The Southern Baptist Convention is a Christian denomination based in the United States. It is the world's largest Baptist denomination, the largest Protestant denomination in the United States, the second-largest Christian denomination in the United States, smaller only than the Catholic Church according to self-reported membership statistics; the word Southern in Southern Baptist Convention stems from it having been organized in 1845 at Augusta, Georgia, by Baptists in the Southern United States who split with northern Baptists over the issue of slavery, with Southern Baptists opposed to abolition and black civil rights. After the American Civil War, another split occurred when most freedmen set up independent black congregations, regional associations, state and national conventions, such as the National Baptist Convention, which became the second-largest Baptist convention by the end of the 19th century. Since the 1940s, the Southern Baptist Convention has shifted from some of its regional and historical identification.
Since the late 20th century, the SBC has sought new members among minority groups and to become much more diverse. In addition, while still concentrated in the Southern United States, the Southern Baptist Convention has member churches across the United States and 41 affiliated state conventions. Southern Baptist churches are evangelical in practice; as they emphasize the significance of the individual conversion experience, affirmed by the person having complete immersion in water for a believer's baptism, they reject the practice of infant baptism. Other specific beliefs based on biblical interpretation can vary somewhat due to their congregational polity, which allows local autonomy; the average weekly attendance was 5,297,788 in 2018. Most early Baptists in the British colonies came from England in the 17th century, after the established Church of England persecuted them for their dissenting religious views; the oldest Baptist church in the South, First Baptist Church of Charleston, South Carolina, was organized in 1682 under the leadership of William Screven.
A Baptist church was formed in Virginia in 1715 through the preaching of Robert Norden and another in North Carolina in 1727 through the ministry of Paul Palmer. The Baptists adhered to a congregationalist polity and operated independently of the state-established Anglican churches in the South, at a time when non-Anglicans were prohibited from holding political office. By 1740, about eight Baptist churches existed in the colonies of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, with an estimated 300 to 400 members. New members, both black and white, were converted chiefly by Baptist preachers who traveled throughout the South during the 18th and 19th centuries, in the eras of the First Great Awakening and Second Great Awakening. Baptists welcomed African Americans, both slave and free, allowing them to have more active roles in ministry than did other denominations by licensing them as preachers, in some cases, allowing them to be treated as equals to white members; as a result, black congregations and churches were founded in Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia before the American Revolution.
Some black congregations kept their independence after whites tried to exercise more authority after the Nat Turner slave rebellion of 1831. Before the Revolution and Methodist evangelicals in the South had promoted the view of the common man's equality before God, which embraced slaves and free blacks, they urged planters to abolish slavery. They accepted them as preachers. Isaac analyzes the rise of the Baptist Church in Virginia, with emphasis on evangelicalism and social life. A sharp division existed between the austerity of the plain-living Baptists, attracted from yeomen and common planters, the opulence of the Anglican planters, the slaveholding elite who controlled local and colonial government in what had become a slave society by the late 18th century; the gentry interpreted Baptist church discipline as political radicalism, but it served to ameliorate disorder. The Baptists intensely monitored each other's moral conduct, watching for sexual transgressions and excessive drinking. In Virginia and in most southern colonies before the Revolution, the Church of England was the established church and supported by general taxes, as it was in England.
It opposed the rapid spread of Baptists in the South. In Virginia, many Baptist preachers were prosecuted for "disturbing the peace" by preaching without licenses from the Anglican church. Both Patrick Henry and the young attorney James Madison defended Baptist preachers prior to the American Revolution in cases considered significant to the history of religious freedom. In 1779, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, enacted in 1786 by the Virginia General Assembly. Madison applied his own ideas and those of the Virginia document related to religious freedom during the Constitutional Convention, when he ensured that they were incorporated into the national constitution; the struggle for religious toleration erupted and was played out during the American Revolution, as the Baptists worked to disestablish the Anglican church in the South. Beeman explores the conflict in one Virginia locality, showing that as its population became more dense, the county court and the Anglican Church were able to increase their authority.
The Baptists protested vigorously. The vitality of the religious opposition made the conflict between'evangelical' an
Scott Conrad Bedke is an American politician and a member of the Idaho House of Representatives representing District 27 in the A seat since 2001. In December 2012 Bedke defeated fellow Republican Lawerence Denney to become Speaker of the Idaho House of Representatives. Bedke graduated from Oakley High School in 1976 and from Brigham Young University with Bachelor of Science in Finance, he served a mission for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1977-1979 in Italy. When long-time legislator Jim Kempton resigned his seat for an appointment to the Northwest Power and Conservation Council, Legislative District 25 Central Committee met to fill the vacancy in House Seat A, sending three names in order of preference to Governor Dirk Kempthorne: Bedke, Garry Turner of Burley, ODeen Redman of Albion. Governor Kempthore appointed Bedke to serve the remainder of Kempton's term. After redistricting in 2002, Bedke sought reelection and was challenged in the Republican primary by Tim Willie, of Malad City, in the general election by Dan Ralphs, of Rockland both of whom he defeated.
Bedke was challenged in the 2004 Republican primary by Wayne Bagwell of Declo, whom he defeated, has run unopposed in every election since. As Speaker of the House, Bedke does not have committee assignments. In the past he has served on Education from 2001-2002 Joint Finance-Appropriations from 2002-2006 Resources and Conservation from 2002-2012 Revenue and Taxation from 2006-2012 Transportation and Defense from 2001-2012 Ways and Means from 2006-2012. Bedke has four children and four grandchildren. Bedke grew up in Idaho. Scott Bedke at the Idaho Legislature Campaign site Profile at Vote Smart
Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was Sultan of Johor from 1615 to 1623. Before he became sultan of Johor, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was known as Raja Bongsu, Raja Seberang or Raja di Ilir. According to the testimony of Dutch Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge Raja Bongsu was one of four surviving sons of Raja Ali bin Abdul Jalil of Johor; the other remaining male siblings were described by Admiral Matelief as Raja Siak, Raja Laut, Alauddin Riayat Shah III. The latter ruled as the 6th sultan of Johor between the death of his father Raja Ali Jalla in 1597 and the Acehnese attack on Johor in 1613. In 1603 Raja Bongsu was instrumental in forging the early diplomatic relations with the Dutch by lending assistance to Admiral Jacob van Heemskerk on 25 February 1603 in attacking and plundering the Portuguese carrack, the Santa Catarina, in the Johor River estuary off present-day Singapore, he was responsible for sending one of the first diplomatic missions of a Malay ruler to the Dutch Republic in the same year.
Headed by Megat Mansur, the Johor embassy sailed to Europe on the ships of Admiral van Heemskerk in 1603. Megat Mansur did not survive the voyage, but other members of the Johor embassy did and returned with the fleet under the command of Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge in 1606. In that year, Raja Bongsu formally ratified two treaties with the Dutch and signed himself as the co-ruler of Johor, he lent active assistance to Admiral Matelief during his seaborne attack on Portuguese Melaka in or around May 1606. In early 1609 Raja Bongsu received Dutch Admiral Pieter Willemsz. Verhoeff at Batu Sawar. On this occasion one of the German officers serving in Verhoeff's fleet, one Johann Verken, described the physical appearance of Raja Bongsu, he wrote that the Raja was "a young man in his 30s... In his appearance and body a well-proportioned person, rather tall and fair-skinned both on his body and on his face." After the Portuguese had imposed an economically crippling blockade on the Johor River for much of the year 1609, Raja Bongsu was necessitated to sign a peace treaty with the Portuguese Melaka in October 1610.
Described as his personal "fiefdom" by Admiral Matelieff, Raja Bongsu controlled the settlement of Kota Seberang, located straight across the Johor River from the royal administrative center and capital Batu Sawar. He is said to have controlled areas around the Sambas River on the island of Borneo. In 1613, Raja Bongsu was one of the prisoners taken back to Aceh after the invasion of Johor by sultan Iskandar Muda, he was married to one of Iskandar's sisters, returned to Johor as the new sultan. Raja Bongsu was subsequently enthroned as Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah of Johor, his half-brother Alauddin Riayat Shah III who had fallen from power at the time of Iskandar Muda's offensive on Johor in 1613 had fled to Lingga and died there in or around 1615. In 1618, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah moved to Lingga and gained the support of Orang Laut and the Dutch to wage a war against Aceh, he divorced his wife, a sister of Iskandar Muda, a move that further angered the sultan. He spent most of his reign as a wanderer, pursued from town to town and island to island by the Acehnese.
He died at Tambelan archipelago in March 1623. Kwa, Chong Guan and Borschberg, eds. Studying Singapore before 1800, Singapore: NUS Press, 2018. Kwa, Chong Guan. Seven Hundred Years: A History of Singapore. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9789814828109. Borschberg, Peter. Hugo Grotius, the Portuguese and Free Trade in the East Indies. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 9789971694678. Borschberg, Journal and Letters of Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge. Security and Commerce in 17th Century Southeast Asia, NUS Press, 2015. Borschberg, Peter, “Three questions about maritime Singapore, 16th and 17th Centuries”, Ler História, 72: 31-54. Https://journals.openedition.org/lerhistoria/3234 Borschberg, Peter, "The Seizure of the Santa Catarina Revisited: The Portuguese Empire in Asia, VOC Politics and the Origins of the Dutch-Johor Alliance", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 33.1: 31–62. Borschberg, Peter, "The Singapore and Melaka Straits: Violence and Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century", Singapore: NUS Press, 2010.
Borschberg, Peter, "Hugo Grotius, the Portuguese and Free Trade in the East Indies" NUS Press, 2011. Borschberg, Peter, "The Johor-VOC Alliance and the Twelve Years Truce. Factionalism and Diplomacy, c.1603–1613", Institute for International Law and Justice Working Paper and Theory of International Law Series, New York: NYU, 8: 1–69. Borschberg, Peter, ed. "The Memoirs and Memorials of Jacques de Coutre. Security and Society in 17th-Century Southeast Asia", Singapore: NUS Press, 2014. ISBN 978-9971-69-528-6. Borschberg, Peter, ed. "Jacques de Coutre's Singapore and Johor, 1595-c.1625", Singapore: NUS Press, 2015. ISBN 978-9971-69-852-2. Borschberg, Peter, ed. "Admiral Matelieff's Singapore and Johor, 1606–1616", Singapore, 2015. Borschberg, Peter, "The value of Admiral Matelieff's writings for the history of Southeast Asia, c.1600-1620", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 48, pp. 414–435. DOI Rouffaer, G. P. "Was Malaka Emporium vóór 1400 A. D. genaamd Malajoer? En waar lag Woerawari, Ma–Hasin, Batoesawar?", Bijdragen van het Koninklijk Instutuut voor Taal-, Letter- en Volkenkunde, vol.
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