Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent and north-west of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean; the region is the only part of Asia that lies within the Southern Hemisphere, although the majority of it is in the Northern Hemisphere. In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: Mainland Southeast Asia known as Indochina, comprising Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Laos and Vietnam. Maritime Southeast Asia known as Nusantara, the East Indies, or the Malay Archipelago, comprising the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India, East Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, East Timor, Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands; the region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities.
The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar and peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Southeast Asia covers about 4.5 million km2, 10.5% of Asia or 3% of earth's total land area. Its total population is about 8.5 % of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in the world after East Asia; the region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of ASEAN, a regional organization established for economic, military and cultural integration amongst its members; the region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or the Indies until the 20th century.
Chinese sources referred the region as 南洋, which means the "Southern Ocean." The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions. In the 20th century, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina; the maritime section of Southeast Asia is known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race. Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia, used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia; the term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia; the term was used in the midst of World War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia Command in 1943.
SEAC popularised the use of the term "Southeast Asia," although what constituted Southeast Asia was not fixed. However, by the late 1970s, a standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged. Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries listed below. Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, while East Timor is an observer state. Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, is an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some territories in the South China Sea. * Administrative centre in Putrajaya. Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia and Maritime Southeast Asia. Mainland Southeast Asia includes: Maritime Southeast Asia includes: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India are geographically considered part of Maritime Southeast Asia.
Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Southeast Asia and are sometimes considered both South Asian and Southeast Asian. Sri Lanka has on some occasions been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural ties to mainland Southeast Asia; the rest of the island of New Guinea, not part of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included, so are Palau and the Northern Mariana Islands, which were all part of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region the Philippines. The eastern half of Indonesia and East Timor are considered to be biogeographically part of Oceania due to its distinctive faunal features. New Guinea and its surrounding islands are geologically considered as a part of Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf; the region was inhabited by Homo erectus from 1,000,000 years ago during the Middle Pleistocene age. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago, having moved eastwards from the Indian subcontinent.
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Margaret Pellegrini was an American actress, vaudeville performer and dancer, best known for playing one of the Munchkins from the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. Until her death in 2013, she was one of the three surviving munchkins, the other two being Jerry Maren and Ruth Robinson Duccini, she was born Margaret Williams in Tuscumbia, Alabama, U. S; when she was helping a relative in a potato chip booth at the Tennessee State Fair, a group of little people came by and asked if she wanted to join their show, Henry Kramer's Midgets. "At that time I didn't think I was a midget," says Pellegrini. In the film, Pellegrini played Munchkin villager. After the film, she had two children. Through the years, Pellegrini appeared at surviving Munchkins of Oz festivities, she was present on November 21, 2007, when the remaining Munchkins were given a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She was named the Grand Marshal of this year's annual "Oz-Stravaganza" parade in Chittenango, New York, but health issues prevented her from attending.
Near the time of her death, she was described as a widowed great-great grandmother living in Glendale, with a room in her house devoted to her treasured Oz collectibles. She was survived by daughter Margaret, grandchildren William III, Juliette, Joe and Dawnelle Mowrey. Great grandchildren are: Anthony, Barbara, Dalyn, Heaven and Shayla, one great-great grandchild Sejla, Pellegrini died on August 7, 2013, in Glendale, due to complications from a stroke she suffered two days earlier, she was 89. She was cremated and her remains were given to her family. Margaret Pellegrini on IMDb Margaret Pellegrini at Find a Grave
Euphorbia marginata is a small annual in the spurge family. It is native to parts of temperate North America, from Eastern Canada to the Southwestern United States, it is naturalized throughout much of China. The type specimen was collected in Rosebud County, Montana from the area of the Yellowstone River by William Clark during the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Snow-on-the-mountain has grey-green leaves along branches and smaller leaves in terminal whorls with edges trimmed with wide white bands, together with the white flowers, the appearance that gives the plant its common names. Euphorbia marginata in the CalPhotos Photo Database, University of California, Berkeley Media related to Euphorbia marginata at Wikimedia Commons