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Southern Bug

The Southern Bug called Southern Buh, sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine. It is the second-longest river in Ukraine; the source of the river is in the west of Ukraine, in the Volyn-Podillia Upland, about 145 kilometres from the Polish border, from where it flows southeasterly into the Bug Estuary through the southern steppes. It drains 63,700 square kilometres. Major cities on the Southern Bug are Khmelnytskyi, Pervomaisk, Mykolaiv. Between 1941 and 1944 during World War II the Southern Bug formed the border between the German-occupied Ukraine and the Romanian-occupied part of Ukraine, called Transnistria. Herodotus refers to the river using its ancient Greek name: Hypanis. During the Migration Period of the 5th to the 8th centuries CE the Southern Bug represented a major obstacle to all the migrating peoples in the area; the long-standing local Slavic name of the river, may derive from a root meaning "rich". The 17th-century French military engineer and geographer Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan recorded the name of the river as Boh Ruthenian.

From the 16th to the 18th centuries most of the Southern Ukraine formed part of the Crimean Khanate and/or of the Ottoman Empire. "Bug", a Russian name, became established during the colonial period in Ukraine and known internationally. It was a misnomer given by a Russian geologist Vladimir Laskaryev at the beginning of 20th century. On March 6, 1918 the Central Council of Ukraine adopted the law "For the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine", dividing Ukraine into numerous lands. One of those lands in the upper stream of the river was named "Boh land". In the 18th century there had existed the Bohogard phalanx as part of the Zaporizhian Sich centered in the city of Gard. Left: Buzhok, Snyvoda, Sob, Synytsia, Velyka Korabelna, Hnylyi Yelanets, Inhul Right: Vovk, Riv, Dokhna, Kodyma, Chychyklia The Varvarivskyi Bridge over Southern Bug in Mykolayiv is a swing bridge with Europe's largest span, it is the southernmost bridge over the river. The river is technically navigable for dozens of kilometers up from its mouth.

In 2011, plans were announced to revive commercial freight navigation on the Southern Bug northerly of Mykolayiv to facilitate the increasing grain export from Ukraine. As of April 2018, freight navigation is renewed and active between the eastuary and the grain terminal in the village of Prybuzhany newly-built by Nibulon. Southern Buh rafting Boh in the Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland Photos of the Southern Buh coasts Southern Buh rafting, photo

Battle of Kronstadt

The Battle of Kronstadt was a naval battle fought in the Gulf of Finland west of Kronstadt on 3–4 June 1790. The Swedish naval forces sought to engage the Kronstadt squadron of Russian fleet and defeat them both to prevent Russian squadrons from joining together and to open the sea route to Kronstadt and Saint Petersburg. Swedish open sea fleet under Duke Charles of Södermanland had failed to inflict defeat to smaller Russian naval squadron located instead suffering losses in the action at Reval and chose to withdraw to Gogland on 25 May 1790 to wait for further instructions. On 29 May King Gustav III ordered the open sea fleet to sail towards Kronstadt in order to protect the coastal fleets flank. Meanwhile, coastal fleets had managed to maul the Russian coastal units at Frederikshamn making it possible for the coastal fleet to continue towards the eastern Gulf of Finland. Coastal fleet continued towards Vyborg while raiding the coast reaching Beryozovye Islands on 3 June. Swedish open sea fleet was met by the Russian Kronstadt squadron while approaching Kronstadt on 3 June 1790.

The engagement between the two equal strength fleets lasted for four hours without success on either side. Swedish coastal fleet sortied ships to support the open sea fleet but by the time they reached the open sea fleet battle had ended for the day and since the small coastal vessels were unable to keep up with open sea fleet they had to withdraw back to Beryozovye Islands. Several more clashes were fought between the fleets during the day. Fighting started again on 4 June with less results than on the previous day. Admiral Kruse had no intention to engage the Swedish fleet, only to delay them long enough for the other Russian naval squadrons to reach them. Duke Charles became aware of Russian squadrons approaching from the west and withdraw to north-west with Kruse following close behind and on 6 June Russian squadrons had managed to link up. After Russian naval squadrons from Kronstadt and Reval had linked up Swedish naval commanders chose not to challenge them and instead withdrew. Duke Charles would have preferred to retire to Sveaborg where the damage could have been properly repaired but King Gustav III insisted on keeping the open sea fleet near the coastal fleet.

To accomplish this the open sea fleet under Duke Charles sailed to the mouth of the Bay of Viborg and anchored for repairs on 6 June. Russian fleet which consisted at this point of 29 ships of the line, 11 frigates, 11 brigs and 8 rowed archipelago frigates under Admiral Vasily Chichagov approached approached the Swedish fleet arriving on sight on 7 June but moved their positions closer coming with 2 nautical miles on 26 June 1790 trapping both Swedish fleets in addition to the king, his brother and 30,000 men. By this time it had been joined with the rest of Russian open sea and coastal fleet elements. King Gustav III's decision to move the fleets to the eastern Gulf of Finland was an inspired action which according to historians caused severe problems for the Russians as at time, 2 June 1790, Swedish fleets arrived to the vicinity of Saint Petersburg there were no Russian ground forces to oppose the Swedes in the area. On the other hand, the failure of Duke Charles fleet to prevent Russian squadrons from joining together was in practice a strategic Russian victory which blocked the approach to Saint Petersburg.

Mattila, Tapani. Meri maamme turvana. Jyväskylä: K. J. Gummerus Osakeyhtiö. ISBN 951-99487-0-8


The ZIL-4102 was a front-wheel drive saloon developed by the Soviet car manufacturer ZiL in 1987 on the ZIL-41041 platform. The first 4102 prototype was rolled off the production line in 1987 with two more following in 1989 and the final one in late 1990/early 1991, it had a choice of 3 different power plants. The 4102 was intended to bring a domestic luxury sports saloon and touring coupe on to the market to compete with the imported Mercedes-Benz W126, Mercedes-Benz W123 and Audi 100 as well as to produce an executive car for the foreign market; the 4102 was the first Russian executive car that did not utilized body-on-frame construction, instead it utilized unitized construction. It was half a meter longer than the Gaz Volga and weighed half a ton less than the ZIL-41041; the roof panels and floor, trunk lid and bumpers were made of fiberglass. With its automatic transmission and the 315 hp 7.7 liter V-8 petrol engine, the same as used in other Zil limousines, the 4102 accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in 10.5 seconds.

Fuel consumption was 18 L/100 km at 21 L/100 km at 120 km/h. There were three different models planned: a four-door family saloon, a four-door touring saloon and a two-door touring coupe. There were two trim levels for all three models. Base interior trim on the family saloons was composed of an AM/FM radio/tape player, suede seats and head liner, two-way power bench, adjustable rear bench, power windows, power locks and vent fan, power steering, 4.5L V6 engine, front disc brakes and rear drums. The second trim level on the family saloon contained most of the features on the base trim but replaced some of them as well leather seats, air conditioning and the 6.0L V8. The touring saloon and coupe's base trim was identical to the family saloons except that they offered leather seats, 4-way front bucket seats, 6,000 rpm tachometer, 6.0L V-8, 5-speed manual transmission, front and rear disc brakes. The second trim level focused on the drive train offering a tuned 6.0L V8 with about 15 more horse power and 24 more ft·lbf of torque and tighter shift ratios for the manual.

Article at Old Russian Cars

Kraljevo massacre

The Kraljevo massacre was the mass murder of 2,000 residents of the central Serbian city of Kraljevo by the Wehrmacht between 15 and 20 October 1941, during World War II. The massacre came in reprisal for a joint Partisan–Chetnik attack on a German garrison during the Siege of Kraljevo in which 10 German soldiers were killed and 14 wounded; the number of hostages to be shot was calculated based on a ratio of 100 hostages executed for every German soldier killed and 50 hostages executed for every German soldier wounded, a formula devised by Adolf Hitler with the intent of suppressing anti-Nazi resistance in Eastern Europe. The Wehrmacht responded by rounding up and executing 300 Serbian civilians, described in contemporary documents as "communists, nationalists and Jews." Over the following several days, all men between the ages of 14 and 60 were arrested and herded into a makeshift detention centre at the local rolling-stock factory. Once there, their papers were checked and their names entered into a ledger.

When the camp was full, the Wehrmacht ordered groups of 100 prisoners to march to pre-dug mass graves, where they were executed with heavy machine guns. The bodies were examined for any signs of life. Once the first group had been liquidated, the soldiers returned to the factory and collected the next 100 victims; this process continued. The reprisals lasted several days. Following the shooting of hostages from the rolling-stock factory, the Wehrmacht deployed through the surrounding villages, burning homes and killing indiscriminately. According to the 717th Infantry Division's own records, 1,736 men and 19 "communist" women from the city and its outskirts were executed, despite attempts by local collaborationists to mitigate the punishment. Twenty members of the 717th Infantry Division were conferred Iron Crosses for their role in the killings; the massacre at Kraljevo, as well as a similar and nearly concurrent massacre in nearby Kragujevac, convinced German commanders that mass killings of Serbian hostages were not only ineffectual but counterproductive, as they drove locals into the hands of insurgents and sometimes resulted in the deaths of factory workers contributing to the German war effort.

Following the war, several senior German military officials were tried and convicted for their involvement in the reprisal shootings at the Nuremberg Trials and the Subsequent Nuremberg trials. Following the 1938 Anschluss between Germany and Austria, Yugoslavia came to share its northwestern border with the Third Reich and fell under increasing pressure as her neighbours aligned themselves with the Axis powers. In April 1939, Italy opened a second frontier with Yugoslavia when it invaded and occupied neighbouring Albania. At the outbreak of World War II, the Yugoslav government declared its neutrality. Between September and November 1940, Hungary and Romania joined the Tripartite Pact, aligning themselves with the Axis, Italy invaded Greece. From Yugoslavia was surrounded by the Axis powers and their satellites, her neutral stance toward the war became strained. In late February 1941, Bulgaria joined the Pact; the following day, German troops entered Bulgaria from Romania. Intending to secure his southern flank for the impending attack on the Soviet Union, Adolf Hitler began placing heavy pressure on Yugoslavia to join the Axis.

On 25 March 1941, after some delay, the Yugoslav government conditionally signed the Pact. Two days a group of pro-Western, Serbian nationalist Royal Yugoslav Air Force officers deposed the country's regent, Prince Paul, in a bloodless coup d'état, placed his teenaged nephew Peter on the throne, brought to power a "government of national unity" led by the head of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force, General Dušan Simović; the coup enraged Hitler, who ordered the country's invasion, which commenced on 6 April 1941. Yugoslavia was overwhelmed by the combined strength of the Axis powers and surrendered in less than two weeks; the government and royal family went into exile, the country was occupied and dismembered by its neighbours. The German-occupied territory of Serbia was limited to the pre-Balkan War borders of the Kingdom of Serbia and was directly occupied by the Germans for the key rail and riverine transport routes that passed through it, as well as its valuable resources non-ferrous metals.

The occupied territory had a population of 3.8 million. Hitler had considered erasing all existence of a Serbian state, but this was abandoned and the Germans began searching for a Serb suitable to lead a puppet government in Belgrade, they settled on Milan Aćimović, a staunch anti-communist who served as Yugoslavia's Minister of Internal Affairs during the winter of 1939–1940. Two resistance movements emerged following the invasion: the communist-led, multi-ethnic Partisans, the royalist, Serbian nationalist Chetniks, although during 1941, within the occupied territory the Partisans consisted entirely of Serbs; the Partisans were led by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito, while the Chetniks were led by Colonel Draža Mihailović, an officer in the interwar Royal Yugoslav Army. The two movements had diverging goals. Whereas the Partisans sought to turn Yugoslavia into a communist state under Tito's leadership, the Chetniks sought a return to the pre-war status quo, whereby the Yugoslav monarchy—and, by extension, Serb political hegemony—would be restored.

Communist resistance commenced in early July, shortly after the invasion of the Soviet Union, targeting both

Grimaldi Forum

The Grimaldi Forum in Monaco is a conference and congress centre located on the seafront of Monaco's eastern beach quartier, Larvotto. Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo and the Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra perform there; this is the venue of the EVER Monaco exhibition held March annually. During the renovation of Salle Garnier in 2004–05, operas were presented at the Salle des Princes in the Grimaldi Forum; the Grimaldi Forum hosts the draw for the group stage, last 32, last 16, quarter finals, semi-finals of the UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, the UEFA Best Player in Europe Award. Official website

Chatan, Okinawa

Chatan is a town located in Nakagami District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016 the town had an estimated population of 28,578 and the density of 2,100 per km²; the total area of Chatan is 13.62 square kilometres. 53.5% of the land area of the town is covered by United States military bases. "Chatan" is an Okinawan name. In Japanese, the Han character for the city's name are read as Kitatani. Unfamiliar in Japanese is that the "-tan" syllable of "Chatan" is emphasized in Okinawan, although many non-Okinawans place emphasis on "cha-" instead. Chatan is located in the central part of Okinawa Island; the town sits on the western coast of the island on the East China Sea. The east of Chatan made up of Okinawan limestone; the hills of the eastern part of the town give way to low-lying land towards the coast. Two rivers run through Chatan west into the East China Sea: the Shiruhi River to the north, the Futenma River at the south. Chatan, prior to World War II, was a noted area of rice production in Okinawa.

The area was known as Chatan taa-bukkwa, a term in the Okinawa language for a "large area of rice paddies". Much of the land used for rice cultivation is now utilized by military bases. Chatan is divided into six districts: Kitamae and Sunabe as well as the local business and residential wards of Kamiseido and Kuwae. Chatan runs along Route 58 and a man-made coastline which includes the area of what used to be the U. S. Marine Corps base of Camp Hamby; the northern half of Kitamae is nicknamed "Hamby Town" in recognition of this, the Hamby Post Office is one of the first Japanese Postal offices to have an English name. Parts of Camp Foster and Camp Lester are in Chatan; the American Kadena Air Base is located on and forms the northern boundary of Chatan, further demarcated by Route 23 - known locally as Kokutai Road. The U. S. air base encompasses much land, once part of Chatan's area including most of the ward once named Shimoseido. City of Okinawa Ginowan Kadena Kitanakagusuku Much of the Hamby area is home to the "Hamby Free Zone".

Though the name is misleading due to romanization errors, it is a large flea market, scattered over an area of several blocks, though much of the land it is on is relocated or bought for expansion of businesses. With the expansion of shopping/recreational businesses in the Mihama area, Chatan has become one of the most popular destinations for recreation, it is home to a large ferris wheel, a small convention center, several shopping plazas, karaoke parlors, a 25-story hotel named "The Beach Tower" and several beaches. Sunabe is famous for a large sea wall which attracts many SCUBA surfers; the Chunichi Dragons of Nippon Professional Baseball have their spring training camp in Chatan. The Town of Chatan maintains four elementary schools: Chatan, Chatan Number Two and Hamagawa; the town maintains two junior high schools: Chatan Junior High School and Kuwae Junior High School. Chatan Senior High School, a prefectural senior high school, is located directly north of the town hall. Chatan is crossed from north to south by Japan National Route 58, which runs parallel to the coastal area of the town.

Delta Air Lines has a city ticket office in the Towa Building #1 in Chatan. Northwest Airlines operated a city ticket office in Chatan. Media related to Chatan, Okinawa at Wikimedia Commons Chatan official website Chatan Tourism Information