Royal Victoria Country Park
The Royal Victoria Country Park is a country park in Netley, England, by the shores of Southampton Water. It comprises 200 acres of grassy parkland, as well as a small shingle beach. From 1863 until 1966, the site was home to the Royal Victoria Hospital; the site was acquired by Hampshire County Council in 1969, who opened the park to the public in 1970. All that remains of the hospital is the chapel, which acts as a heritage centre providing history of the hospital, it has a 150-foot viewing tower, providing views over the park, across Southampton Water to Hythe, on a clear day, as far as Southampton itself. The site has a park office and tearooms; the building housing this was built using 100 different timbers from around the UK and British Empire. It was built in 1940 by the YMCA for entertainment and relaxation for staff and patients at the hospital. There is a miniature narrow-gauge railway the Royal Victoria Railway on the site which runs for around 1 mile; the park is home to a large variety of flora.
The park can be reached on foot via a footpath from Netley Station, or there is ample car parking on site. The Netley Military Cemetery to the rear of the hospital site for patients, is accessible to the public by a private footpath and with a lockable security fence, a key to which can be obtained from the shop next to the tearooms. Among those buried here are 636 Commonwealth service personnel who died in the First World War and 35 in the Second World War whose graves are maintained and registered by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, who care for the war graves of 69 Germans and 12 Belgians from the First and of one Polish soldier from the Second war. Southampton Water is an busy shipping lane, with container ships and cruise liners, including the Queen Mary 2 using the port at Southampton as a base. In January 2014 it was announced that a Heritage Lottery Fund grant of £102,000 would be used for restoring the chapel and revealing more detail of the former hospital. Netley Hospital Netley Southampton Water Southampton Royal Victoria Railway Royal Victoria Country Park information from Hampshire County Council Royal Victoria Railway
Hamble-le-Rice is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Eastleigh in Hampshire, UK. It is best known for being an aircraft training centre during the Second World War and is a popular yachting location; the village and the River Hamble featured in the 1980s BBC television series Howards' Way. The village centre, known as The Square, has a more traditional English village aesthetic which differentiates it from the small industrial areas close-by the village. Hamble-le-Rice is located on the South coast of South-East of Southampton; the village is situated at the tip of the Hamble Peninsula, is bounded by Netley, Butlocks Heath, Southampton Water and the River Hamble. Although known as "Hamble", "Hamelea", "Hammel", "Ham-en-le-Rice", the village's official name is now Hamble-le-Rice; the name "Hamble" is still in common usage. To the south of the village, lies the site of an Iron Age promontory hillfort, Hamble Common Camp; the area is home to the remains of a defensive structure dating to the reign of King Henry VIII.
Known as St Andrews castle, investigations suggest that it consisted of a rectangular structure fronted by a gun-platform with a semi-circular layout. The structure was protected with a two gun-platforms mounted on the Counterscarp; the structure was intact as late as the early 17th century. Hamble-le-Rice was the home of an aircraft training centre during the Second World War for aircraft including the Spitfire, the Lancaster and the Wellington. In the 1970s The British Airways fixed wing and helicopter training school was established there, as the Hamble College of Air Training; the South airfield has long since disappeared and the North airfield has been developed as housing, the remainder is overgrown and owned by property developers Persimmon. The aviation industry retains a large interest in Hamble-le-Rice, with the Hamble Aerostructures factory, now a subsidiary of GE Aviation in Kings Avenue. Hamble-le-Rice is home to three main marinas offering marine services and goods to the boating industry.
In addition, large factories and smaller industrial units off Ensign Way and Hamble Lane are used by CooperVision, BP, Hoyer, GE and others. Some of these businesses are 24 hour operations with extensive staff and commuters; the fuel terminal itself is not visible from the B3397: there was extensive development in the early 2000s when wartime hangars were demolished and high density housing built next to the road, near the terminal. The Royal Yacht Association, RYA, has its offices in Hamble. There are two schools in Hamble-Le-Rice; the first is Hamble Primary School, the second is a secondary school named the Hamble School. Hamble-le-Rice is a boating mecca: the nearby River Hamble is packed with marine traffic and during the summer the whole village is crowded with people out enjoying the water, local restaurants and many pubs; the village and its river is one of the many locations that made up the fictional village of Tarrant in the BBC television series Howards' Way, shown weekly on BBC1 in the late 1980s.
Hamble-le-Rice is home to a common, a variety of estuary wildlife, other scenic walks. Hamble fuel terminal was opened by Shell in 1924, whilst BP were still afloat using a converted passenger liner as a fuel tender. In 1930 the two companies formed BP moved to Hamble; this partnership was dissolved in 1976, with the Hamble terminal passing to BP.. A recent 2016 attempt to sell off the terminal, was not met with success, however Hoyer now handles BPs bulk fuel road transport operation.. A pipeline runs under Southampton Water from the Fawley oil refinery which supplies the BP fuel terminal at Hamble; this fuel terminal was used to supply PLUTO, during the Invasion of Europe in World War II. The PLUTO pipeline was supplied by ship from Hamble; the jetty at this fuel terminal was extended in 1943/44 so that more ships could be loaded simultaneously. Fuel is transported from this depot both day and night, in particular early mornings, by 44 tonne road tankers along the B3397, as well as by pipeline to major industry and airports.
Markers showing the route of the pipeline can be seen at various points in neighbouring Botley. A now disused branch line ran from the terminal to the Portsmouth to Southampton railway; this is now the scenic Strawberry Trail. The Hamble Peninsula has one main access road, the B3397, 3 miles long and goes straight through the village. Hamble Lane has had numerous incidences of traffic accidents, and at its intersection with Portsmouth Road an Air Quality Management Area exists to monitor nitrogen dioxide traffic pollutants. The B3397 is a high volume road. Daily traffic congestion and slow moving queues are due to the large number of inbound and outbound commuters, on staggered work shifts. Many businesses supply local companies as BP Oil UK, CooperVision and GE Aviation and minor industry and services within the 4 marinas and industrial areas off Ensign Way. Road oil and petrol tankers form the bulk of the Heavy Goods Vehicles along this road, numbering a few hundred vehicle movements per day.
The village is served by Hamble railway station, about 2 miles from the centre of the village, which provides hourly services to both Southampton Central and Portsmouth Harbour. It is linked by a pedestrian ferry to Warsash, has frequent bus services to and from Southampton and Eastleigh. Sir Sam Fay, General manager of the Great Central Railway 1902–22, was born here in 1856. Michael S. Robinson, naval art historian, was born here in 1
The River Medina is the main river of the Isle of Wight, rising at St Catherine's Down near Blackgang and Chale, flowing northwards through the capital Newport, towards the Solent at Cowes. The river is a navigable tidal estuary from Newport northwards, its current state has occurred because the Medina used to be a tributary of what was once the "River Solent" and had a much larger catchment area. As the Solent valley flooded and the island eroded, the river received less water flow and more sediment, causing it to become more tidal; the river is bridged at Newport. Cowes is connected to East Cowes by a chain ferry known as the Cowes Floating Bridge; the name Medina comes from the Old English Meðune meaning "the middle one", the current pronunciation was first recorded as'Medine' in 1196. The river is used by yachtsmen as a safe harbour. Along the banks of the Medina there are many old warehouses and wharves where in the past flying boats and steam ships were developed and built; the Classic Boat Museum displays much of the river's history alongside the history of yachting.
The Island Harbour Marina, at the site of an old tidal mill, is on the river, about two miles from Newport. As well as the chain ferry, the River Medina has several small ferries which cater for sailors. Medina, Western Australia is a suburb in Perth named after it. Rivers of the United Kingdom
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England. It is 70 miles south-west of 15 miles west north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is the closest city to the New Forest, it lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water at the confluence of the Rivers Test and Itchen, with the River Hamble joining to the south of the urban area. The city, a unitary authority, has an estimated population of 253,651; the city's name is sometimes abbreviated in writing to "So'ton" or "Soton", a resident of Southampton is called a Sotonian. Significant employers in the city include Southampton City Council, the University of Southampton, Solent University, Southampton Airport, Ordnance Survey, BBC South, the NHS, ABP and Carnival UK. Southampton is noted for its association with the RMS Titanic, the Spitfire and more in the World War II narrative as one of the departure points for D-Day, more as the home port of a number of the largest cruise ships in the world. Southampton has retail park, Westquay.
In 2014, the city council approved a neighbouring followup Westquay South which opened in 2016–2017. In the 2001 census Southampton and Portsmouth were recorded as being parts of separate urban areas; this built-up area is part of the metropolitan area known as South Hampshire, known as Solent City in the media when discussing local governance organisational changes. With a population of over 1.5 million this makes the region one of the United Kingdom's most populous metropolitan areas. Archaeological finds suggest. Following the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43 and the conquering of the local Britons in AD 70 the fortress settlement of Clausentum was established, it was an important trading port and defensive outpost of Winchester, at the site of modern Bitterne Manor. Clausentum is thought to have contained a bath house. Clausentum was not abandoned until around 410; the Anglo-Saxons formed a new, settlement across the Itchen centred on what is now the St Mary's area of the city. The settlement was known as Hamwic, which evolved into Hamtun and Hampton.
Archaeological excavations of this site have uncovered one of the best collections of Saxon artefacts in Europe. It is from this town. Viking raids from 840 onwards contributed to the decline of Hamwic in the 9th century, by the 10th century a fortified settlement, which became medieval Southampton, had been established. Following the Norman Conquest in 1066, Southampton became the major port of transit between the capital of England and Normandy. Southampton Castle was built in the 12th century and surviving remains of 12th-century merchants' houses such as King John's House and Canute's Palace are evidence of the wealth that existed in the town at this time. By the 13th century Southampton had become a leading port involved in the import of French wine in exchange for English cloth and wool; the Franciscan friary in Southampton was founded circa 1233. The friars constructed a water supply system in 1290, which carried water from Conduit Head some 1.1 miles to the site of the friary inside the town walls.
Further remains can be observed at Conduit House on Commercial Road. The friars granted use of the water to the town in 1310; the town was sacked in 1338 by French and Monegasque ships. On visiting Southampton in 1339, Edward III ordered that walls be built to'close the town'; the extensive rebuilding—part of the walls dates from 1175—culminated in the completion of the western walls in 1380. Half of the walls, 13 of the original towers, six gates survive. In 1348, the Black Death reached England via merchant vessels calling at Southampton. Prior to King Henry's departure for the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, the ringleaders of the "Southampton Plot"—Richard, Earl of Cambridge, Henry Scrope, 3rd Baron Scrope of Masham, Sir Thomas Grey of Heton—were accused of high treason and tried at what is now the Red Lion public house in the High Street, they were summarily executed outside the Bargate. The city walls include God's House Tower, built in 1417, the first purpose-built artillery fortification in England.
Over the years it has been used as home to the city's gunner, the Town Gaol and as storage for the Southampton Harbour Board. Until September 2011, it housed the Museum of Archaeology; the walls were completed in the 15th century, but development of several new fortifications along Southampton Water and the Solent by Henry VIII meant that Southampton was no longer dependent upon its fortifications. During the Middle Ages, shipbuilding had become an important industry for the town. Henry V's famous warship HMS Grace Dieu was built in Southampton and launched in 1418; the friars passed on ownership of the water supply system itself to the town in 1420. On the other hand, many of the medieval buildings once situated within the town walls are now in ruins or have disappeared altogether. From successive incarnations of the motte and bailey castle, only a section of the bailey wall remains today, lying just off Castle Way; the friary was dissolved in 1538 but its ruins remained until they were swept away in the 1940s.
The port was the point of departure for the Pilgrim Fathers aboard Mayflower in 1620. In 1642, during the English Civil War, a Parliamentary gar
Langstone Harbour is an inlet of the English Channel in Hampshire, sandwiched between Portsea Island to the south and west, Hayling Island to the south and east, Langstone to the north. Together with Chichester Harbour, at the other side of Hayling Island it is designated as a Special Protection Area for wildlife. West of Portsmouth is Portsmouth Harbour and the three linked harbours are important recreational and conservation areas as well as supporting commercial fishing and shipping, it is administered by the Langstone Harbour Board. The eastern boundary with Chichester Harbour is defined by a historic causeway known as the wade way, the only crossing between Hayling Island and the mainland, it is now impassable, having been cut in two by a deep channel for the Portsmouth and Arundel Canal in the 1820s. Langstone Harbour contains a number of islands; these are subject to erosion and during the 1990s a seven-year archaeology project took place before their history was lost to the seas. There are two smaller islands: Round Nap Island, connected to South Binness Island by a tidal causeway and Oyster Island.
Langstone Harbour was a river valley of one of the tributaries flowing into the River Solent. With the end of the last ice age sea levels rose until sometime between 4000 and 3500BC the harbour took on the form it would have until the 18th century. For much of its history the harbour has been an area of salt production; the Domesday Book records three salterns around the harbour and by the early 17th century a saltern at Copnor was well established. Here a large shallow area of the harbour meant that without further improvement salt could be extracted from the area after each tide; the Copnor saltern ceased production in 1800 but salt production continued elsewhere in the harbour until 1933. In 1771 Farlington Marshes were reclaimed from the north of the harbour. Oyster farming began in the harbour around 1820 with winkle and clam cultivation starting around much the same time. Production ceased in the 1950s. An attempt at oyster farming in the 1980s soon failed. In 1997 work began to turn the remains into an artificial lagoon.
The lagoon which has a small island at the centre has, as planned, become a breeding ground for birds little terns. During the Second World War the harbour was used as Starfish decoy site to misdirect German bombers; the harbour is home to an extensive range of bird life. Fifty species of fish have been found in the harbour; the harbour's bird life is richer, the harbour hosting a wide range of species some of which are represented by over 10,000 individuals. This is in a large part due to the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds acquiring harbour's islands and a number of tidal areas in 1978 and turning them into bird sanctuaries; as a result of the number of birds the harbour as become a popular spot for bird watchers. Seals appear in the harbour in winter. American hard-shelled clams have been found in the harbour spreading from an initial release site on the lower River Test; the harbour is home to a population of Sand smelt. On 31 July 2008 a 26-foot, 7-tonne northern bottlenose whale was beached on a mudflat in Langstone Harbour.
A rescue operation was carried out to try to save the whale off the south coast of England and managed to free the whale from mudflats using a special lifting pontoon but it remained in shallow water. A decision was made to give the whale a lethal injection as a blood test revealed that it was suffering from kidney failure. If the whale swam into deeper water it could take up to two days to die from renal failure; the whale ended up about 3,000 miles off course due to its illness. There are several boat wrecks in the harbour. One of these is a tug dating from 8 May 1941; the tug named the Irishman was sunk by a magnetic mine and now rests submerged at low tide. A older wreck dating from 1926 is a Bucket dredger named the Withern. Of unrecorded age is the wreck of the Excelsior an 80-foot long barge; the harbour contains a wrecked landing craft that rests with its bows permanently above the surface. Close to the entrance of the harbour there is a wrecked Phoenix breakwater type C, it was constructed to form part of a World War 2 Mulberry Harbour.
Various artefacts have been found from the prison hulks that were kept in the harbour during the Napoleonic wars. RSPB reserve website Map sources for Langstone Harbour
A salt marsh or saltmarsh known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water, flooded by the tides. It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as grasses, or low shrubs; these plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the salt marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a large role in the aquatic food web and the delivery of nutrients to coastal waters, they support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection. Salt marshes occur on low-energy shorelines in temperate and high-latitudes which can be stable, emerging, or submerging depending if the sedimentation is greater, equal to, or lower than relative sea level rise, respectively; these shorelines consist of mud or sand flats which are nourished with sediment from inflowing rivers and streams. These include sheltered environments such as embankments and the leeward side of barrier islands and spits.
In the tropics and sub-tropics they are replaced by mangroves. Most salt marshes have a low topography with low elevations but a vast wide area, making them hugely popular for human populations. Salt marshes are located among different landforms based on their physical and geomorphological settings; such marsh landforms include deltaic marshes, back-barrier, open coast and drowned-valley marshes. Deltaic marshes are associated with large rivers where many occur in Southern Europe such as the Camargue, France in the Rhone delta or the Ebro delta in Spain, they are extensive within the rivers of the Mississippi Delta in the United States. In New Zealand, most salt marshes occur at the head of estuaries in areas where there is little wave action and high sedimentation; such marshes are located in Awhitu Regional Park in Auckland, the Manawatu Estuary, the Avon-Heathcote Estuary in Christchurch. Back-barrier marshes are sensitive to the reshaping of barriers in the landward side of which they have been formed.
They are common along much of the eastern coast of the Frisian Islands. Large, shallow coastal embayments can hold salt marshes with examples including Morecambe Bay and Portsmouth in Britain and the Bay of Fundy in North America. Salt marshes are sometimes included in lagoons, the difference is not marked, they have a big impact on the biodiversity of the area. Salt marsh ecology involves complex food webs which include primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers; the low physical energy and high grasses provide a refuge for animals. Many marine fish use salt marshes as nursery grounds for their young before they move to open waters. Birds may raise their young among the high grasses, because the marsh provides both sanctuary from predators and abundant food sources which include fish trapped in pools, insects and worms. Saltmarshes across 99 countries were mapped by al.. 2017. A total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile.
This estimate is at the low end of previous estimates. The most extensive saltmarshes worldwide are found outside the tropics, notably including the low-lying, ice-free coasts and estuaries of the North Atlantic which are well represented in their global polygon dataset; the formation begins as tidal flats gain elevation relative to sea level by sediment accretion, subsequently the rate and duration of tidal flooding decreases so that vegetation can colonize on the exposed surface. The arrival of propagules of pioneer species such as seeds or rhizome portions are combined with the development of suitable conditions for their germination and establishment in the process of colonisation; when rivers and streams arrive at the low gradient of the tidal flats, the discharge rate reduces and suspended sediment settles onto the tidal flat surface, helped by the backwater effect of the rising tide. Mats of filamentous blue-green algae can fix silt and clay sized sediment particles to their sticky sheaths on contact which can increase the erosion resistance of the sediments.
This assists the process of sediment accretion to allow colonising species to grow. These species retain sediment washed in from the rising tide around their stems and leaves and form low muddy mounds which coalesce to form depositional terraces, whose upward growth is aided by a sub-surface root network which binds the sediment. Once vegetation is established on depositional terraces further sediment trapping and accretion can allow rapid upward growth of the marsh surface such that there is an associated rapid decrease in the depth and duration of tidal flooding; as a result, competitive species that prefer higher elevations relative to sea level can inhabit the area and a succession of plant communities develops. Coastal salt marshes can be distinguished from terrestrial habitats by the daily tidal flow that occurs and continuously floods the area, it is an important process in delivering sediments and plant water supply to the marsh. At higher elevations in the upper marsh zone, there is much less tidal inflow, resulting in lower salinity levels
The New Forest is one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land and forest in Southern England, covering southwest Hampshire and southeast Wiltshire. It was proclaimed a royal forest by William the Conqueror, featuring in the Domesday Book. Pre-existing rights of common pasture are still recognised today, being enforced by official verderers. In the 18th century, The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy, it remains a habitat for mammals. Like much of England, the site of the New Forest was once deciduous woodland, recolonised by birch and beech and oak after the withdrawal of the ice sheets starting around 12,000 years ago; some areas were cleared for cultivation from the Bronze Age onwards. There was still a significant amount of woodland in this part of Britain, but this was reduced towards the end of the Middle Iron Age around 250–100 BC, most the 12th and 13th centuries, of this all that remains today is the New Forest. There are around 250 round barrows within its boundaries, scattered boiling mounds, it includes about 150 scheduled ancient monuments.
One such barrow in particular may represent the only known inhumation burial of the Early Iron Age and the only known Hallstatt culture burial in Britain. Following Anglo-Saxon settlement in Britain, according to Florence of Worcester, the area became the site of the Jutish kingdom of Ytene; the Jutes were one of the early Anglo-Saxon tribal groups who colonised this area of southern Hampshire. The word ytene is found locally as a synonym for giant, features in local folklore. Following the Norman Conquest, the New Forest was proclaimed a royal forest, in about 1079, by William the Conqueror, it was used for royal hunts of deer. It was created at the expense of isolated farmsteads; the New Forest was first recorded as Nova Foresta in Domesday Book in 1086, where a section devoted to it is interpolated between lands of the king's thegns and the town of Southampton. Twelfth-century chroniclers alleged that William had created the forest by evicting the inhabitants of 36 parishes, reducing a flourishing district to a wasteland.
Two of William's sons died in the forest: Prince Richard sometime between 1069 and 1075, King William II in 1100. Local folklore asserted that this was punishment for the crimes committed by William when he created his New Forest, but this wicked act did not long go unpunished. This Forest at present affordeth great variety of Game, where his Majesty oft-times withdraws himself for his divertisement; the reputed spot of Rufus's death is marked with a stone known as the Rufus Stone. John White, Bishop of Winchester, said of the forest: From God and Saint King Rufus did Churches take, From Citizens town-court, mercate place, From Farmer lands: New Forrest for to make, In Beaulew tract, where whiles the King in chase Pursues the hart, just vengeance comes apace, And King pursues. Tirrell him seing not, Unwares him flew with dint of arrow shot; the common rights were confirmed by statute in 1698. The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy, plantations were created in the 18th century for this purpose.
In the Great Storm of 1703, about 4000 oak trees were lost. The naval plantations encroached on the rights of the Commoners, but the Forest gained new protection under the New Forest Act 1877, which confirmed the historic rights of the Commoners and entrenched that the total of enclosures was henceforth not to exceed 65 km2 at any time, it reconstituted the Court of Verderers as representatives of the Commoners. As of 2005 90% of the New Forest is still owned by the Crown; the Crown lands have been managed by the Forestry Commission since 1923 and most of the Crown lands now fall inside the new National Park. Felling of broadleaved trees, their replacement by conifers, began during the First World War to meet the wartime demand for wood. Further encroachments were made during the Second World War; this process is today being reversed in places, with some plantations being returned to heathland or broadleaved woodland. Rhododendron remains a problem. During the Second World War, an area of the forest, Ashley Range, was used as a bombing range.
Further New Forest Acts followed in 1949, 1964 and 1970. The New Forest became a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1971, was granted special status as the New Forest Heritag