Southam in Henry VI, part 3, Act V, Scene I, Lines 10–16: WARWICK Say, what says my loving son? And, by thy guess, how nigh is Clarence now? SOMERSET At Southam I did leave him with his forces, And do expect him here some two hours hence. WARWICK Then Clarence is at hand, I hear his drum. SOMERSET It is not his, my lord. Charles I passed through Southam just before the outbreak of the Civil War and was not made welcome by the townsfolk, who refused to ring the parish church bells. On 23 August 1642, the day after King Charles 1st formally declared war on Parliament, a skirmish was fought outside the town between Parliamentary forces led by Lord Brooke and Royalist forces commanded by the Earl of Northampton; the Battle of Southam is claimed by locals to have been the first battle of the English Civil Wars. That year, Charles stayed in Southam before the Battle of Edgehill on 23 October 1642.

In 1645 Oliver Cromwell and 7,000 Parliamentary troops stayed in the town. In the stagecoach era Southam became an important stop on the coach road between Coventry and Oxford. Many old coaching inns remain in the town. However, few buildings in Southam date from before 1741. Southam was never on a railway; the Great Western Railway had absorbed the Birmingham and Oxford Junction Railway in 1848, when the GWR line to Birmingham opened in 1852 Southam had a station 3 miles to the south-west, named Southam Road and Harbury. British Railways closed the station to goods in 1963 and passengers in 1964; the line is now part of the London Marylebone to Birmingham Chiltern Line. The London and North Western Railway completed its Weedon to Marton Junction Line in 1895 and opened Southam and Long Itchington station on it 2 miles north of Southam. British Railways closed the station to passengers in 1958 and goods in 1965. Southam was the seat of Southam Rural District from 1894 until 1974, when under the Local Government Act 1972 it was made part of Stratford-on-Avon District.

Southam was in the parliamentary constituency of Stratford-on-Avon until the boundary changes approved by Parliament in June 2007 when it became part of the new constituency of Kenilworth and Southam. The constituency was first contested in the 2010 United Kingdom general election. RAF Southam, about 0.6 miles east of the town, was a World War II airfield. It was opened in 1940 and closed at the end of 1944, it was a relief landing ground. Southam's history is commemorated in Southam's Cardall Collection; the dominant rock type for the area is Blue Lias clay. Until there was a cement factory and associated quarry 1 mile north of the town; the works was served by both rail and canal transport — the latter being a short arm from the Grand Union Canal. Cement production was quarrying at the site continues. South of the town is an industrial estate, a significant source of local employment. Europe's largest owned computer games company, was founded by two locals and is based nearby; the Dallas Burston Polo Club is located just outside Southam on the Leamingto

Radio Paradise

Radio Paradise is a listener-sponsored Internet radio station that identifies itself as an "eclectic online rock radio" station. The channel differs from most FM channels and other Internet stations in that the music played is chosen by human DJs to form thematic relationships in smooth arcs. Music is not limited to a narrow range of genres, but instead represent great variety. Radio Paradise plays different styles of pop and rock music, but other genres from jazz to classical to electronic music and world music. While Radio Paradise is a for-profit business, it does not broadcast commercials but is financially supported through donations from listeners, it is known familiarly as "RP". Radio Paradise streams are available in MP3, Ogg Vorbis, AAC-LC, HE-AAC, HE-AAC v2, WMA and RealAudio in bitrates up to 320 kbits/s as well as in lossless compressed FLAC, they can be accessed through Apple's iTunes radio tuner service, the TuneIn streaming service, the "Cool Streams" playlist built into the Amarok Media Player, the Radio Roku service, the Logitech Squeezebox sound system, via iOS and Android app as well as other devices.

The web site offers a real-time "recently played" facility affording listeners the ability to rate and comment on individual songs on the playlist, as well as songs on the Listener Review Channel, consisting of songs uploaded by listeners to be considered for airplay. Aside from providing a varied selection of music, Radio Paradise has a lively online community via its song comments, journals, comments section and contests on the web site. Radio Paradise has more than 135,000 registered members and hundreds of thousands of listeners from all regions of the world; as of 2019, the active play music library has over 16,000 songs and the total library size is over a million songs. The web site and playout systems use Linux and customized open-source software components for most of its sections, a system devised by Goldsmith for KPIG's playout system; some of the technologies used include PHP and BBCode. The station was started in February 2000 by his wife Rebecca Goldsmith, it was operated from their home in Paradise, from which it derives its name.

When the town was destroyed by wildfire in November 2018, the Goldsmiths reassured their listeners via their website that they and the station were safe, as they had relocated to the Borrego Valley around 2016. Bill has been a DJ at various stations since 1971, as well as working as a radio station manager, a radio & TV engineer. In August 1995 Goldsmith inaugurated the world's first full-time webcast at KPIG using Xing Streamworks software. Radio Paradise was featured in a TIME magazine article of April 11, 2004 on "The Revolution In Radio". April 2006, RP introduced the Listeners World Map, showing the numbers and locations of listeners across the world. In June 2006 Radio Paradise began trial runs of Octoshape for its 192 kbit/s MP3 stream. In September 2006, the station began. In 2012, RP began a 320 kbp/s AAC stream, is now offering lossless streaming. On March 6, 2007, the Copyright Royalty Board increased royalty rates, which would have raised the station's royalty fees tenfold. Bill Goldsmith spoke about this as a serious threat to the station and urged his listeners to sign an online petition to save the station.

In subsequent negotiations, royalty rates were established that allowed Radio Paradise and other Internet radio stations to continue operations. Official website Alternative player by Azer Koçulu Radio Paradise playlist at playlistr.net

Waterkloof House Preparatory School

Waterkloof House Preparatory School is situated in Pretoria, South Africa, is an independent primary school, offering education to Grade 000 and Grade 00 boys and girls, Grade 0–7 boys only through the medium of English. Well known former pupils include, amongst Deon Chang, journalist. Waterkloof House Preparatory School has grown from its small beginnings in 1923 with a total of twelve pupils to a prestigious preparatory school for boys opening its doors to more than 400 pupils every year; the original Brooklyn House Preparatory School was located on the south-east corner of MacKenzie and Alexander Streets in Brooklyn without electricity or modern conveniences. To cope with the expanding numbers, the school moved to its present seven and a half acre site on Charles Street known as Bailey's Avenue early in 1925; the Ruddells ran this private boys school until 1946 and established the relaxed teacher-pupil relationship coupled with firm but fair discipline, which have become part of the school's tradition.

The school was bought by Mr Wilfred MacRobert when the Ruddells retired in 1946. WHiPS, as the school became known, was a family institution for the 18 years that Mr MacRobert was associated with it. Frederick J Ruddell and Captain Ernest Ruddell, twin sons of General and Mrs Ruddell Founders and Headmasters of Waterkloof House Preparatory School known as Brooklyn House Preparatory School, or more familiarly, ‘Ruddells’. At a time when South Africa was still recovering form the traumas of the Great War and the devastating strike on the Rand in 1922, when General Smuts was Prime Minister, a brand new four-seater motor car could be purchased for £190 and family houses in Arcadia were selling for £1 500, the Ruddell brothers opened their Preparatory School for boys on Friday, 2 February 1923, with a total complement of twelve day boys and two boarders Writing the 1942 School magazine, Captain Ruddell recorded: “There are few boys who passed through Ruddells in the ‘thirties’ and ‘forties’ who will not recall with great affection Miss Meggis Lloyd, a member of staff since 1927.

Before closing these notes I wish to record a special word of appreciation to Miss Lloyd for her unfounding help and co-operation in all that concerned the welfare of the school. During these difficult times, caused by changes of staff as, one by one our teachers have joined the Forces, Miss Lloyd has been ready to step into the breach and to give whole-hearted help wherever possible.” Joining the school of a little under 100 boys in 1943, Dudley Gower established himself as a play writer and producer of note, producing no fewer than four successful plays in his first year. An innovative, selfless man, he introduced many worthwhile changes including the introduction of SG 1 and 2, more efficient timetabling, fortnightly report cards and daily report forms, he succeeded to Headmastership in 1947 on the express wish of Wilf MacRobert, to succeed him three years later. It was during Dudley’s first year as a headmaster that WHPS experienced its first ‘strike’! The shock to the boys of General Smuts and his United Party's unexpected loss of the first post-war election was too much for the boys to tolerate!

At the end of 1949, Dudley Gower returned to England. “His going will be a great loss to the school and to me personally,” acknowledged Wilf. “Those of us who have been associated with him during the past few years, know well the outstanding ability and hours of hard work which he gave so selflessly to the welfare of the school. Many of his ideas and innovations in the general routine of the school will be of permanent value to us. We will miss him most though for the man he is, a man of character and ideals with the courage of his convictions, a fine sense of humour and one who invariably put himself last.” With the retirement of the Ruddells at the end of 1946, they offered the Headmastership to Wilfred MacRobert, an old boy, who at the age of 27 years felt that he was too young and inexperienced to become a headmaster having only joined the school in 1946. "Mr Dudley Gower agreed to act as headmaster. This was an altruistic act of Dudley’s for which I shall always be grateful.” WHPS had now grown to a staff of 9 teachers and 144 pupils, at which time Grade 1 and Grade 2 classes were established.

It fell to Michael Quail to uphold the proud record and traditions established by the previous headmasters. Michael was supported by his wife, herself a university graduate and teacher of English, Drama and a playwright who brought vigour into classrooms and onto the hockey fields, it was during the Quail era that WHPS entered into a period of consolidation. The Transvaal Education Department's Curricula and schemes of work were introduced and, following a referendum of parents, Standard 6 classes were abandoned. Seven new classrooms were built during his headmastership, which included improved facilities for science, art exhibitions, a museum under the organisation of Dr and Mrs Robbie Macmillan. Woodwork classes were introduced and with a library expanded to 2 226 books, compulsory half hour weekly library periods were introduced for all classes. Enrolment of pupils in the Golden Jubilee Year of 1973 stood at 40 boarders. Midway through the school's 50th anniversary year, celebrated with a

Legend of the Liquid Sword (album)

Legend of the Liquid Sword is the fourth solo studio album by American hip hop artist GZA, a member of the Wu-Tang Clan. It was released December 10, 2002; the album is named after the kung fu film Legend of the Liquid Sword. In the songs "Did Ya Say That", "Knock Knock", GZA focuses on the politics of record labels, expresses his issues in dealing with record companies over artistic goals in music, it would be known as one of MCA Records' last two projects, along with rapper Common's fifth album, Electric Circus, before the label was dissolved and absorbed by Geffen Records. Brett Berliner of Stylus Magazine said: "The man is brilliant, although these aren’t the lyrics that will appeal to most, they are some of the best. It’s just like why simple books appeal to the masses – most people can’t comprehend this much depth."Jonah Weiner of Blender magazine stated: "This abstract skill put his 1995 masterpiece, Liquid Swords, in the running for best Wu solo album, but dense, volatile production pushed it over the top — the prosaic soul loops here are solid enough, but fall short of the legend."The overall sound of the album conflicted much of the mainstream hip-hop at the time of its release.

Samira Niazy of prefixmag.com rated the album 8.0 out of 10 and concluded: "One of the things you'll notice is that GZA's more unique and real style shines through because he focuses on lyricism rather than distracting the listener with loud instrumental background noise. It draws your attention to his distinct style. Thankfully, Legend of the Liquid Sword sounds nothing like the hip-pop that's on heavy rotation on hip-hop stations right now."Though many opinions varied on whether the album was the classic "Wu-Tang sound", Ari Levenfeld of PopMatters feels: "If Legend of the Liquid Sword is any indication of the Wu-Tang Clan's efforts to come, it doesn't seem like the group is all that interested in expanding their fan base or growing musically. Maybe they've done; the franchise is working... GZA isn't trying to be someone he's not. He's all about the original recipe."

1920 Argyll by-election

The Argyllshire by-election, 1920 was a parliamentary by-election held for the British House of Commons constituency of Argyllshire on 10 March 1920. The by-election was caused by the appointment of the sitting Coalition Liberal MP Sir William Sutherland as a Lord of the Treasury; this was an office of appointment under the Crown which enabled Sutherland to take up the post of Scottish Liberal whip but under the constitutional requirements of the day it meant he had to resign and fight a by-election. As the candidate of the Liberal-Conservative coalition government Sutherland had no Unionist opponent. Neither did he face opposition by the Independent Asquithian Liberals, who chose not to stand a candidate, he was however opposed by the Reverend M MacCallum of Oban for Labour. Reverend MacCallum was reported as being not only the representative of the Labour Party but of the Highland Land League. Another candidate representing the Labour and the Highland Land League had been Sutherland’s only opponent in Argyllshire at the 1918 general election.

Sutherland was fighting on the record of the Coalition government. Given this was a straight fight between the Coalition and Labour it is little surprise that Sutherland sought to portray it as a struggle against socialism and nationalisation and that MacCallum played up the issue of community control against the vested interests ranged against the working class; the press reported. Because the combined Liberal and Conservative votes were substantial there seemed little likelihood of an upset; because of the scattered geography of the constituency it took until 24 March to get all the ballots collected and counted and the result formally declared. Sutherland held the seat with a reduced majority but Labour had nearly doubled its share of the vote. List of United Kingdom by-elections United Kingdom by-election records Argyllshire

Pussycat Dolls Present: Girlicious

Pussycat Dolls Present: Girlicious was the second and final season of Pussycat Dolls Present that premiered on February 18, 2008 on The CW, aired for a total of eight weeks. It was a joint venture between Ken Mok's 10x10 Entertainment, Pussycat LLC, Interscope A&M Records, Wonderland Sound and Vision, Warner Horizon Television; the show was filmed in the summer of 2007, followed aspiring female singers/dancers competed in order to claim their spots to become the group "Girlicious". Girlicious is the creation of Robin Antin, creator of The Pussycat Dolls, who in the first season was searching for the next doll, but was now searching for an new pop group by the name Girlicious. Girlicious, unlike the Pussycat Dolls, was a all female trio; this is the format for the second season of the Pussycat Dolls Present series, focusing on female dancers/singers, looking for fame in the music industry. This season features 15 young women competing for the three slots open; the contestants are: Alexis Pelekanos, Carrie Jones, Cassandra Porter, Charlotte Benesch, Charlye Nichols, Chrystina Sayers, Ilisa Juried, Jamie Lee Ruiz, Jenna Artzer, Keisha Henry, Kristin McCallum-Vlaze, Megan Dupre, Natalie Mejia, Nichole Cordova and Tiffanie Anderson.

The album was released on August 12, 2008 and their first single, "Like Me" premiered on April 23 right after the finale of the series. The same day, "Stupid Shit" was released. A third season of Pussycat Dolls Present was planned, but the show was cancelled due to its low ratings. Jamie: Dyed auburn and orange highlights Charlye: Bangs added, extended Carrie: Bangs added, dyed whiter platinum blonde Tiffanie: Trimmed, sidebangs added Natalie: Straightened, dyed chestnut Chrystina: Extended, trimmed Nichole: Yellow blonde extensions added Jenna: Dyed darker and chestnut highlights Ilisa: Trimmed and had shine added Cassandra: Edgier cut and brown highlights Colour keyNotes: On Week 1 the contestants were called by groups except for the last six who were called individually. On Weeks 2 and 4 they were called by groups, with the weakest group up for elimination and on Weeks 3 and 5 they were all called together except for the immunity winner and the bottom four. Afterwards things got back to the bottom two system.

On Week 3 Natalie was called out by Mark McGrath but not by Robin. On Week 6 Jenna was called and eliminated, Chrystina wasn't called at all. In the finale, Robin called the first two winners Charlye, eliminated and surprised Natalie and Chrystina by telling them they would both be in the group. On Week 5 Charlye and Chrystina were rewarded a Hello Kitty diamond necklace for their performance on the challenge, on Week 6 Charlye was given an extra vocal session by Kenn Hicks and on Week 9 Natalie only won to have her Extra promo aired, not immunity. Week 7 is a recap episode. On Week 5 two contestants were planned to be sent home, while on Week 9 the judges couldn't agree on whom to send home and kept all 5 girls. After some bonding where Keisha reveals herself to be a lesbian, Charlye that her father died and Cassandra shows the girls her tattoo, the 15 semi-finalists are told that they must pick one song each by a pre-selected group of three; the results are as follows: The girls practice and Keisha's vocal short-comings are highlighted.

Charlotte and Natalie have an argument. The girls are taken to the Tom Tom club. At the club, the girls perform both Ilisa and Carrie impress the judges. Back at home, Jenna is taken to the emergency room, she spends the rest of rehearsal in a wheelchair, much to Robin's astonishment. In the final performance, Group 2 and 5 are deemed the worst but Ilisa and Carrie are spared, narrowing the group to 12 finalists; the girls move into the house and Chrystina and Natalie separate themselves from the rest and gossip. During vocal rehearsals of the N Sync group, former member of *NSYNC JC Chasez surprised the girls and gave advice about being in a group; the girls are taught about confidence and learn that their song assignments will be as follows: They are taken to a baseball game where they learn that their challenge will be to sing the national anthem in front of the audience. Only one group will sing it though and the best individual in that group will be safe from elimination at this weeks performance.

After a first check, the group made up of Carrie, Charlye and Chrystina is selected to sing The National Anthem. Carrie wins immunity for being the best overall. Back at home Natalie is confronted by her teammates for not being confident at the challenge, bringing her to tears so she calls her mom who encourages her to bring her confidence up. At the final performance, "Baby One More Time" is unanimously deemed the worst and Megan and Cassandra land in the bottom two. In the end, Megan is eliminated for being too pompous; this week is about charisma. Robin selects Carrie and Charlye as team leaders and Ilisa is the last to be picked; the song assignments are as follows: Ilisa struggles with not having a place in the competition. The girls are taken to a listening party where they meet Nicole from The Pussycat Dolls and hear her new solo album; the girls perform "I Don't Need a Man" in front of critical fans in their groups. The fans liked Nichole, Jamie and Natalie. Natalie wins immunity for receiving the most votes.

Back at the house, Ilisa tells the girls about her story of living with a heart defect and wanting to inspire people with her music. Meanwhile, Tiffanie gets criticism for being too over the top. During the final performance, the judges deem all the groups as good and Chrystina lands in the bottom two with Alexis, elimi