California State University, Long Beach
California State University, Long Beach is a public university in Long Beach, California. It is the third largest campus of the 23-school California State University system and one of the largest universities in the state of California by enrollment, its student body numbering 37,776 for the Fall 2016 semester; the university continues to receive record numbers of applicants. As of Fall 2014, the school had 2,283 total faculty, with 36.7 percent of those faculty on the tenure track. With 5,286 graduate students, the university enrolls one of the largest graduate student populations across the CSU system and in the state of California; the university is located in the Los Altos neighborhood of Long Beach at the southeastern coastal tip of Los Angeles County, less than one mile from the border with Orange County. The university offers 82 different Bachelor's degrees, 65 types of Master's degrees, four Doctoral degrees. Long Beach State is one of the West Coast's top universities in terms of student body racial diversity, being named the 5th most diverse university in the West by U.
S. News & World Report, it is home to the largest publicly funded art school west of the Mississippi. The university operates with one of the lowest student fees in the country at $6,738 per year for full-time students having California residence; the college was established in 1949 by California Governor Earl Warren, to serve the expanding post-World War II population of Orange and Southern Los Angeles counties. Since CSULB has grown to become one of the state's largest universities; the institution was first named as Los Angeles-Orange County State College. Peter Victor Peterson was its first president, it offered 25 courses, taught by 13 faculty members, in two apartment buildings at 5381 Anaheim Road in Long Beach. In June 1950, the citizens of Long Beach voted overwhelmingly to purchase 322 acres as a permanent campus for the college known as Long Beach State College; the purchase price was nearly $1,000,000. Student enrollment grew in this new, permanent location. Carl W. McIntosh was named the college's second president in 1959.
While McIntosh was president, the school grew tremendously. Enrollment surged from about 10,000 to more than 30,000, he expanded and revamped the curriculum. McIntosh constructed 30 new buildings. Although the 1960s were a period of deep unrest on American college campuses, McIntosh's collegial governing style and quiet demeanor, willingness to permit protest on campus helped keep Long Beach State College quiet throughout the period. In 1964, LBSC changed its name to California State College at Long Beach. In 1967, the California state legislature revamped the state college system, it changed its name in 1968 to California State College, Long Beach, as part of these changes and began to be much more integrated into the California State College system. However as now, it is still called "Long Beach State" for short in athletics. In 1965, CSULB hosted the first International Sculpture Symposium to be held in the United States and the first such symposium to be held at a college or university. Six sculptors from abroad and two from the United States created many of the monumental sculptures present on the campus.
The event received national media attention from newspapers around the country, including The New York Times, Los Angeles Times Magazine, Art in America and a six-page color spread in Fortune. McIntosh departed for Montana State University in 1969, was succeeded by President Steve Horn; the California State University Board of Trustees elevated the school to university status in 1972, along with 12 other state college campuses. The decision was made based on total enrollment, size of graduate programs and diversity of majors and number of doctorates held by faculty at each college. CSCLB thus became California State University, Long Beach, or CSULB. In 1972, the campus became the home of the largest library facility in the 19-campus CSU system: a modern six-story building with a seating capacity of nearly 4,000 students. In 1995, President Robert Maxson initiated the funded President's Scholars Program, providing selected qualified California high school valedictorians and National Merit finalists and semi-finalists with a full four-year scholarship package, including tuition, a book stipend, housing.
As of May 2010, over 1000 students have accepted the scholarship. For applicants for Fall 2010, National Achievement Program Semifinalists/Finalists and National Hispanic Recognition scholars were considered; the campus spans 323 acres across 84 buildings, is located 3 miles from the Pacific Ocean. It has its own U. S. Postal ZIP Code, 90840. CSULB is located at 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, it is bounded by East 7th Street to the south, East Atherton Street to the north, Bellflower Boulevard to the west, Palo Verde Avenue to the east. The architecture of the campus is of the International style and is minimalist, placing emphasis instead on the landscaping that surrounds it; this naturalistic, park-like layout has earned the campus numerous design awards, as well as other awards from gardening societies. Recent construction maintains the characteristic glass-and-brick style; the integration of landscaping and architecture is apparent at the school's theater complex, where a dense grove of ficus trees is planted in such a way that it forms a continuation of the pillar-supported canopy
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona is a public polytechnic university in Pomona, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It is one of two polytechnics in the California State University system. Cal Poly Pomona began as the southern campus of the California Polytechnic School in 1938 when a equipped school and farm in the city of San Dimas were donated by Charles Voorhis and his son Jerry Voorhis; the southern campus grew further in 1949 when a horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, which had belonged to Will Keith Kellogg, was acquired from the University of California. Cal Poly Pomona known as Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo continued operations under a unified administrative control until they became independent from one another in 1966. Cal Poly Pomona offers bachelor's degrees in 94 majors, 39 master's degrees, 13 teaching credentials and a doctorate across 9 distinct academic colleges; the university is one among a small group of polytechnic universities in the United States which tend to be devoted to the instruction of technical arts and applied sciences.
Its sports teams are known as the Cal Poly Pomona Broncos and play in the NCAA Division II as part of the California Collegiate Athletic Association. The Broncos have won 14 NCAA national championships. Current and former Cal Poly Pomona athletes have won 7 Olympic medals. Events leading to the foundation of present-day Cal Poly at Pomona began with the demise of the Voorhis School for Boys in San Dimas and its acquisition by the San Luis Obispo-based California Polytechnic School in 1938; the California Polytechnic School was founded as a vocational high school when California Governor Henry Gage signed the Polytechnic School Bill on March 8, 1901 after its drafting by school founder Myron Angel. Voorhis School, on the other hand, had been established in 1928 as a private vocational school which provided elementary schooling for underprivileged boys and operated under the Christian religious principle, "education coupled with the Kingdom of God", its founder Charles B. Voorhis and headmaster Jerry Voorhis maintained the school opened throughout the worst years of the Great Depression but persistent economic pressures forced them to transfer control to Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1938.
Hence, Voorhis School became the Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit and its educational offerings were raised to the same level as Cal Poly San Luis Obispo's a two-year college. The horticulture program was moved to the new satellite campus and the two units operated as one institution spanning two locations under the leadership of president Julian McPhee. During World War II most of the student body was called to active military duty, enrollment declined and the campus closed in 1943. Reopening after the war, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit operated in San Dimas until 1956 when it moved to Will Keith Kellogg’s former horse ranch in the neighboring city of Pomona, California. Acknowledging its Kellogg legacy, Cal Poly-Voorhis Unit changed its name to Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit and offered six programs in agriculture; the inaugural class of 1957 at the new campus consisted of 57 students graduating with bachelor’s degrees in a ceremony held at the Rose Garden in Pomona and religious services at Voorhis Chapel in San Dimas.
In 1957, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis introduced the College of Engineering, the second academic unit after the College of Agriculture. The California Master Plan for Higher Education added the two Cal Poly campuses to the new California State College system in 1961 and Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis Unit opened its doors for the first time to 329 female students. President McPhee retired in 1966, Cal Poly split into two different and independent universities; the partnership between the two campuses remains with their involvement in the annual Cal Poly Universities Rose Float. To better reflect its new ties to the California State College system, Cal Poly Kellogg-Voorhis changed its name to “California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis” in 1966 and became the 16th campus to join the CSC system. Robert C. Kramer assumed presidency of the independent campus in 1966 and California State Polytechnic College, Kellogg-Voorhis adopted its present-day name California State Polytechnic University, Pomona on June 1, 1972.
In 1998, Cal Poly Pomona received criticism when it planned to grant an honorary degree to Robert Mugabe. Mugabe's negative humanitarian record as president of Zimbabwe lead to protests from staff and students forcing the university to rescind the award. Cal Poly Pomona underwent further growth in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, with the construction of the CLA Building, academic facilities, expansion to the Cal Poly Pomona University Library and the addition of programs such as the Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies, the I-Poly High School and the U. R. Bronco undergraduate research program. Under then-president J. Michael Ortiz, Cal Poly Pomona launched its first comprehensive capital campaign in fall of 2008 to increase its permanent endowment; the negative economic effects caused by the late-2000s recession has increased student fees, reduced enrollment availability, eliminated two athletic programs and introduced a mandatory furlough calendar for most of its 47,000 employees. The campus' office of public affairs recognizes two official names for the university: "California State Polytechnic University, Pomona" and "Cal Poly Pomona".
However, "Cal Poly" has been used to refer to Cal Poly at Pomona, as both its
Michael Maltzan is the principal architect at Michael Maltzan Architecture, a Los Angeles-based architecture firm. He received a Master of Architecture degree from Harvard University and both a Bachelor of Architecture degree and a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the Rhode Island School of Design. Maltzan was selected as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 2007. Maltzan founded Michael Maltzan Architecture, Inc. in 1995. The practice has been recognized with five Progressive Architecture awards, 31 citations from the American Institute of Architects, the Rudy Bruner Award for Urban Excellence, as a finalist for the Smithsonian/Cooper-Hewitt Museum’s National Design Award. Maltzan was awarded the American Academy of Arts and Letters Award in Architecture in 2012. In 2012, Michael Maltzan and engineering firm HNTB were selected through an international competition to design the Sixth Street Viaduct; the bridge will replace the original 1932 Sixth Street Viaduct that suffers from alkali-silica reaction which makes the bridge vulnerable to seismic failure.
The bridge design is known as “The Ribbon of Light” and is the largest bridge project in the history of Los Angeles. The project is set to be completed in 2019; the firm designed a 438-unit mixed use apartment complex, "One Santa Fe," in the Arts District of Los Angeles. The 6 story building, that opened in 2014, is over 3/10th of a mile long and holds 510,000-square-foot of interior space which does not include parking for 800 vehicles; the 438 units are set above an 80,000 sq. ft. retail/commercial podium. The design adds drama to what would otherwise be a wood frame slathered in white stucco above a concrete parking deck. A curling concrete parking ramp is located where the building faces the intersection of Santa Fe Avenue and 3rd Street and the structure has a 200-foot-wide opening in the center of the project. A generous, eccentrically shaped courtyard is framed with a long bar that holds three stories of apartments above the opening. Other projects by Michael Maltzan include: Sixth Street Viaduct, Los Angeles, CA Rice University Moody Center for the Arts, Houston, TX Crest Apartments, Los Angeles, CA One Santa Fe, Los Angeles, CA Hammer Museum John V. Tunney Bridge, Los Angeles, CA Art Center College of Design Master Plan, Pasadena, CA Star Apartments, Los Angeles, CA Playa Vista Park, Playa Vista, CA Pittman Dowell Residence, La Crescenta, CA New Carver Apartments, Los Angeles, CA Inner-City Arts, Los Angeles, CA Rainbow Apartments, Los Angeles, CA Billy Wilder Theater, Los Angeles, CA MOMA QNS, Long Island City, NY Hergott Shepard Residence, Beverly Hills, CA Trajectory of Change AIA interview Michael Maltzan Architecture website
Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service is the revenue service of the United States federal government. The government agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury, is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States; the IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of federal statutory tax law of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings; the IRS has overseen various benefits programs, enforces portions of the Affordable Care Act. The IRS originated with the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, a federal office created in 1862 to assess the nation's first income tax, to raise funds for the American Civil War; the temporary measure provided over a fifth of the Union's war expenses and was allowed to expire a decade later. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.
S. Constitution was ratified authorizing Congress to impose a tax on income, the Bureau of Internal Revenue was established. In 1953, the agency was renamed the Internal Revenue Service. Though the IRS brings in most of the revenue needed to fund the federal government, its resources have been cut year after year. In 2016 the American College of Tax Counsel wrote to the Congressional leadership stating, "We have watched the agency struggle with significant decreases in funding that have caused staffing and morale issues. In our practices, we have seen the negative impact this has had on our clients, the taxpayers."In the 2017 fiscal year, the IRS processed more than 245 million returns and collected more than $3.4 trillion in gross revenue, spending 34¢ for every $100 it collected. On June 28, 2018, Bloomberg News wrote, "The agency has been reeling from budget cuts; the current budget of $11.43 billion is less than in fiscal 2008, the IRS pared about 15 percent of its workforce over the past five years.
The enforcement staff has plunged by more than 25 percent since 2010."In the 2018 fiscal year, the U. S. federal government spent $779 billion more. It's estimated; the cutoff date taxes from 2017 filed in the 2019 tax season is March 25th. In fiscal year 2019 the IRS plans to cut an additional 2,200 employees. In July 1862, during the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln and Congress passed the Revenue Act of 1862, creating the office of Commissioner of Internal Revenue and enacting a temporary income tax to pay war expenses; the Revenue Act of 1862 was passed as temporary war-time tax. It copied a new British system of income taxation, instead of trade and property taxation; the first income tax was passed in 1862: The initial rate was 3% on income over $800, which exempted most wage-earners. In 1862 the rate was 3% on income between $600 and $10,000, 5% on income over $10,000. In 1864 the rate was 5% on income between $600 and $5,000. By the end of the war, 10% of Union households had paid some form of income tax, the Union raised 21% of its war revenue through income taxes.
After the Civil War, Reconstruction and transforming the North and South war machines towards peacetime required public funding. However, in 1872, seven years after the war, lawmakers allowed the temporary Civil War income tax to expire. Income taxes evolved, but in 1894 the Supreme Court declared the Income Tax of 1894 unconstitutional in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. a decision that contradicted Hylton v. United States; the federal government scrambled to raise money. In 1906, with the election of President Theodore Roosevelt, his successor William Howard Taft, the United States saw a populist movement for tax reform; this movement culminated during candidate Woodrow Wilson's election of 1912 and in February 1913, the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, without regard to any census or enumeration. This granted Congress the specific power to impose an income tax without regard to apportionment among the states by population.
By February 1913, 36 states had ratified the change to the Constitution. It was further ratified by six more states by March. Of the 48 states at the time, 42 ratified it. Connecticut, Rhode Island, Utah rejected the amendment. Though the constitutional amendment to allow the Federal government to collect income taxes was proposed by President Taft in 1909, the 16th Amendment was not ratified until 1913, just before the start of the First World War. In 1913 the first edition of the 1040 form was introduced. A copy of the first IRS 1040 form, can be found at the IRS website showing that only those with incomes of $3,000 or more were instructed to file. In the first year after ratification of the 16th Amendment, no taxes were collected. Instead, taxpayers completed the form and the IRS checked the form for accuracy; the IRS's workload jumped by ten-fold. Professional tax collectors began to replace a system of "patronage" appointments; the IRS doubled its staff, but was still processing 1917 returns in 1919.
Income tax raised much of the money required to finance the war effort. In 1919 the IRS was tasked with enforcement of laws relating to prohibition of alcohol sales and manufacture.
American Academy of Dramatic Arts
The American Academy of Dramatic Arts is a two-year performing arts conservatory, with two locations: 120 Madison Avenue, at 1336 North La Brea Avenue, Los Angeles. The Academy offers an associate degree in occupational studies, teaches drama and related arts in the areas of theater and television. Students have the opportunity to audition for the third-year theater company. Students can transfer completed credits to a 4-year college or university to finish a bachelor's degree if they choose. Many well-known stars, from the past and the present, made their start at the academy; the academy's page-long mission statement ends with: "The goal of The Academy is to prepare students for acting careers in theatre and film. Our purpose is to provide a practical, post-secondary education that emphasizes the skills needed by an actor in today's competitive environment." The oldest acting school in the English-speaking world, the Academy in New York City was founded in 1884 to train actors for the stage.
Its first home was the original Lyceum Theatre on. In 1963, the school moved to its current home, a landmark building designed by the American Renaissance architect Stanford White for the Colony Club. In 1974, the Academy opened another campus in Pasadena, which made it the only professional actor training school in both major centers of American entertainment; the Los Angeles campus moved from Pasadena to Hollywood in 2001 in a new building next to the site of the former studios of Charlie Chaplin. The Academy remains dedicated to training professional actors, it offers a two-year program. Auditions are held at the end of the second year for the third year company; as well as training for the theatre, it now offers courses in film and television, providing a structured, professionally-oriented program that stresses self-discovery, self-discipline and individuality. Students who graduate in New York receive an Associate of Occupational Studies degree. Students from New York and Los Angeles can get a Bachelor of Arts degree from selected universities.
Numerous students of the Academy have gone on to distinguished careers throughout the entertainment industry, receiving nominations for Tonys and Emmys. The following is a list of notable people who attended the AADA and the year of their graduating class. From their Web site:A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T V W Z The Academy has many teachers and faculty who have many professional connections and credits. Notable faculty includes: David Dean Bottrell, Karen Hensel, Sandy Martin, Ian Ogilvy, Scott Reiniger. Notes American Academy of Dramatic Arts Home Page
Coop Himmelbau was founded by Wolf D. Prix, Helmut Swiczinsky, Michael Holzer in Vienna, Austria in 1968, it is active in architecture, urban planning and art. In 1988 a second studio was opened in Los Angeles. Further project offices are located in Frankfurt and Paris, France. COOP HIMMELBAU employs between 150 people; the architectural studio COOP HIMMELBAU is directed by Wolf D. Prix, Harald Krieger, Karolin Schmidbaur, Markus Prossnigg and Project Partners. After Michael Holzer left the team in 1971, with the retirement of Helmut Swiczinsky in 2001 from COOP HIMMELBAU’s daily operations and in 2006 from the office, Wolf D. Prix is leading the studio as Design Principal/ CEO. From 2000 until 2011, Wolfdieter Dreibholz was part of COOP HIMMELBAU as Partner. In 2003 Harald Krieger was designated Partner of COOP HIMMELBAU and is managing director of COOP HIMMELBAU Europe GmbH, Frankfurt/ M. Germany, since 2006, became CFO of the studio in 2011. Karolin Schmidbaur was made Partner of the office in 1996 and is Design and Managing Partner of COOP HIMMELBAU Vienna as well as the Director of the office in Los Angeles, California.
In 2012 Louise Kiesling was appointed Head of Product Design. Markus Prossnigg became Managing Partner in 2015 and is responsible for the overall management and delivery of key projects. COOP HIMMELBAU’s most well-known projects include: the Rooftop Remodeling Falkestraße in Vienna. COOP HIMMELBAU realized further key projects in Vienna in recent years, including the SEG Apartment Tower, followed by the SEG Apartment Block Remise. Among the recent projects that COOP HIMMELBAU is pursuing throughout the world are the House of Bread II in Asten and the Five Star Hotel Tower at the Dawang Mountain Resort, China. Additional projects in planning are the Central Bank of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, the 5th World, Russell Means Library, South Dakota, USA, as well as the ATMOS Selfness Resort. Rooftop Remodeling Falkestrasse, Austria Academy of Fine Arts Munich UFA-Cinema Center in Dresden Groninger Museum, Netherlands The Media Pavilion at the 6th International Architecture Exhibition, Biennale di Venezia Gasometer, Austria Arteplage in Biel/Bienne from Swiss Expo.02 BMW World Munich, Germany Akron Art Museum addition High School for the Visual and Performing Arts with HMC Architects Dalian International Conference Center, China Busan Cinema Center, South Korea Musikkens Hus in Aalborg, Denmark The New European Central Bank in Frankfurt Musée des Confluences, France Hotel - 55th Street & 8th Avenue, New York City 2008 2008 RIBA European Award for BMW World 2005 American Architecture Awards The Chicago Athenaeum, Illinois Akron Art Museum, Ohio, USA 2004 Annie Spink Award for excellence in architectural education, RIBA, London, UK 2002 Gold Medal for merits to the federal state of Vienna, Austria 1992 Schelling Architecture Prize.
Deconstructivism List of projects: http://www.architravel.com/architravel/architects/coop-himmelblau/ Official site Online profile of Coop Himmelbau Interview with Wolf Prix Universität Für Angewandte Kunst Wien
Santa Fe Freight Depot
Santa Fe Freight Depot is a quarter-mile-long building in the industrial area to the east of Downtown Los Angeles, now known as the Arts District. The Southern California Institute of Architecture converted the structure into its campus in 2000; the building's use as a school has helped revitalize a neighborhood considered "a gritty corner of downtown". Built in 1907, the depot was designed by Harrison Albright, a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete, as a railroad freight depot; the Santa Fe Coast lines secured the property along the Los Angeles River and spent $300,000 building the enormous concrete building. The depot was built to replace a freight center that had burned to the ground, the narrow steel-reinforced concrete structure became a local landmark. For half its length, the building is only 37 feet in width but, at 1,250 feet in length, it is as long as the Empire State Building is tall; the building had 120 bays with opening on both sides, allowing freight cars to unload on one side while trucks were loaded on the other side.
By the 1990s, the depot was a vacant building covered in graffiti. The building had been stripped with a single room as long as four football fields. In 2000, the Southern California Institute of Architecture, or SCI-Arc, obtained a lease on the property with plans to relocate its campus to the location. Over the next two years, SCI-Arc renovated and converted the building, considered an "industrial leftover," into a 61,000-square-foot state-of-the-art architecture school; the renovation was designed by SCI-Arc graduate and faculty member Gary Paige who described the building as a "found object -- one with ceilings up to 20 feet high and broad views of the downtown skyline." Paige added: "We like the unrelenting and extreme nature of the building." One reviewer noted that the structure was a mixed blessing: "Time had been generous to it, giving the interior surfaces a seasoned patina akin to character lines on a wise face. The problem was typology: Being as long as the Empire State Building is tall, the shotgun building was unremittingly linear, with only one jog breaking the monotony of its quarter-mile length."
Another review called wrote: The recombinant building is a lesson in engineering and architecture. Thirty thousand square feet of studios and seminar spaces, a workshop, a thesis pit and a bridge to the library have been stacked and suspended to form an open-ended, flexible space, it seems. Enter a studio through its doorway, you are standing on what is more like a stage, looking out through a proscenium framed by new steel posts and girders set parallel to and in tandem with the old concrete columns and beams. Prior to the opening of the SCI-Arc campus, the neighborhood around the depot was referred to as a "gritty corner of downtown." Since 2000, SCI-Arc's presence has helped revitalize the neighborhood. However, the area's revitalization has driven up the property's value and resulted in an expensive legal battle that ended with a determination in June 2005 that SCI-Arc did not have the right to purchase the depot building and land in which its campus is located. A developer purchased the vacant land to the west of Sci-Arc, announcing plans in 2004 to construct a pair of 40-story towers, each with 384 luxury apartments.
Pritzker Prize-winner and SCI-Arc co-founder Thom Mayne wrote an editorial in 2005 urging the city to step in to make sure that SCI-Arc was encouraged and preserved as an important urban catalyst for Downtown Los Angeles. Mayne noted that SCI-Arc had taken root in the neighborhood bringing hundreds of young people into the once-abandoned area, noted that SCI-Arc's move to the former freight depot was "the prototype of an institution that resonates with energy and creativity." SCI-Arc succeeded in a second attempt to purchase the building in 2011, paying $23.1 million. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles Southern California Institute of Architecture