The New Forest is one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land and forest in Southern England, covering southwest Hampshire and southeast Wiltshire. It was proclaimed a royal forest by William the Conqueror, featuring in the Domesday Book. Pre-existing rights of common pasture are still recognised today, being enforced by official verderers. In the 18th century, The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy, it remains a habitat for mammals. Like much of England, the site of the New Forest was once deciduous woodland, recolonised by birch and beech and oak after the withdrawal of the ice sheets starting around 12,000 years ago; some areas were cleared for cultivation from the Bronze Age onwards. There was still a significant amount of woodland in this part of Britain, but this was reduced towards the end of the Middle Iron Age around 250–100 BC, most the 12th and 13th centuries, of this all that remains today is the New Forest. There are around 250 round barrows within its boundaries, scattered boiling mounds, it includes about 150 scheduled ancient monuments.
One such barrow in particular may represent the only known inhumation burial of the Early Iron Age and the only known Hallstatt culture burial in Britain. Following Anglo-Saxon settlement in Britain, according to Florence of Worcester, the area became the site of the Jutish kingdom of Ytene; the Jutes were one of the early Anglo-Saxon tribal groups who colonised this area of southern Hampshire. The word ytene is found locally as a synonym for giant, features in local folklore. Following the Norman Conquest, the New Forest was proclaimed a royal forest, in about 1079, by William the Conqueror, it was used for royal hunts of deer. It was created at the expense of isolated farmsteads; the New Forest was first recorded as Nova Foresta in Domesday Book in 1086, where a section devoted to it is interpolated between lands of the king's thegns and the town of Southampton. Twelfth-century chroniclers alleged that William had created the forest by evicting the inhabitants of 36 parishes, reducing a flourishing district to a wasteland.
Two of William's sons died in the forest: Prince Richard sometime between 1069 and 1075, King William II in 1100. Local folklore asserted that this was punishment for the crimes committed by William when he created his New Forest, but this wicked act did not long go unpunished. This Forest at present affordeth great variety of Game, where his Majesty oft-times withdraws himself for his divertisement; the reputed spot of Rufus's death is marked with a stone known as the Rufus Stone. John White, Bishop of Winchester, said of the forest: From God and Saint King Rufus did Churches take, From Citizens town-court, mercate place, From Farmer lands: New Forrest for to make, In Beaulew tract, where whiles the King in chase Pursues the hart, just vengeance comes apace, And King pursues. Tirrell him seing not, Unwares him flew with dint of arrow shot; the common rights were confirmed by statute in 1698. The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy, plantations were created in the 18th century for this purpose.
In the Great Storm of 1703, about 4000 oak trees were lost. The naval plantations encroached on the rights of the Commoners, but the Forest gained new protection under the New Forest Act 1877, which confirmed the historic rights of the Commoners and entrenched that the total of enclosures was henceforth not to exceed 65 km2 at any time, it reconstituted the Court of Verderers as representatives of the Commoners. As of 2005 90% of the New Forest is still owned by the Crown; the Crown lands have been managed by the Forestry Commission since 1923 and most of the Crown lands now fall inside the new National Park. Felling of broadleaved trees, their replacement by conifers, began during the First World War to meet the wartime demand for wood. Further encroachments were made during the Second World War; this process is today being reversed in places, with some plantations being returned to heathland or broadleaved woodland. Rhododendron remains a problem. During the Second World War, an area of the forest, Ashley Range, was used as a bombing range.
Further New Forest Acts followed in 1949, 1964 and 1970. The New Forest became a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1971, was granted special status as the New Forest Heritag
Heathrow Airport Holdings
Heathrow Airport Holdings Limited BAA is the United Kingdom-based operator of Heathrow Airport. The company operated Gatwick Airport and Stansted Airport, plus several other UK airports under its former name, but was forced by the Competition Commission to sell them and some other UK airports in order to break up a monopoly, it was formed by the privatisation of the British Airports Authority as BAA plc as part of Margaret Thatcher's moves to privatise government-owned assets, was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. BAA plc was bought in 2006 by a consortium led by Ferrovial, a Spanish firm specialising in the design, financing and maintenance of transport and services infrastructure. In March 2009 the company was required to sell Gatwick and Stansted airports, over the following years sold all its airports other than Heathrow; the company was renamed Heathrow Airport Holdings in 2012 to reflect its main business. The company's head office is located in The Compass Centre on the grounds of Heathrow Airport in the London Borough of Hillingdon.
The company makes money from charging landing fees to airlines and from ancillary operations within those airports such as retail and property. The British Airports Authority was established by the passing of Airport Authority Act 1965, to take responsibility for four state-owned airports from the Ministry of Aviation – Heathrow Airport, Gatwick Airport, Prestwick Airport and Stansted Airport. In the following few years, the authority acquired Edinburgh Airport, Glasgow Airport and Aberdeen Airport; the authority took on the Ministry of Civil Aviation Constabulary in 1966, renamed to become the British Airports Authority Constabulary, was disbanded between 1974 and 1975. As part of Margaret Thatcher's moves to privatise government owned assets, the Airports Act 1986 was passed which mandated the creation of BAA plc as a vehicle by which stock market funds could be raised; the initial capitalisation of BAA plc was £1,225 million. In the early 1990s, the company sold Prestwick International Airport.
BAA won a contract to manage the retail operations at Pittsburgh International Airport in 1991. In December 2005, BAA made a winning bid of £1.2 billion for a 75% stake in Budapest Ferihegy International Airport, the largest airport in Hungary, being privatised by the Hungarian government. In July 2006, BAA was taken over by a consortium led by Ferrovial, following a bid which valued the company at £10.1 billion. As a result, the company was delisted from the London Stock Exchange on 15 August 2006. Following the take-over, the decision was made to sell the stake in Ferihegy and this was completed in June 2007, when a consortium led by Hochtief AirPort of Germany purchased the stake. BAA expanded into international operations, including retail contracts at Boston Logan International Airport and Baltimore-Washington International Airport, a management contract with the City of Indianapolis to run the Indianapolis International Airport before selling off its US division to Prospect Capital Corporation in July 2010.
After an inquiry from August 2008 – March 2009, the UK Competition Commission announced that BAA would be required to sell three of the seven UK airports it owned at the time. These were Gatwick and either Glasgow or Edinburgh airports within two years over fears the monopoly position held by BAA over London and Scotland's airports could have "adverse effects for both passengers and airlines"; the sales were forecast to raise between £ 3.5 £ 4bn. BAA announced plans to sell Gatwick Airport on 17 September 2009. At that time, Gatwick Airport was valued at £1.8bn by regulators and it appeared that multiple firms including Macquarie Group, Manchester Airports Group and Virgin Atlantic were interested in this sale, either on their own or as part of a consortium of companies. Ferrovial and its partners had been seeking £ 1.8 bn - £ 2bn. The sale was confirmed on 21 October 2009 and formally completed on 3 December 2009, for a fee of £1.51 billion. This was 25 per cent less than BAA had expected Gatwick would fetch when the sale was announced a year previously.
BAA sold the airport to Global Infrastructure Partners, the fund backed by Credit Suisse and General Electric, who operate London City Airport. Ferrovial, the majority holder in BAA, said that it expected to make a capital loss of around 142 million euros against its consolidated earnings following the sale. On 19 October 2011, BAA announced that Edinburgh Airport would be put up for sale in early 2012 with an aim to handing over the running of the site to a new owner by summer 2012. Numerous groups were reported to have expressed interest, including a consortium of Scottish businesses headed by former Edinburgh Airport Manager, Fraport, the owners of Frankfurt Airport, Germany; the airport was sold to Global Infrastructure Partners in 2012. On 18 January 2013, Heathrow Airport Holdings Limited announced the sale of Stansted to the Manchester Airports Group, a holding company owned by the 10 borough councils of Greater Manchester. In May 2014, Heathrow Airport Holdings announced the appointment of John Holland-Kaye, current Development Director, as chief executive officer, succeeding Colin Matthews on 1 July 2014.
The company agreed on 16 October 2014 to sell Glasgow and Aberdeen airports to AGS Airports, a consortium of Ferrovial and Macquarie Group for £1 billion, to focus on Heathrow. As BAA
Flybe styled as flybe, is a British airline based in Exeter, England. Until its sale to Connect Airways, it was the largest independent regional airline in Europe. Flybe carries 8 million passengers a year between 81 airports across the UK and the rest of Europe, with over 210 routes across 15 countries, its two hubs are Manchester and Birmingham airports but it has a number of codeshares allowing connections to long-haul flights from airports such as London Heathrow, Paris CDG, Dublin and Amsterdam. The airline is a member of the European Regions Airline Association; the airline launched in 1979 as Jersey European Airways following the merger of Intra Airways and Express Air Services. In 1983 the airline was sold to Walker Steel Group, which owned Spacegrand Aviation, the two airlines were merged under the Jersey European name in 1985. Jersey European was renamed British European in 2000, received its current name in 2002. In February 2019, the airline was sold to the Connect Airways consortium, backed by Virgin Atlantic and Stobart Aviation.
Connect Airways intends Flybe and Stobart Air to subsequently operate under the Virgin Atlantic brand, though they will retain their own Air Operator Certificates. Flybe started operations on 1 November 1979 as Jersey European Airways as a result of a merger of the Jersey-based Intra Airways and the Bournemouth-based Express Air Services, was founded by John Habin, a resident of Jersey and the majority investor. After selling Aviation Beauport and other business interests, Habin established some key routes from Jersey Airport to the UK, before selling the airline in November 1983 to Jack Walker's Walker Steel Group, which owned the Blackpool-based charter airline Spacegrand Aviation; the two airlines were run separately, with shared management, until 1985 when they amalgamated under the Jersey European name, with the airline's headquarters moving to Exeter Airport. The airline became British European in June 2000, shortening this title to Flybe on 18 July 2002 and repositioning itself as a full-service, low-fare airline.
On 3 November 2006 it was announced that Flybe would buy BA Connect, except for that airline's services out of London City Airport. The takeover was complete in March 2007; the expanded airline's owners were Rosedale Aviation Holdings, Flybe staff and – as a result of the BA Connect takeover – International Airlines Group. The acquisition increased Flybe's route network in both the UK and continental Europe, making Flybe Europe's largest regional airline. On 14 January 2008 it was announced that Flybe had signed a franchise agreement with Scottish airline Loganair, to commence on 26 October 2008 following the termination of Loganair's franchise agreement with British Airways on 25 October 2008; the agreement would see Loganair aircraft flying in Flybe colours on 55 routes from Scotland. In 2008, in order to avoid losing a £280,000 rebate from Norwich Airport, Flybe advertised for "actors", as well as offering free return flights to Dublin on its website; as a result, the environmental group Friends of the Earth called on the government to launch an investigation into the aviation industry.
Chief executive officer Jim French was recognised in the 2009 Queen's Birthday Honours List with a CBE for his services to the airline industry. On 10 December 2010, Flybe floated an IPO on the London Stock Exchange, with trading in shares commencing on the same day. Full public release of shares followed on 15 December 2010; the share price was set at 295p, valuing the company at £215 million, raising £66 million for the company, half of, to pay for fleet expansion. On 23 May 2013, it was reported that Flybe had sold its slots at Gatwick Airport to EasyJet for £20 million, that the slots would be handed over to EasyJet on 29 March 2014. CEO and chairman Jim French retired in August 2013, leaving the post of CEO to Saad Hammad of EasyJet, while Simon Laffin became chairman. By November 2013, Hammad had shaken up the operation, requesting the resignations of three top managers within six weeks of his arrival. Out of 158 routes flown at the time, over 60 did not cover their direct operating expenses and the costs of crew and aircraft.
On 23 April 2014, Flybe announced that it would launch domestic and international flights from London City Airport from 27 October 2014 after signing a five-year deal with the airport. The airline is expecting to carry around 500,000 passengers a year, with all five allocated aircraft being based around the Flybe network overnight. In March 2014, it was announced; this new scheme included new interior features and new uniforms. British Airways sold most of its remaining stake in the airline in June 2014, it had been reduced to 5% by share issues. In early 2015 it was announced that Flybe had negotiated a six-year agreement with SAS Scandinavian Airlines to fly 4 ATR 72–600 aircraft on their behalf, starting in October 2015. On 4 March 2015, Flybe announced new routes from Cardiff Airport bringing the number of routes to eleven. Flybe stated their intention to create a new base at Cardiff Airport and in Summer 2015 based two Embraer 195 aircraft there, which has since increased to three. On 10 November 2015, Flybe announced that it would base two Embraer 195 aircraft at Doncaster Sheffield Airport, starting new routes to Amsterdam, Berlin Tegel, Paris CDG, Alicante, Málaga and Newquay as of 27 March 2016.
This announcement came on the same day that Flybe announced that they would be pulling flights from Bournemouth Airport. Dublin Airport was added in October 2016. On 26 October 2016, it was announced that Hammad would be standing down as CEO with immediate effe
Aberdeen International Airport is an international airport, located at Dyce, a suburb of Aberdeen, Scotland 5 nautical miles northwest of Aberdeen city centre. A total of just under 3.1 million passengers used the airport in 2017, an increase of 4.6% compared with 2016. The airport is owned and operated by AGS Airports which owns and operates Glasgow and Southampton airports, it was owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings. Aberdeen Airport is a base for Eastern Airways and Loganair; the airport serves as the main heliport for the Scottish offshore oil industry. With the utilisation of newer aircraft, helicopters can reach northernmost platforms on both the east and west of Shetland areas. However, helicopters sometimes use Wick, Kirkwall and Sumburgh for refuelling stops; the airport has one main passenger terminal, serving all charter holiday flights. In addition, there are four terminals dedicated to North Sea helicopter operations, used by Bristow Helicopters, CHC Helicopter, NHV and Babcock Mission Critical Services Offshore.
Bristow Helicopters have a small terminal adjacent to the main passenger terminal, used for oil company charter flights to Scatsta and Sumburgh in Shetland, operated by Eastern Airways. The airport opened in 1934, established by Eric Gandar Dower, intended to link the northern islands of Scotland with London. During Second World War the airfield became a Royal Air Force station – RAF Dyce, it was the site of the Dyce Sector Operations Room within No. 13 Group RAF. Although fighters were there throughout the Battle of Britain to provide protection from German bombing raids from Occupied Norway, it was used as a photographic reconnaissance station. Anti-shipping operations by Coastal Command were carried out from RAF Dyce as well as convoy escort; the airfield was bombed by the Luftwaffe on 26 July 1940 and 27 August 1940, no damage was reported. A decoy site was located at Harestone Moss near Whitecairns; the aim of this site was to create the impression of an active airfield during the night. The decoy worked on around four occasions, where several raids resulted in bombs being dropped on the decoy site.
The decoy site had a small underground bunker. This was used to power a decoy'flarepath' in addition to a rotating lamp to give the impression of a taxiing aircraft. Near the airport off the A96, to deter German gliders landing to attack RAF Dyce during WW2, the flat areas across from Concraig Farm had wooden poles erected as anti-glider landing poles. A Spitfire IIa crashed at the east side of the airfield on 19 November 1941 during attack practice with a target glider being towed. F/O Zaoral is buried in the old Dyce graveyard, where some German aircrew are buried that crashed in Aberdeen in 1940. A significant wartime event occurred in May 1943 when a German, Junkers Ju 88 night fighter landed here; the surrender of this aircraft was of great intelligence value at the time, as it was fitted with the latest FuG 202 Liechtenstein BC A. I radar; the aircraft is displayed in the RAF Museum in London. On 17 August 1943, a Mosquito crashed following a stall in the circuit, crashing onto 5 John Street in Dyce village.
On 26 December 1944, A Messerschmitt BF109G signalling intentions to surrender crash landed at the airfield. On 16 May 1945, two pilots were killed when a Wellington bomber crashed on landing wrecking a goods train in Dyce Station. During air raids in the Second World War, aircraft were moved to East Fingask beside Oldmeldrum. One RAF building still remains at East Fingask, where aircrews waited for the "All Clear" before returning to Dyce airfield; the following units have been based at Aberdeen Airport: Virtually nothing remains from the war era at the airport due to expansion and development of the industrial estates around it. The original airport terminal was located at the East Side where the Bond Offshore Helicopters Terminal 2 is located, a new terminal was built along with a new control tower to handle the increase in air traffic; the airport was nationalised in 1947 and was transferred to the control of the British Airports Authority in 1975. From 1967 and 1970 there were regular flights to Toronto.
With the discovery of North Sea oil, helicopter operations began in 1967, linking the growing number of oil platforms to the mainland. As Aberdeen became the largest oil-related centre in Europe, the airport became the world's largest commercial heliport. Today, Aberdeen Airport handles more than 37,000 rotary wing movements carrying around 468,000 passengers annually. Helicopters account for half of all aircraft movements at the airport; until March 2005, aircraft were not allowed to take-off or land between 22:30 and 06:00 local time due to noise constraints. The city council overturned this ban, despite some Dyce residents' objections, the airport is now open 24 hours a day to fixed-wing aircraft with a quota count of QC4 or below, the overnight restrictions still apply to helicopters. General aviation flight training for private pilots licences takes place from the East Side of the airport. Signature Flight Support handles most of the private flights and corporate jets that park on the Eastside Apron.
The air ambulance is positioned on the eastside apron in a dedicated hangar, Gama Aviation operates King-Air aircraft from Aberdeen. Aberdeen, being a major city in the oil industry h
Busiest airports in the United Kingdom by total passenger traffic
This is a list of the busiest airports in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands, Isle of Man ranked by total passenger traffic, compiled from Civil Aviation Authority data from 2006 to 2016. For some years the figures show total aircraft movements and cargo volume handled at each airport. For a complete list of UK airports, see List of airports in the United Kingdom and the British Crown Dependencies; the United Kingdom, an island country, is home to many of Europe's busiest airports. London-Heathrow, which handles over 75 million international passengers annually, is the largest airport in the UK. London serves as the largest aviation hub in the world by passenger traffic, with six international airports, handling over 163 million passengers in 2016, more than any other city. London's second-busiest airport, London-Gatwick, was until 2016 the world's busiest single-runway airport. Manchester Airport is the United Kingdom's third-busiest airport. London-Stansted and London-Luton are the fourth- and fifth-busiest airports, respectively.
The largest airport operator in the United Kingdom is Heathrow Airport Holdings, followed by Manchester Airports Group. Together with British Airways and Virgin Atlantic Airways, they are part of the Aviation Foundation which lobby for the aviation needs of the United Kingdom; the following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2018, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 2018 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2017, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 2017 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic and Aircraft Movements in 2016, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 2016 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2015, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 2015 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2014, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 1990–2014 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2013, from UK CAA statistics.
Source: UK CAA Airport Data 1990–2014 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2012, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 1990–2014 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2011, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 1990–2014 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2010, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 1990–2014 The following is a list of the 40 largest UK airports by total passenger traffic in 2009, from UK CAA statistics. Source: UK CAA Airport Data 1990–2014 Source: UK CAA Official Statistics Source: UK CAA Official Statistics Source: UK CAA Official Statistics Source: UK CAA Official Statistics Source: UK CAA Official Statistics Heathrow Airport – Terminal 5 opened on 27 March 2008, increasing the total passenger numbers to over 90 million making Heathrow the world's busiest airport. Plans for a third runway could increase aircraft movement and see over 115 million passengers using Heathrow annually.
See Future expansion and Expansion of London Heathrow Airport. Gatwick Airport – Battling with Heathrow for Government decision on an extra runway. A second runway at Gatwick could see it match or overtake Heathrow's traffic and income. Supporters say. Manchester Airport – Expansion of services and facilities at Manchester Airport estimates a usage by 50 million passengers in 2030, more than twice as many as the airport handles now. London Stansted Airport – Plans for a second runway to increase capacity were shelved in 2010. Sold by BAA to Manchester Airports group in 2013, following a Competition Commission ruling. See Stansted proposed expansion for more. Luton Airport – Luton's usage has increased by around 900% between 1991 and 2006. See Development plans and the future Birmingham Airport – Birmingham Airport extended its runway to accommodate long haul flights to the Far East, South America and West Coast; the airport has drawn up plans for a second runway linked to High Speed 2. Leeds Bradford Airport – In November 2008, Bridgepoint Capital announced a £28 million expansion of the current terminal building at Leeds Bradford International Airport, enabling the airport to handle in excess of 6 million passengers a year.
The airport intends to increase parking, the number of aircraft stands, build a railway link towards Horsforth, enabling a link with Leeds railway station. Bournemouth Airport – A £45 million redevelopment by Manchester Airports group was announced in 2006 and began in 2008; the terminal building is to double in size, to replace the arrivals terminal, increase the number of stands/gates from 4 to 13 and to add more car parking spaces. Improvements to the local infrastructure, as well as the possibility of the construction of a new hotel are included in the redevelopment phases. London Southend Airport – Since its purchase by the Stobart Group in 2008, London Southend Airport has embarked on a massive programme of development including a 300-metre runway extension, new terminal, railway station and hotel. EasyJet commenced services from the airport in April 2012 with the anticipation that 700,000 passengers would be carried by easy
Juan de la Cierva, 1st Count of la Cierva
Juan de la Cierva y Codorníu, 1st Count of la Cierva, OCIII was a Spanish civil engineer and aeronautical engineer. His most famous accomplishment was the invention in 1920 of the Autogiro, a single-rotor type of aircraft that came to be called autogyro in the English language. In 1923, after four years of experimentation, De la Cierva developed the articulated rotor, which resulted in the world's first successful flight of a stable rotary-wing aircraft, with his C.4 prototype. De la Cierva was born in Spain to a wealthy family. After several successful experiments with aviation as a boy, he earned a civil engineering degree, he moved to the United Kingdom in 1925 where, with the support of Scottish industrialist James G. Weir, he established the Cierva Autogiro Company. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, De la Cierva supported the National forces, helping the rebels to obtain the De Havilland DH-89'Dragon Rapide' which flew General Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco, his brother was killed by the Republican army in Paracuellos del Jarama.
De la Cierva started building the aircraft as early as 1912, in 1919 he started to consider the use of a rotor to generate lift at low airspeed, eliminate the risk of stall. In order to achieve this, he utilised the ability of a lifting rotor to autorotate, whereby at a suitable pitch setting, a rotor will continue to rotate without mechanical drive, sustained by the torque equilibrium of the lift and drag forces acting on the blades; this phenomenon was known, was available as a safety feature to allow controlled descent of a helicopter in the event of engine failure. With De la Cierva's autogyro, the rotor was drawn through the air by means of a conventional propeller, with the result that the rotor generated sufficient lift to sustain level flight and descent. Before this could be satisfactorily achieved, De la Cierva experienced several failures associated with the unbalanced rolling movement generated when attempting take-off, due to dissymmetry of lift between the advancing and retreating blades.
This major difficulty was resolved by the introduction of the flapping hinge. In 1923, De la Cierva's first successful autogyro was flown in Spain by Lt. Gomez Spencer; this pioneering work was carried out in De la Cierva's native Spain. In 1925 he brought his C.6 to Britain and demonstrated it to the Air Ministry at Farnborough, Hampshire. This machine had a four blade rotor with flapping hinges but relied upon conventional airplane controls for pitch and yaw, it was based upon an Avro 504K fuselage, initial rotation of the rotor was achieved by the rapid uncoiling of a rope passed around stops on the undersides of the blades. The Farnborough demonstration was a great success, resulted in an invitation to continue the work in the UK; as a direct result, with the assistance of the Scottish industrialist James George Weir, the Cierva Autogiro Company, Ltd. was formed the following year. From the outset De la Cierva concentrated upon the design and the manufacture of rotor systems, relying on other established aircraft manufacturers to produce the airframes, predominantly the A.
V. Roe Company; the Avro built C.8 was a refinement of the C.6, with the more powerful 180hp Lynx radial engine, several C.8s were built. The C.8R incorporated drag hinges, due to blade flapping motion causing high blade root stresses in the rotor plane of rotation. The resolution of these fundamental rotor problems opened the way to progress, confidence built up and after several cross-country flights a C.8L4 was entered for the 1928 Kings Cup Air Race. Although forced to withdraw, the C.8L4 subsequently completed a 4,800 km tour of the British Isles. That year it flew from London to Paris thus becoming the first rotating wing aircraft to cross the English Channel; the tour was subsequently extended to include Berlin and Amsterdam. A predominant problem with the autogyro was driving the rotor prior to takeoff. Several methods were attempted in addition to the coiled rope system, which could take the rotor speed to 50% of that required, at which point movement along the ground to reach flying speed was necessary, while tilting the rotor to establish autorotation.
Another approach was to tilt the tail stabiliser to deflect engine slipstream up through the rotor. The most acceptable solution was achieved with the C.19 Mk.4, produced in some quantities. The system was declutched prior to executing the take-off run; as De la Cierva's autogyros achieved success and acceptance, others began to follow and with them came further innovation. Most important was the development of direct rotor control through cyclic pitch variation, achieved by tilting the rotor hub and subsequently by Raoul Hafner by the application of a spider mechanism that acted directly on each rotor blade; the first production direct control autogyro was the C.30, produced in quantity by Avro, Liore et Olivier, Focke-Wulf. Development of cyclic pitch variation was influenced by the Dutch helicopter pioneer Albert Gillis von Baumhauer, who adopted swashplate principle in his designs and influenced Cierva in their meeting in 1928; the introduction of jump take-off was another major improvement in capability.
The rotor was accelerated in no-lift pitch until the rotor speed required for flight was achieved, declutched. The loss of torque caused the blades to
Glasgow Airport known as Glasgow International Airport Abbotsinch Airport, is an international airport in Scotland. It is located in Renfrewshire, 8.6 nautical miles west of Glasgow city centre. In 2017, the airport handled nearly 9.9 million passengers, a 6% annual increase, making it the second-busiest in Scotland, after Edinburgh Airport, the eighth-busiest airport in the United Kingdom. The airport is owned and operated by AGS Airports which owns and operates Aberdeen and Southampton Airports, it was owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings. The airport's largest tenants are British Airways, easyJet and Loganair, the latter using it as a hub. Other major airlines using GLA as a base include Jet2, Thomas Cook Airlines and TUI Airways. Glasgow Airport was opened in 1966 and flights only operated to other places in the United Kingdom and Europe. Glasgow Airport began to offer flights to other places around the world, flights which used Glasgow Prestwick Airport, subsequently relegated as the city's secondary airport catering for low-cost airlines and charter operators.
The history of the present Glasgow Airport goes back to 1932, when the site at Abbotsinch, between the Black Cart Water and the White Cart Water, near Paisley in Renfrewshire, was opened and the Royal Air Force 602 Squadron Auxiliary Air Force moved its Wapiti IIA aircraft from nearby Renfrew in January 1933. The RAF Station HQ, was not formed until 1 July 1936 when 6 Auxiliary Group, Bomber Command, arrived. From May 1939, until moving away in October 1939, the Squadron flew the Supermarine Spitfire. In 1940, a torpedo training unit was formed, which trained both Royal Navy crews. On 11 August 1943 Abbotsinch was handed over to the Royal Navy and it became a naval base. All Her Majesty's Ships and naval bases are given ship names and Abbotsinch's was known as HMS Sanderling since June 1940. During the 1950s, the airfield housed a large aircraft storage unit and squadrons of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve; the Royal Navy left in October 1963. The name Sanderling was, retained as a link between the two: HMS Sanderling's ship's bell was presented to the new airport and a bar in the airport was named The Sanderling Bar.
In the 1960s, Glasgow Corporation decided. The original site of Glasgow's main airport, Renfrew Airport, was 3 km east of Abbotsinch, in what is now the Dean Park area of Renfrew; the original Art Deco terminal building of the original airport has not survived. The site is now occupied by the M8 motorway. Abbotsinch took over from Renfrew Airport on 2 May 1966; the UK Government had committed millions into rebuilding Prestwick Airport fit for the "jet age". The plan went forward and the new airport, designed by Basil Spence and built at a cost of £4.2 million, was completed in 1966, with British European Airways beginning services using De Havilland Comet aircraft. The first commercial flight to arrive was a British European Airways flight from Edinburgh, landing at 8 am on 2 May 1966; the airport was opened on 27 June 1966 by Queen Elizabeth II. The political rows over Glasgow and Prestwick airports continued, with Prestwick enjoying a monopoly over transatlantic traffic, while Glasgow Airport was only allowed to handle UK and intra-European traffic.
In 1975, the BAA took ownership of Glasgow Airport. When BAA was privatised in the late 1980s, as BAA plc, it consolidated its airport portfolio and sold Prestwick Airport; the restrictions on Glasgow Airport were lifted and the transatlantic operators moved from Prestwick, Glasgow Airport being renamed Glasgow International Airport. BAA embarked on a massive redevelopment plan for Glasgow International Airport in 1989. An extended terminal building was created by building a pre-fabricated metal structure around the front of the original Basil Spence building, hence screening much of its distinctive Brutalist style architecture from view, with the void between the two structures joined by a glass atrium and walkway. Spence's original concrete facade which once looked onto Caledonia Road now fronts the check-in desks; the original building can be seen more from the rear, with the mock barrel-vaulted roof visible when airside. A dedicated international departure lounge and pier was added at the western side of the building, leaving the facility with a total of 38 gates, bringing its capacity up to nine million passengers per year.
In 2003, BAA completed redevelopment work on a satellite building, to provide a dedicated check-in facility for low-cost airlines, principally Aer Lingus, Virgin Atlantic Airways and Thomas Cook Airlines. By 1996, Glasgow was handling over 5.5 million passengers per annum, making it the fourth-largest airport in the UK. The airport serves a variety of destinations throughout North America and the Middle East. Jet2, easyJet, Thomas Cook Airlines, TUI Airways and Loganair have a base at the airport; the largest aircraft to operate at the airport are the Boeing 777-300ER and the Boeing 747-400. On 10 April 2014 Emirates operated an Airbus A380 to Glasgow to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Glasgow-Dubai route, the first time an A380 had visited a Scottish airport. From April 2019, Emirates will fly the A380 daily to Glasgow following an £8 million upgra