Southern Cross railway station

Southern Cross railway station is a major railway station in Docklands, Melbourne. It is on Spencer Street, between Collins and La Trobe Streets, at the western edge of the central business district; the Docklands Stadium sports arena is 500 metres north-west of the station. The station is owned and maintained by Infranexus, a subsidiary of IFM Investors, under a 30-year lease to 2036 from the Victorian State Government, under a public-private partnership; the station is the terminus of the state's regional railway network operated by V/Line, The Overland rail service to Adelaide, NSW TrainLink XPT services to Sydney. It is served by suburban rail services operated by Metro Trains, being one of five stations on the City Loop, a underground railway that encircles the Central Business District, it is the second busiest railway station in Melbourne's metropolitan network, with 18.614 million passenger movements recorded in 2017/18. This figure excludes V/Line passengers. Southern Cross has a coach terminal underneath the Spencer Outlet shopping complex.

Skybus Super Shuttle services to Melbourne Airport and since 2017 to Avalon Airport operate from there, as well as Firefly Express and Greyhound Australia interstate coach services, a coach ran public bus and V/Line coach services to Mildura, Yarram and other parts of Victoria not served by rail. Opened as Spencer Street Station in 1859, five years after the other major Melbourne rail terminus at Flinders Street, the station was a dead-end terminus, running parallel to Spencer Street, composed of a single main platform with a dock platform at the north end, it was not until 1874. The two major city stations were not linked until 1879, when a single-track ground-level line was opened, it operated only at night, only for freight trains. In the 1880s, it was proposed that Spencer Street station be removed in order to facilitate the westward expansion of the city, but the plan was subsequently rejected; the 1880s unrealised plans for the station. The first accepted design, drafted by Albert Charles Cook in 1883, was a fanciful Palladian palazzo design of two and three storeys, with central portico.

From 1888 to 1894 the layout of the platforms was altered, with new country platforms being built on an angle to Spencer Street itself. The current coach terminal location was the site of a number of new platforms built for suburban services. In 1891, further plans were made for a significant new station complex, including three-storey office complex and dominant clock tower reminiscent of the Sydney Central station, but the 1890s Depression put an end to such expensive schemes. In 1888 work started on the double track Flinders Street Viaduct linking the station to Flinders Street station; the line was only used by freight trains, with passenger train operations commencing in 1894. It was at this time that the first through platform was provided at the station, for suburban trains from Essendon and Williamstown; the viaduct to Flinders Street was expanded to four tracks in 1915, in conjunction with the electrification works on the suburban network today's platforms 11 to 14 were opened between 1918 and 1924, along with a pedestrian subway providing access to them.

In 1938 it was announced that construction of an improved station entrance and new car park had been approved, at a cost of £2,000, designed by architects Messrs Stephenson and Meldrum. Once again however, no construction took place.. In October 1960 work on a new Spencer Street station commenced, sparked by the construction of the interstate standard gauge line to Sydney. A station building was constructed which replaced the 1880s iron sheds, a new 413-metre platform number 1 was built; the passenger subway, constructed as part of the 1918 works was extended to include access to country platforms. In connection with the construction of the underground loop, platforms 9 and 10 were rebuilt as part of the suburban section of the station, a new double-track viaduct was constructed between Spencer Street and Flinders Street station, alongside the original one, bringing to six the number of tracks connecting the two stations. At the same time, the four older tracks were resignalled for bi-directional operation.

In 1962 a separate subway network was constructed to carry mail between the station and what was the Melbourne General Post Office and main postal sorting office, situated on the other side of Spencer Street. The mechanically interlocked signal box at the station opened in 1887, was decommissioned in June 2008. Built with 120 levers, it had 191 when it closed, making it the world's largest. Southern Cross was redeveloped by the Civic Nexus consortium, following an innovative design by Grimshaw Architects and Jackson Architecture which features an undulating roof. Construction began in October 2002 and was completed in late 2006, with the majority of the transport facilities finished in time for the 2006 Commonwealth Games; the central features of the design include a wave-shaped roof, a new entrance and concourse on Collins Street, a new coach interchange, a new food court, a bar/restaurant, separate retail outlets inside the station and a separate shopping complex between Bourke and La Trobe Streets.

This new shopping complex comprised a Direct Factory Outlets centre, a Virgin Megastore, along with food courts. This opened on 30 November 2006, although not all tenancies were occupied, stage 2 was opened in March 2007. In 2009 the DFO relocated to a new site at South Wharf, the shopping centre being refitted by owner Austexx and rebranded as "Spencer Street


Solčava is a village in the Upper Savinja Valley in northern Slovenia close to the Austrian border. It is the seat of the Municipality of Solčava. Traditionally it belonged to the region of Styria and is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region. Solčava was attested in written sources as Sulçpach in 1268. In the local dialect, the village is called Žocpah, in the 19th century its Slovene name was recorded as Žolcpah, Sušpach, Solcpah—all based on the German name; the German name is a compound corresponding to Sulze'mineral springs' + Bach'creek', referring to the local geography. The modern Slovene name Solčava was artificially created in the 19th century from the German name; the parish church in the settlement is dedicated to Mary of the Snows. It contains a 13th-century statue of the Virgin Mary, it belongs to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Celje. Media related to Solčava at Wikimedia Commons Solčava on Geopedia

Damian Marley

Damian Robert Nesta "Jr. Gong" Marley is a Jamaican deejay, singer and record producer. Damian is the youngest son of reggae singer Bob Marley. Damian was 2 years old. Damian's nickname Junior Gong is derived from his father's nickname of Tuff Gong. Damian has been performing since the age of 13. At age 13, he formed a musical group by the name of the Shephards, which included the daughter of Freddie McGregor and son of Third World's Cat Core; the group opened the 1992 Reggae Sunsplash festival. The band fell apart in the early 1990s and Damian started his solo career. With the backing of his father's label, Tuff Gong, he released his 1996 debut album Mr. Marley which surprised many who were unaccustomed to hearing a Marley deejaying rather than singing. Marley released his second studio album Halfway Tree; the name "Halfway Tree" comes from his mother, Cindy Breakspeare, being from the rich part of town, his father, Bob Marley, coming from the poor part of town, thus him being "a tree halfway in between the'rich' world and'poor' world."

Additionally, Halfway Tree is a well-known landmark that marks the cultural center of Half-Way-Tree, the clock tower that stands where the historical eponymous cotton tree once stood is featured prominently behind Marley on the cover of the album. The album was released on 11 September 2001 and received the 2002 Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album, it was co-produced by Damian Marley and his brother Stephen Marley, who had produced Damian's debut album, Mr Marley. Marley released his third studio album Welcome to Jamrock, released on 12 September 2005 in the United States and 13 September 2005 in the United Kingdom; the album sold 86,000 copies in its first week of release, was certified gold after selling 500,000 copies in the United States. Damian's half-brother, Stephen Marley, was a producer and co-writer of the hugely successful song of the same name; the lyrics to the single "Welcome to Jamrock", performed over a riddim produced by Sly and Robbie for Ini Kamoze some 20 years earlier, centred around poverty and crime in Jamaica.

While the single was controversial at home over its perceived negative viewpoint of the island, many praised the content of the song. Dr. Clinton Hutton, professor at the University of the West Indies, said of the single, "'Jamrock' uses the icon of the inner city, of alienation, of despair, of prejudice, but of hope, of Jamaican identity, to remind us of the fire of frustration, the fire of creativity, the fire of warning to open up our eyes and look within to the life we are living, and still some of us don't want to hear and to look and say enough is enough." The single reached No. 13 on No. 55 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. It was No. 100 on the Top 100 Songs of the Decade listing by Rolling Stone. Other notable singles from the album include "The Master Has Come Back", "Road to Zion" featuring Nas, "Khaki Suit" featuring Bounty Killer and Eek-A-Mouse. At the 2006 Grammy Awards, he won Best Reggae Album and Best Urban/Alternative Performance for Welcome to Jamrock, he is the only Jamaican reggae artist in history to win two Grammy Awards on the same night.

He is the only reggae artist to win in the Best Urban/Alternative Performance category at the Grammy Awards. At the 2009 Grammy Awards news of a collaborative album between Marley and Nas was announced, when Nas told MTV reporters "Right now, I'll tell you first, I'm working on an album with Damian Marley. We tryin' to build some schools in Africa with this one, trying to build empowerment. We're tryin' to show stuff with this album. So, the record's... all about the'hood and Africa as well."On 17 May 2010, Marley released Distant Relatives, a collaborative album with Nas. The album title refers not only to the bond between the artists but the connection to their African ancestry, which inspired the album both musically and lyrically, they have collaborated on "Road to Zion", on Marley's Welcome to Jamrock album. The album joins two different flavours of music with Nas' flow. Damian and Stephen produced much of the album; the proceeds of this album will go to building schools in the Congo. The album debuted at number five on the US Billboard 200 chart with first-week sales of 57,000 copies.

It serves as Marley's second top-ten album in the United States. The album entered at number four on Billboard's Digital Albums, at number one on its R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, Rap Albums, Reggae Albums charts. Internationally, Distant Relatives attained some chart success, it entered at number 33 on the European Top 100 Albums chart. In the United Kingdom, it debuted at number 30 on the UK Albums Chart and at number four on the R&B Albums Chart. In Canada, the album entered at number 9 on the Top 100 Albums chart. In Germany, it debuted at number 38 on the Media Control Charts; the first single, "As We Enter", was released on iTunes on 23 February 2010. It has so far peaked at No. 10 on the iTunes Hip Hop/Rap charts and No. 41 on the iTunes Music charts. The single debuted at number 39 on the UK Singles Chart. At a sold-out panel discussion on the African diaspora and its relation to music, sponsored by National Geographic and Stephen Marley and Nas were among the several hip-hop and reggae musicians voicing their solidarity.

The discussion focused on the collaborations between artists of the two genres, highlighted the Distant Relatives project. The existence of SuperHeavy was secret until May 2011. Mick Jagger, English musician and the lead vocalist of rock band The Rolling Stones, announced its formation on 20 May 2011. SuperHeavy was Dav