Southern France

Southern France known as the South of France or colloquially in French as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, the Mediterranean Sea and Italy. It includes: Nouvelle-Aquitaine in the west, Occitanie in the centre, the southern parts of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in the northeast, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in the southeast, as well as the island of Corsica in the southeast. Monaco and Andorra are sometimes included in definitions of Southern France although they are principalities; the term Midi derives from mi and di in Old French, comparable to the term Mezzogiorno from the Southern Italy. The time of midday was synonymous with the direction of south because in France, as in all of the Northern Hemisphere north of the Tropic of Cancer, the sun is in the south at noon; the synonymy existed in Middle French as well, where meridien can refer to both south. The Midi is considered to start at Valence, hence the saying "à Valence le Midi commence".

The area corresponds in large part to Occitania, the territory in which Occitan – as distinct from the langues d'oïl of Northern France – was the dominant language. Though part of Occitania, the regions of Auvergne and Limousin are not considered part of the South of France; the biggest cities of Southern France are Marseille, Bordeaux and Montpellier. The Pyrenees and French Alps are located in the area in its southwestern and eastern parts. Notable touristic landmarks include the Roman-era Pont du Gard and Arena of Nîmes, the Verdon Gorge in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, the Canal du Midi, linking Toulouse and the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the natural regions of Larzac, Luberon and Médoc; the French Riviera is located in Southern France's southeastern quadrant. Several towns in Southern France are renowned for their architecture and surroundings, such as Roussillon, Ménerbes, Cordes-sur-Ciel, Rocamadour, Les Baux-de-Provence, Gassin, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue, Crillon-le-Brave and Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

To Catch a Thief Summer Holiday Pierrot le Fou Lacombe, Lucien French Connection II Under the Cherry Moon Jean de Florette Manon des Sources Dirty Rotten Scoundrels Happiness Is in the Field Taxi Chocolat The Transporter Swimming Pool Le Grand Voyage Priceless The Grocer's Son Mr. Bean's Holiday Amer Magic in the Moonlight Occitania Northern Basque Country Northern Catalonia Corsica Southern Italy Southern Europe Vichy France

St Ali

The ST ALi Family is a owned group of cafes and specialty coffee roaster founded and based in Melbourne, Australia in 2005. St. Ali has 2 cafes in Melbourne: St. Ali South and St. Ali North. St Ali was an early adopter of specialty coffee in Melbourne and was one of the pioneers of specialty coffee movement of single estate and single origin coffee beans. St. Ali has been credited with being a contributor to the third wave of coffee movement in Melbourne, with a strong focus on quality beans, unique brewing methods; the ST ALi family group of companies consists of ST ALi’s Melbourne cafes in South Melbourne, two Sensory Lab locations, Auction Rooms and Plantation. All are under private ownership, with the majority owned by Salvatore Malatesta, a hospitality entrepreneur with a legal background. ST ALi’s South Melbourne cafe was founded in 2005 by Mark Dundon, business continued to grow in the years that followed, which led to the opening of a second cafe in December 2012. ST ALi coffee beans are sourced through direct trade, harnessing strong relationships with the coffee growers themselves.

Malatesta has invested around $US100,000 in buying a share in a small farm in Cali, Colombia. The 20 hectares yield about seven tonnes of green coffee a year. St. Ali’s coffee beans are all purchased green, small batch roasted in Melbourne using Brambati roasters; as well as engaging in direct trade coffee sourcing, ST ALi is a supporter of local and community initiatives, including a barista challenge run in conjunction with Melbourne City Mission, to teach disadvantaged youth work experience and barista training. Students competed in a competition that mimicked the Barista World Championships and each student prepared coffees to exacting standards, with one winner being picked in each category. Another community initiative, held at St. Ali North, was a pedal powered music concert in July 2013. Concert goers could volunteer to ride two exercise bikes connected to a battery that powered the PA and the instruments. ST ALi has been nationally and internationally recognised for the quality of its coffee and locally for its food.

ST Ali South was awarded ‘Best Food Cafe’ in Melbourne in 2013 by The Age Good Cafe Guide. ST Ali's head of coffee, Matthew Perger won first place at the 2012 World Brewers Cup, has won two Australasian Specialty Coffee Association Detpak Australian Barista Championship titles, placed third at the 2011 World Barista Championship that took place in Colombia and the second place in 2013 World Barista Championship; the ST ALi Family has toured internationally with pop up cafes across many continents. In February 2014, a small team set up a pop up cafe and coffee masterclasses at Coffee Workers in Seoul, Korea. From 3 to 6 April 2014, St. Ali was invited to the London Coffee Festival to run a pop up cafe to bring a taste of Melbourne to Londoners; this was followed by a cafe installation in Milan at the design festival Ventura Lambrate. ST ALI formed a part of an Australian design contingent called ‘The Other Hemisphere'. In a collaboration with Common Grounds, ST ALi heads to Jakarta, Indonesia in September 2014 to take over the bar and hold manual brewing masterclasses.

ST ALi has enjoyed a residency as a part of the long-term pop up in Collins Street, Rue & Co. This residency sees ST ALi alongside other venues, Chris Lucas"Kong', George Colombaris"Jimmy Grants'; the location boasts a nine storey mural, created by street artist Rone

Five-pin bowling

Five-pin bowling is a bowling variant, played in Canada, where many bowling alleys offer it, either alone or in combination with ten-pin bowling. It was devised around 1909 by Thomas F. Ryan in Toronto, Ontario, at his Toronto Bowling Club, in response to customers who complained that the ten-pin game was too strenuous, he cut five tenpins down to about 75% of their size, used hand-sized hard rubber balls, thus inventing the original version of five-pin bowling. The balls in five pin bowling are small enough to fit in the hand and therefore have no fingerholes, although the Canadian 5 Pin Bowlers Association have approved balls with thumb holes made by one manufacturer. At the end of the lane there are five pins arranged in a V. In size they are midway between duckpins and ten pins, they have a heavy rubber band around their middles, similar to the pins used in the seen "rubberband duckpin" form of duckpin bowling, to make them move farther when struck. Unlike any other form of bowling popular in North America, the pins in five-pin bowling are worth different scoring point values, depending on their location in the V-formation.

The centre pin is worth five points if knocked down, those on either side, three each, the outermost pins, two each, giving a total of 15 in each frame. In each frame, each player gets three attempts to knock all five pins over. Knocking all five pins down with the first ball is a strike, worth 15 points, which means the score achieved by the player's first two balls of the next frame or frames are added to his or her score for the strike, they are of course, counted in their own frames, so in effect they count double. A player who takes two balls to knock all the pins down gets a spare, which means the first ball of the next frame counts double; when a bowler bowls two strikes in succession, within a game, the bowler has scored a "double". The count in the frame where the first strike was bowled is left blank until the bowler makes his or her first delivery of the next frame; when a double has been bowled, the count for the first strike is 30 points plus the value of the pins bowled down with the first ball of the frame following the second strike.

When a bowler bowls three strikes in succession, within a game, the bowler has scored a "triple". In scoring three successive strikes, the bowler is credited with 45 points in the frame where the first strike was bowled; as in ten-pin, if either of these happen in the last frame, the player gets to take one or two shots at a re-racked set of pins immediately. A perfect score is 450, it does not happen as as in tenpin bowling. The C5PBA sanctions from 15 to 30 perfect games annually; the pins counted as 4 - 2 - 1 - 3 - 5 points. In 1952 the president of the Canadian Bowling Association proposed changing the scoring system to 2 - 3 - 5 - 3 - 2; that was accepted in the west in 1952, in Ontario in 1953, in the rest of Canada in 1954. In 1967 the Canadian Bowling Congress decided to abolish the counter pin; the rule change went in effect in 1968 in eastern Canada, but the Western Canada 5-pin Bowling Association rejected the change, as a result there were no national championships until 1972 after the west accepted abolishing the counter pin.

Five-pin bowling allows for more strategy in its play than the ten-pin variant, because of the differing point values for each pin. For example: If a player fails to score a strike in 10-pin bowling, it is less important how the player chooses to resolve the remaining pins, as all pins are valued the same, knocking down more results in higher points. In five-pin bowling on the other hand, if a player misses a strike, he or she has to make a strategic decision as to which set of remaining pins they should attempt to knock down, which allows players a means to minimize their losses after a mistake, by aiming for the higher-scoring group of pins, or for the lower but more struck group. Five-pin bowlers use a number of terms to denote the results of a throw: "-pack": Term for a number of consecutive strikes. Referred to as "-bagger". "10 the hard way": After the third ball, having a frame score of 10 where the remaining pins are a 3-pin and a 2-pin that are not "neighbours". "Aces": taking out the headpin and both three pins but leaving the two corner pins.

Referred to as "bed posts", "goal posts" or "channel 11". "Chop" or "chop-off": Hitting the headpin and the 3 and 2 pins on one side on the first ball, leaving the other 3 and 2 pins on the other side. "Clean game": Finishing a game with a strike or spare in every frame. "Corner-pin": Leaving only the left corner pin or right corner pin standing on the first ball is denoted by an "L" or an "R" on a score sheet. "Fifteen": When all pins are knocked down after the third ball. Referred to as a "clean up". "Headpin": punching out the headpin on the first ball. This is the most dreaded result on the first ball, as converting the spare resulting from punching out the headpin is difficult to achieve. "Punch": Hitting only one pin when two or more pins are remaining "Split": Taking out the headpin and one of the three-pins, scoring 8 on the first ball. Difficult to obtain a spare on the second ball but if accomplished, this is known as a "split-spare". Many bowling assoc