Madison is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, United States, along the Ohio River. As of the 2017 United States Census estimate its population was 11,977. Over 55,000 people live within 15 miles of downtown Madison. Madison is the largest city along the Ohio River between Cincinnati. Madison is one of the core cities of the Louisville-Elizabethtown-Madison metroplex, an area with a population of 1.5 million. In 2006, the majority of Madison's downtown area was designated the largest contiguous National Historic Landmark in the United States—133 blocks of the downtown area is known as the Madison Historic Landmark District. Madison is located at 38°45′N 85°24′W, on the north side of the Ohio River, it is bordered across the river, by the city of Milton, Kentucky. U. S. Route 421 passes through the center of town, crossing the Ohio into Kentucky on the Milton–Madison Bridge. US-421 leads north 26 miles to Versailles and south 23 miles to Campbellsburg, Kentucky. Indiana State Road 7 leads northwest 23 miles to Vernon.
Indiana State Road 56, the Ohio River Scenic Byway, is Madison's Main Street, leading east 20 miles to Vevay and west 23 miles to Scottsburg. Louisville is 48 miles southwest of Madison by highway, Cincinnati is 68 miles to the northeast. Madison is bordered to the west by Clifty Falls State Park, encompassing the canyon of Big Clifty Creek and its tributaries, with several waterfalls, as well as high ground rising 400 feet above the Ohio River valley. According to the 2010 census, Madison has a total area of 8.842 square miles, of which 8.57 square miles is land and 0.272 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Madison has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $35,092, the median income for a family was $46,241. Males had a median income of $32,800 versus $22,039 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,923.
About 10.2% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.3% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,967 people, 5,048 households, 2,951 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,396.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,787 housing units at an average density of 675.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 2.8% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 5,048 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.4% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.5% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.79.
The median age in the city was 42.2 years. 21% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 44.8% male and 55.2% female. Madison was laid out and platted in 1810, the first lots were sold in 1811 by John Paul, it had busy early years due to heavy river traffic and its position as an entry point into the Indiana Territory along the historic Old Michigan Road. Madison's location across the Ohio River from Kentucky, a slave state, made it an important location on the Underground Railroad, which worked to free fugitive slaves. George DeBaptiste's barbershop in town became a nerve center of the local group. Indiana's first railroad, the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad, was built there from 1836 to 1847. Chartered in 1832 by the Indiana State Legislature as the Madison Indianapolis & Lafayette Railroad, construction begun September 16, 1836, the railroad was transferred to private ownership on January 31, 1843, as the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad. Successful for more than a decade, the railroad went into decline and was sold at foreclosure in 1862, renamed the Indianapolis & Madison Railroad, after a series of corporate transfers, became part of the massive Pennsylvania Railroad system in 1921.
In March 1924, the Madison Area Chamber of Commerce was founded to aid area business growth and development. Madison's days as a leading Indiana city were numbered, when river traffic declined and new railroads built between Louisville and Cincinnati tapped into Madison's trade network; as a result, Madison's growth did not continue at the same pace it had experienced before the Civil War. During the late nineteenth century, many new buildings were still being built, but in many cases older structures were modernized by adding cast-iron storefronts and ornamental sheet metal cornices; some earlier buildings survived without major alterations, the Madison National Landmark Historic District today contains examples of all the major architectural styles of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, from Federal to Art Moderne. On January 11, 1992, Shanda Sharer was murdered in the city by four teenage girls. Downtown Madison was granted National Historic Landmark District status in early 2006.
On August 25, 2006, just months after the designation, a blaze damaged two
Cincinnati metropolitan area
The Cincinnati metropolitan area, informally known as Greater Cincinnati or the Greater Cincinnati Tri-State Area, is a metropolitan area that includes counties in the U. S. states of Ohio and Indiana around the Ohio city of Cincinnati. The United States Census Bureau's formal name for the area is the Cincinnati–Middletown, OH–KY–IN Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, this MSA had a population of 2,114,580, making Greater Cincinnati the 29th most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the first largest metro area in Ohio, followed by Cleveland and Columbus; the Census lists the Cincinnati–Wilmington–Maysville, OH–KY–IN Combined Statistical Area, which adds Clinton County and Mason County, Kentucky for a 2014 estimated population of 2,208,450. The Cincinnati metropolitan area is considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis; the Cincinnati, OH–KY–IN, MSA was formed by the United States Census Bureau in 1950 and consisted of the Kentucky counties of Campbell and Kenton and the Ohio county of Hamilton.
As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Hamilton County, they met Census criteria to be added to the MSA. The Hamilton–Middletown, OH MSA was formed in 1950 and consisted of Butler County, Ohio. In 1990, the Census changed designation of the areas known as MSAs to Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area, a new Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area grouping was created. From 1990 through 2005, the Cincinnati–Hamilton–Middletown CMSA included the Cincinnati–Hamilton, OH–KY–IN PMSA and the Hamilton–Middletown, OH PMSA; as of December 2005, Census terminology changed again. Consolidated Statistical Areas combine more than one Core Based Statistical Area. Newly defined MSAs and µSAs Statistical Areas are CBSAs. From 2005 to 2013, the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington CSA included the Cincinnati–Middletown MSA, Wilmington, OH µSA. In 2013, the CSA was redefined again; the Cincinnati–Middletown MSA was renamed the Cincinnati MSA.
The Wilmington, OH µSA remained in the CSA. The Maysville, KY µSA, which had consisted of Mason and Lewis Counties in Kentucky, was redefined as consisting of Mason County and added to the CSA; the name of the CSA accordingly changed to the Cincinnati–Wilmington–Maysville CSA. The metropolitan area's population has grown 8.1 percent between Census 2000 and the 2009 Census population estimate, just under the national population growth rate of 9.2 percent over the same period. This growth rate is about in the middle of the growth rates of other sized mid western metropolitan areas. For example, the Cleveland metropolitan area lost 2% of population, while Louisville gained 8%, Columbus gained 12%, Indianapolis gained 14% over the same time period; the 2009 population estimate from the US Census classifies population changes between natural population increases and net migration. Natural population increase contributes fundamentally all of Greater Cincinnati's population growth. A small amount of net international migration to the region is offset by a small amount of net domestic migration out of the region.
The Cincinnati Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes seven counties in Northern Kentucky and three in Southeast Indiana, is the largest metropolitan area that includes parts of Ohio, exceeding the population of Greater Cleveland, though both Greater Cleveland and metropolitan Columbus have larger populations within the state of Ohio as of 2013. Most of the region's population growth has occurred in the northern counties, leading to speculation that the Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky metropolitan area will merge with Greater Dayton. Cincinnati is located close to other metropolitan areas, such as Louisville and Frankfort, Columbus, Ohio. Notes 1For comparison purposes, population data is summarized using 2008 Census CSA/MSA county definitions. 2Butler County, Ohio was known as the Hamilton–Middletown, OH PMSA and was separate from the Cincinnati, OH–KY–IN PMSA until the 1990 Census, when the Cincinnati–Hamilton, OH–KY–IN CMSA designation was used to consolidate the two PMSAs. The CMSA/PMSA designation is no longer used by the US Census.
Brown County, Ohio Butler County, Ohio Clermont County, Ohio Clinton County, Ohio Hamilton County, Ohio Warren County, Ohio Boone County, Kentucky Bracken County, Kentucky Campbell County, Kentucky Gallatin County, Kentucky Grant County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Mason County, Kentucky Pendleton County, Kentucky Dearborn County, Indiana Franklin County, Indiana Ohio County, Indiana In order of 2010 census population: Cincinnati, Ohio Hamilton, Ohio Middletown, Ohio Fairfield, Ohio Covington, Kentucky Mason, Ohio Florence, Kentucky Independence, Kentucky Oxford, Ohio Lebanon, Ohio Norwood, Ohio Forest Park, Ohio Erlanger, Kentucky Springboro, Ohio Fort Thomas, Kentucky Newport, Kentucky Sharonville, Ohio Blue Ash, Ohio Wilmington, Ohio Loveland, Ohio Springdale, Ohio Maysville, Kentucky Interstate 71 Interstate 74 Interstate 75 Interstate 275 Interstate 471 U. S. Route 22 & State Route 3 U. S. Route
Harrison County, Indiana
Harrison County is located in the far southern part of the U. S. state of Indiana along the Ohio River. The county was established in 1808; as of the 2010 census, the county's population was 39,364, an increase of 6.6% from 2000. The county seat is the former capital of Indiana. Harrison County is part of KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county has a diverse economy with no sector employing more than 13% of the local workforce. Horseshoe Southern Indiana is the largest employer, followed by Tyson Foods and the Harrison County Hospital. Tourism is centered on the county's many historic sites. County government is divided among several bodies including the boards of the county's three school districts, three elected commissioners who exercise legislative and executive powers, an elected county council that controls the county budget, a circuit and superior court, township trustees in the county's 12 townships; the county has 10 incorporated towns with a total population of over 5,000, as well as many small unincorporated towns.
One Interstate highway and one U. S. Route run through the county, as do eight Indiana State Roads and two railroad lines. Migratory groups of Native Americans inhabited the area for thousands of years, but the first permanent settlements in what would become Harrison County were created by American settlers in the years after the American Revolutionary War; the population grew during first decade of the 19th century. Corydon was platted in 1808 and became the capital of the Indiana Territory in 1813. Many of the state's early important historic events occurred in the county, including the writing of Indiana's first constitution. Corydon was the state capital until 1825, but in the years afterward remained an important hub for southern Indiana. In 1859 there was a major meteorite strike. In 1863 the Battle of Corydon was fought, the only battle of the American Civil War to occur in Indiana. Humans first entered; this region was of particular value to the early humans because of the abundance of flint.
There is evidence of flint mining in local caves as early as 2000 BCE. Passing migratory tribes frequented the area, influenced by succeeding groups of peoples including the Hopewells and Mississippians. One flint-working and camping location is the Swan's Landing Archeological Site, one of the most important Early Archaic archaeological sites in eastern North America. Permanent human settlements in the county began with the arrival of American settlers in the last decade of the 18th century; the area became part of the United States following its conquest during the American Revolutionary War. Veterans of the revolution received land grants in the eastern part of the county as part of Clark's Grant. Daniel Boone and his brother Squire Boone were early explorers of the county, entering from Kentucky in the 1780s. Harvey Heth, Spier Spencer, Edward Smith were among the first to settle in the county beginning in the 1790s. Smith built the first home in the area of Corydon. Harrison County was part of Knox County and Clark County but was separated in 1808.
It was the first Indiana county formed by the Indiana territorial legislature instead of the Governor. Portions of the county were separated into parts of Crawford, Washington, Clark, Perry and Orange Counties; the county was named for William Henry Harrison, the first governor of Indiana Territory, a General in War of 1812, hero of Tippecanoe, the 9th U. S. President. Harrison was the largest land holder in the county at the time and had a small estate at Harrison Spring. Squire Boone settled permanently in what is now Boone Township in 1806, he is buried in a cave near his home, Squire Boone Caverns. James and Daniel Boone settled in Harrison County's Heth Township during the first decade of the 1800s; the county's first church was built by Boone east of present-day Laconia. The church, reconstructed, is known as Old Goshen. Jacob Kintner settled near Corydon in about 1810, he was one of the wealthiest settlers and amassed a 700-acre tract of land around Corydon, built a large home, maintained an inn.
Paul and Susanna Mitchem became Quakers and immigrated to Harrison County from North Carolina in 1814, bringing with them 107 slaves whom they freed after arriving. Although some of the former slaves left, the group became one of the largest communities of free blacks in the state; the first road was built in Harrison County in 1809 connecting Corydon with Mauckport on the Ohio River. A tow-and-ferry line was operated there by the Mauck family bringing settlers into the county from Kentucky; this road and ferry expanded the county's economic viability and ease of access to the outside world, leading to a rapid settlement of the area. The county's population more than doubled in the following decade. Dennis Pennington, who lived near Lanesville, became one of the county's early leading citizens and speaker of the territory's legislature. Corydon began competing with other southern Indiana settlements to become the new capital of the territory after its reorganization in 1809. Hostilities broke out in 1811 with the Native American tribes on the frontier, the territorial capital was moved to Corydon on May 1, 1813, after Pennington suggested that it would be safer than Vincennes.
For the next twelve years, Corydon was the political center of subsequent state. A state constitution was drafted in Corydon during June 1816 and after statehood the town served as the state capital until 1825; the first division of the county occurred in 1814 when t
Floyd County, Indiana
Floyd County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2012, the population was 75,283; the county seat is New Albany. Floyd County is the county with the second-smallest land area in the entire state, it was formed in the year 1819 from neighboring Clark, Harrison counties. Floyd County is part of KY -- IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Floyd County the Shawnee Indians hunting ground, was conquered for the United States by George Rogers Clark during the American Revolutionary War from the British, he was awarded large tracts of land in Indiana, including all of present-day Floyd County. Clark sold land to the settlers. In 1818, New Albany was a large enough to form a new county. New Albany leaders sent Nathaniel Scribner and John K. Graham to the capital at Corydon to petition the General Assembly. Legislation was passed on January 2, 1819 by the General Assembly, the county was established on February 1; the origin of the county's name is debated. According to the State Library, it was named for John Floyd, a leading Jefferson County, Kentucky pioneer and uncle of Davis Floyd.
John Floyd was killed in 1783 when his party was attacked by Indians in Kentucky. However, some maintain the county was named for Davis Floyd, convicted of aiding Aaron Burr in the treason of 1809. Davis Floyd had been a leading local political figure and was the county's first circuit court judge. In 1814, New Albany was platted and was established as the county seat on March 4, 1819. There was an attempt in 1823 to move the county seat. New Albany would be the largest city in the state for much of the early 19th century being overtaken by Indianapolis during the Civil War. Between 1800 and 1860, Floyd County experienced a huge boom in population. A survey in the 1850s found that over half of Indiana's population that made more than $100,000 per year lived in Floyd County, establishing it as having the richest population in the state; the Duncan Tunnel, the longest tunnel in Indiana, was built in Floyd County in 1881 between New Albany and Edwardsville. Because no route over the Floyds Knobs was suitable for a railroad line, civil engineers decided to tunnel through them.
The project was started by the Air Line but was completed by Southern Railway. It took five years to bore at a cost of $1 million; the Tunnel is 4,311 feet long. Floyd County, during the 19th century, attracted immigrants of Irish, German and African American origins; the French settlers located in Floyds Knobs, Indiana. The Irish began arriving in 1817 and settled in large numbers between 1830 and 1850. German immigrants settled in New Albany. By 1850, about one in six county residents had been born in other countries. Mount Saint Francis, a multi-purpose complex owned and administered by the Conventual Franciscan Friars of the Province of Our Lady of Consolation, is located in Floyds Knobs along Highway 150; the property includes 400 acres of woods and Mount Saint Francis Lake, both which are open to the public. Numerous hiking trails meander through the fields containing native prairie grasses. No hunting is allowed on the property. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 148.96 square miles, of which 147.94 square miles is land and 1.02 square miles is water.
It is the second smallest county in area, behind only Ohio County. New Albany Floyds Knobs Georgetown Greenville Galena Floyd County is divided into five townships: Franklin Georgetown Greenville Lafayette New Albany Floyds Knobs was named after the most prominent geographical feature of the county which are the knobs: many steep hills which dot the midsection of the county; the highest point is South Skyline Drive, at just over 1,000 ft. The Knobs Unit, which includes Floyd County, contains some of the hilliest country in Indiana; as a result, the area supports trees that prefer dry sites and ridgetops, as well as those that prefer wet sites, ravines, or “bottomland.” Tree types unique to the unit swamp tupelo. Part of the unit stands on sandstone bedrock; this difference accommodates their associated flowering plants and shrubs. Trees found in Floyd County include the Sycamore, Flowering Dogwood, Virginia Pine, Easter Redcedar, American Beech, Sugar Maple, American Elm and Chestnut Oak; the lowest point in the county is the shore of the Ohio River near New Albany at an elevation of 380 ft. Interstate 64 Interstate 265 U.
S. Route 150 Indiana State Road 11 Indiana State Road 62 Indiana State Road 64 Indiana State Road 111 Indiana State Road 335 Clark County Jefferson County, Kentucky Harrison County Washington County In recent years, average temperatures in New Albany have ranged from a low of 25 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July; the record low temperature was −22 °F, recorded in January, 1994, a record high was 107 °F, recorded in July, 1936. On July 4, 2012, the record for highest temperature in the county was broken. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.79 inches in October of last year to 4.88 inches in May of last year. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the cou
Clarksville is a town in Clark County, United States, along the Ohio River and is a part of the Louisville Metropolitan area. The population was 21,724 at the 2010 census; the town was founded in 1783 by early resident George Rogers Clark at the only seasonal rapids on the entire Ohio River, it is the oldest American town in the former Northwest Territory. The town is home to the Colgate clock, one of the largest clocks in the world and the Falls of the Ohio State Park, home to the world's largest exposed Devonian period fossil bed; the site that would become Clarksville was first used as a base of operations by George Rogers Clark during the American Revolution. In 1778 he established a post on an island at the head of the Falls of the Ohio, from which he trained his 175-man regiment for the defense to the west. After the war, Clark was granted a tract of 150,000 acres for his services in the war. In 1783, 1,000 acres were set aside for the development of Clarksville; the same year a stockade was built and settlement began.
The explorer William Clark was a younger brother of George Rogers Clark. Renowned historian Stephen Ambrose writes of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in Undaunted Courage, "When they shook hands, the Lewis and Clark Expedition began." A two-figure statue near the falls commemorates the expedition. Several localities other than Clarksville claim precedence for the start of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, most notably St. Louis, Missouri. Due to the many floods in the nineteenth century and the Indiana Canal Company's failed competition to build a canal around the Ohio Falls, the town struggled. On August 24, 1805 the Indiana Territorial Legislature authorized the construction of a canal around the Falls of the Ohio at Clarksville; the first attempt failed and the investors lost their money. Historians believe. Developers tried to build a canal in 1817 and again in 1820, but the race to build the canal was lost in 1826 when the federal government made a large grant to build the Louisville and Portland Canal.
The lack of a canal handicapped the growth of the town as the Falls of the Ohio made river transport from the city difficult. Clarksville became a popular dueling spot for Kentuckians who wanted to dodge their home state's anti-dueling laws; the most famous of these was the 1809 duel between Humphrey Marshall. There was an attempt to build a second town within Clarksville's boundaries, named Ohio Falls City, until the Indiana Supreme Court ruled that this would be illegal; the town was managed by a ten-member Board of Trustees in the charter from Virginia. The trustees were allowed to align lots along roads and sell the lots for the proceeds to benefit the town; the trustees did not have to reside in the town. This remained controversial with residents until 1889 when the board stopped meeting and was replaced by a three-member board. One member was selected by the Floyd County Commissioners, one by the Clark County Commissioners, one by residents of Clarksville. Between 1889 and 1937, the town established a five-member board elected by residents.
The historic records related to this governmental change were lost in the Ohio River flood of 1937. The Great Flood of 1937 decimated the town; the entire town was submerged beneath as much as 12 feet of water in some areas for over three weeks during January and February. With all of the old town destroyed, Clarksville was rebuilt with a new modern city plan; the post-World War II housing boom and new jobs brought growth to the city. The population increased from 2,400 in 1940 to 22,000 in 2000; the city has expanded to the north by annexing several sizable suburbs. By 1981 the State of Indiana changed statutes to convert the managing board of trustees to a council with members rather than trustees. In 1990 voters approved expansion of members of the Town Council from five to seven following the area growth. Clarksville is now the major shopping hub of Southern Indiana, with the hub area centered on Lewis and Clark Parkway and nearby Veterans Parkway. Clarksville is located at 38°18′43″N 85°46′2″W.
According to the 2010 census, Clarksville has a total area of 10.17 square miles, of which 9.97 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,724 people, 9,175 households, 5,464 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,178.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,839 housing units at an average density of 986.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.1% White, 5.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 5.7% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.5% of the population. There were 9,175 households of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.0% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.4% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.98.
The median age in the town was 37.3 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,400 people, 8,984 households, 5,561 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,120.6 people per square mile. There wer
Decatur County, Indiana
Decatur County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 25,740; the county seat is Greensburg. Decatur County was formed in 1822, it was named for Commodore Stephen Decatur, Jr. naval officer in the First and Second Barbary Wars, in the War of 1812. Decatur was mortally wounded in a duel in 1820. Greensburg, the county seat, was selected as the location of the Honda assembly plant. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 373.32 square miles, of which 372.57 square miles is land and 0.76 square miles is water. Greensburg Millhousen New Point St. Paul Westport Clarksburg Lake Santee Milford Interstate 74 U. S. Route 421 Indiana State Road 3 Indiana State Road 46 Rush County Franklin County Ripley County Jennings County Bartholomew County Shelby County In recent years, average temperatures in Greensburg have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −24 °F was recorded in January 1985 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.42 inches in February to 5.03 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversee different parts of the county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare a party affiliation and to be residents of the county. Decatur County is part of Indiana's 6th congressional district; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 25,740 people, 9,977 households, 6,995 families residing in the county. The population density was 69.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,209 housing units at an average density of 30.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 97.3% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, In terms of ancestry, 35.5% were of English ancestry, 35.1% were of German, 9.0% were of Irish ancestry according to 2010 American Community Survey. Of the 9,977 households, 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families, 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 38.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $52,308. Males had a median income of $41,143 versus $30,226 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,719. About 8.3% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.3% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Decatur County, Indiana Decatur County website
Orange County, Indiana
Orange County is located in southern Indiana in the United States. As of 2010, its population was 19,840, an increase of 2.8% from 19,306 in 2000. The county seat is Paoli; the county has four incorporated settlements with a total population of about 8,600, as well as several small unincorporated communities. It is divided into 10 townships. One U. S. route and five Indiana state roads pass into the county. Orange County was formed from parts of Knox County, Gibson County and Washington County by the Indiana Territorial Legislature, on December 26, 1815. In 1816 the Orange County seat was designated at Paoli, named after Pasquale Paoli Ash, the 12-year-old son of the sitting North Carolina Governor; the first courthouse was a temporary log structure, built for $25. In 1847, plans were made for a larger courthouse, completed in 1850 at a cost of $14,000; this building is the second oldest courthouse in the state, continuously used since its construction. Like the oldest in Ohio County, it is a Greek Revival building with two stories and a Doric portico supported by fluted columns.
In 1970, the clock tower was damaged by fire. The early settlers were Quakers fleeing the institution of slavery in Orange County, North Carolina. Jonathan Lindley brought his group of Quakers from North Carolina to the area in 1811, they were the first to build a religious structure, the Lick Creek Meeting House in 1813. It was from this group that Orange County got its name.. The name Orange derives from the Dutch Protestant House of Orange, which accessed the English throne with the accession of King William III in 1689, following the Glorious Revolution; when the North Carolina Quakers came to Indiana, they brought with several freed slaves. These free men were deeded 200 acres of land in the heart of a dense forest. Word of mouth soon spread the news, this land became part of the "underground railroad" for runaway slaves. For many years, the freed slaves in this area farmed and sold their labor to others while living in this settlement. A church and cemetery were constructed. All that remains today is the cemetery, with many lost or vandalized headstones.
Several years ago, Boy Scouts restored the cemetery, replacing the stones with wooden crosses designating a grave. The name of "Little Africa" came about because of the black settlement, but is was called "Paddy's Garden" by its early users. Much of the south part of the county, south of Paoli and French Lick, is part of the Hoosier National Forest. Patoka Lake is within the national forest. According to the 2010 United States Census, Orange County has a total area of 408.19 square miles, of which 398.39 square miles is land and 9.80 square miles is water. Lawrence County – north Washington County – east Crawford County – south Dubois County – southwest Martin County – northwest French Lick Orleans Paoli West Baden Springs. U. S. Route 150 – runs east-west through central part of county. Passes French Lick and Paoli. Indiana State Road 37 – runs north-south through central part of county. Passes Orleans and Bacon. Indiana State Road 56 – enters west line of county at 6.6 miles north of SW county corner.
Runs NE to intersection with US-150 north of West Baden Springs. Indiana State Road 60 – runs NW-SE across northeastern tip of county. Enters 2 miles west of NE corner and exits 2 miles south of NE corner. Indiana State Road 145 – enters south line of county at 3.7 miles from SW county corner. Runs north to intersection with Indiana-56 at French Lick. Indiana State Road 337 – runs SE-NW across northeastern part of county. Enters east line of county near Bromer runs NW to intersection with Indiana-37 at Orleans. Paoli Municipal Airport - public-owned public-use general-aviation airport with one paved runway. There are no railroad lines in Orange County. In recent years, average temperatures in Paoli have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1901. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.90 inches in October to 5.14 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code.
The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes. A board of commissioners is the county's executive body. Commissioners are elected in staggered four-year terms; the board is charged with executing the council's decisions, with collecting revenue, with managing the county government. The county maintains a small claims court; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court; the county has several other elected offices, includi