SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth, south of the Equator. It contains parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania, its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, it contains 32.7% of Earth's land. Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September. September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox; the South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region. Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic, colder than the Arctic; this is because the Southern Hemisphere has more ocean and much less land. The differences are attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping. In the Southern Hemisphere, the sun passes from east to west through the north, although north of the Tropic of Capricorn the mean sun can be directly overhead or due north at midday.

The Sun rotating through the north causes an apparent right-left trajectory through the sky unlike the left-right motion of the Sun when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn, the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun, while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer, the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect; the southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. This zone includes the southern tip of South Africa; the Sagittarius constellation that includes the galactic centre is a southern constellation as well as both Magellanic Clouds. This, combined with clearer skies, makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars.

Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, New Zealand has members of the related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora; the eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production, biofuel uses. Around 800 million humans live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing only 10–12% of the total global human population of 7.3 billion. Of those 800 million people, 200 million live in Brazil, the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere, while 141 million live on the island of Java, the most populous island in the world; the most populous nation in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia, with 261 million people. Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, followed by Javanese; the largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Lima, Johannesburg and Sydney.

The most important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, where the Bovespa Index is headquartered, along with Sydney, home to the Australian Securities Exchange, home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, Buenos Aires, headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere. Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere is Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$51,850 and a human development index of 0.939, the second-highest in the world as of 2016. New Zealand is well developed, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$38,385 and an HDI of 0.915, putting it at number 13 in the world in 2016. The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere cluster in Africa and Oceania, with Burundi and Mozambique at the lowest ends of the HDI, at 0.404 and 0.418, respectively. The nominal GDPs per capita of these two countries do not go above US$550, a tiny fraction of the incomes enjoyed by Australians and New Zealanders.

The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America, southern Africa, Australia/New Zealand, followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa, Hinduism, concentrated on the island of Bali and neighboring islands. The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor, in western Java, founded in 669 CE. Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor was founded. However, some evidence shows that

M-199 (Michigan highway)

M-199 is a state trunkline highway near Albion in the US state of Michigan. The western terminus of the 4.030-mile-long road is in Sheridan Township at exit 119 off Interstate 94. The eastern terminus is a junction with Business Loop I-94 downtown Albion; the entire road runs through rural farm fields outside of Albion. The M-199 designation had been applied to a highway in the Upper Peninsula in the 1930s; the current highway was part of other highways in the first half of the 20th century before it was transferred to local control around 1960. It was transferred back to state control in 1998 and remains unchanged since; as a two-lane roadway, M-199 starts at exit 119 along I-94 northwest of Albion in Sheridan Township. The highway runs southward through farm fields along 26 Mile Road before curving to the southwest on Star Commonwealth Road near the campus of the Montcalm School for Boys and Girls, a private boarding school. At the end of this curves, the highway follows 25½ Mile Road southward to the intersection with Michigan Avenue.

There M-199 passes south of Montcalm Lake. The trunkline runs parallel to a line of the Norfolk Southern Railway until about the intersection with 26½ Mile Road. At the intersection with 27 Mile Road, M-199 enters the city of Albion, the street name changes to Austin Avenue. In town, the highway follows a four-lane street through residential neighborhoods; the trunkline runs parallel to the Kalamazoo River. At the intersection with Eaton Street, the highway meets BL I-94, where M-199 ends while the business loop continues southeasterly on Austin Avenue at this corner. M-199 is maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation like other state highways in Michigan; as a part of these maintenance responsibilities, the department tracks the volume of traffic that uses the roadways under its jurisdiction. These volumes are expressed using a metric called annual average daily traffic, a statistical calculation of the average daily number of vehicles on a segment of roadway. MDOT's surveys in 2010 showed that 1,185 vehicles per day used the roadway between I-94 and Michigan Avenue and between 3,174 and 4,042 vehicles used section along the combined Michigan and Austin avenues.

No sections of M-199 have been listed on the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the country's economy and mobility. In the middle of 1933, an earlier designation of M-199 was used for a short spur route from US Highway 41 into Daggett in Menominee County; this highway was decommissioned in 1939. The current M-199 was once part of M-17 starting around July 1, 1919; when the US Highway System was created on November 11, 1926, the highway was incorporated into US 12. The Albion area was bypassed by a freeway at the end of the 1950s, Michigan Avenue was turned over to local control; the current highway routing was transferred to state control on October 1, 1998, the M-199 designation was subsequently assigned to the trunkline. The highway has remained unchanged since designation; the entire highway is in Calhoun County. Michigan Highways portal M-199 at Michigan Highways M-199 at CanHighways.com M-199 on Austin Avenue at Historical Albion Michigan

William Sorrell

William H. Sorrell is an American politician, he is the longest-serving attorney general in the history of the U. S. state of Vermont. Appointed by Governor Howard Dean in 1997, he was reelected nine times since in 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, he did not run for re-election in 2016, was succeeded by his former primary challenger T. J. Donovan in January 2017. A native of Burlington, Sorrell is the son of Thomas W. Sorrell, who served as U. S. Marshal for Vermont, Esther Sorrell, a longtime Democratic Party activist and member of the Vermont Senate, he received his Bachelor of Arts, magna cum laude, in 1970 from the University of Notre Dame earned his Juris Doctor from Cornell Law School in 1974. Sorrell was Chittenden County Deputy State's Attorney in 1975–1977 Chittenden County State's Attorney from 1977 to 1978. After working in private law practice at McNeil, Murray & Sorrell from 1978 to 1989, he returned to being State's Attorney from 1989 to 1992 served as Vermont's Secretary of Administration from 1992 to 1997 until his appointment as Vermont Attorney General.

Within weeks of taking office, Sorrell brought suit against the nation's largest tobacco companies to end their deceitful behavior of lying about the harmful effects of their products. The lawsuit resulted in a historic settlement with Big Tobacco that to date has yielded over $300 million for Vermont taxpayers. Sorrell successfully stopped Big Tobacco's attempt to include cigarette advertising in national magazines sent to Vermont school children and scored a resounding victory against RJ Reynolds in a watched lawsuit attacking the marketing of the company's so-called "reduced risk" cigarettes. During Sorrell's tenure, Vermont became a national leader in national anti-pollution efforts. Sorrell joined litigation against American Electric Power, a major contributor to acid rain problems in Vermont and other states in the region; the settlement of the case is the largest settlement of an environmental pollution case in US history. Sorrell defended Vermont's strict auto-emission standards against pushback from the national auto industry.

The verdict was a success for the cause of reversing the adverse effects global warming and increasing the fuel economy of motor vehicles. In June 2004, Sorrell began a one-year term as president of the National Association of Attorneys General, in June 2003 he was chosen by his fellow attorneys general to receive NAAG's Kelley–Wyman Award, given annually to the "Outstanding Attorney General." Sorrell served a maximum term of six years as a member and chair of the board of the American Legacy Foundation. In appreciation for his service, in 2008 the foundation endowed the William H. Sorrell Lecture Series, funding an annual address on tobacco control issues at a NAAG meeting, he has served as a member of Vermont's Judicial Nominating Board, as president of United Cerebral Palsy of Vermont, secretary of the Vermont Coalition of the Handicapped and a member of the board of the Winooski Valley Park District. He serves as chair of the board of the NAAG Mission Foundation. Sorrell was recognized by the Coalition for a Tobacco Free Vermont as Tobacco Control Champion in 2003, in 2009 as Citizen of the Year by the Vermont Medical Society and in 2010 by the National Humane Society with its Humane Law Enforcement Award.

Sorrell has been accused of burying sensitive investigations and covering up criminal acts committed by persons or institutions with influence in Vermont. He is alleged to have covered up biological terrorism relating to the intentional infection of a series of patients at Northwestern Medical Center of St. Albans, VT. Sorrell has steadfastly maintained that his office investigated the apparent act of biological terrorism and found no evidence of wrongdoing. However, when his investigative files were subpoenaed, no evidence was found that any investigation took place. Sorrell's office claimed. On January 27, 2016, Vermont independent newspaper Seven Days reported that Vermont State Police had "received a complaint of alleged criminal misconduct" from a panel of state's attorneys charged with investigating six allegations against Sorrell". Office of the Attorney General – Attorney General William H. Sorrell official VT website NAAG – Vermont Attorney General William H. Sorrell profile 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 campaign contributions Project Vote Smart – William H. Sorrell profile Bill Sorrell for Vermont Attorney General official campaign website