Southern Methodist University

Southern Methodist University is a private research university in University Park, with satellite campuses in Plano and Taos, New Mexico. SMU was founded in April 17, 1911 by the Methodist Episcopal Church, South—now part of the United Methodist Church—in partnership with Dallas civic leaders. However, it is nonsectarian in its enrolls students of all religious affiliations; as of fall 2018, the university had 11,824 students, including 6,710 undergraduates and 5,114 postgraduates, from all 50 states and 85 countries. Its instructional faculty is 1,151, with 754 being full-time; the student-faculty ratio is 11:1. The university grants degrees from eight schools. Lyle School of Engineering, Algur H. Meadows School of the Arts, Moody School of Graduate and Advanced Studies, Perkins School of Theology, Annette Caldwell Simmons School of Education and Human Development; the university was chartered on April 17, 1911, by the southern denomination of the Methodist Episcopal Church. At the time of the charter, church leaders saw a need to establish a Methodist institution within a metropolitan area.

This new institution was intended to be created in Fort Worth through a merger between Polytechnic College and Southwestern University. However, the church's education commission instead opted to create a new institution in Dallas to serve this purpose after extensive lobbying by the Dallas Chamber of Commerce. Robert Stewart Hyer president of Southwestern University, was appointed as the first president of the new university; the effort to establish a new university in Dallas drew the attention of the General Conference of the Methodist Church, seeking to create a new connectional institution in the wake of a 1914 Tennessee Supreme Court decision stripping the church of authority at Vanderbilt University. The church decided to support the establishment of the new institution while increasing the size of Emory University at a new location in DeKalb County, Georgia. At the 1914 meeting of the General Conference, Southern Methodist University was designated the connectional institution for all conferences west of the Mississippi River.

SMU named its first building Dallas Hall in gratitude for the support of Dallas leaders and local citizens, who had pledged $300,000 to secure the university's location. It remains the university's symbol and centerpiece, it inspired "the Hilltop" as a nickname for the school, it was designed by Shepley and Coolidge after the Rotunda at the University of Virginia. Dallas Hall opened its doors in 1915 and housed the entire university along with a bank and a barbershop; the hall is registered in the National Register of Historic Places. Classes were planned to begin in 1913, but construction delays on the university's first building prevented classes from starting until 1915. In the interim, the only functioning academic department at SMU was the medical college it had acquired from Southwestern University; as the first president of Southern Methodist University, Hyer selected Harvard crimson and Yale blue as the school colors in order to associate SMU with the high standards of Ivy League universities.

Several streets in University Park and adjacent Highland Park were named after prominent universities, including Harvard, Cornell, Princeton, Purdue, Sewanee, Bryn Mawr, Hanover, Southwestern and Villanova. In 1927, Highland Park United Methodist Church, designed by architects Mark Lemmon and Roscoe DeWitt, was erected on campus. During World War II, SMU was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission; the university drew considerable media attention in 1987 when the NCAA administered the death penalty against the SMU football program for repeated, flagrant recruiting violations. The punishment included cancellation of the 1987 and most of the 1988 football season and a two-year ban from Bowl Games and all televised sports coverage. On February 22, 2008, the university trustees unanimously instructed President R. Gerald Turner to enter into an agreement to establish the George W. Bush Presidential Center on 23 acres on the southeast side of the campus.

The Center, which includes a presidential library, museum and the offices of the George W. Bush Foundation, was dedicated on April 25, 2013, in a ceremony which featured all living former U. S. Presidents Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, then-incumbent U. S. President, Barack Obama; the library and museum are administered by the National Archives and Records Administration, while the university holds representation on the independent public policy institute board. The project raised over $500 million for the construction and endowment of the George W. Bush presidential center; the university's endowment surpassed $1 billion for the time in the university's history in 2005. Through its "Second Century Campaign" from 2008 to 2015, the university raised $1.15 billion and celebrated the centennials of its 1911 founding and 1915 opening through the renovation of Fondren Library, the construction of five new residential halls, other campus revitalization projects. The main campus of Southern Methodist University is located in Highland Park and University Park, both of which are incorporated enclaves of Dallas, Texas.

It is located on 237 acres of land just west of US Route 75. Dallas Hall serves as the centerpiece for this campus and is the admini

Sandy Shellworth

Sandra "Sandy" Shellworth was an alpine ski racer from the United States. Born in Annapolis, Shellworth was raised in Boise, where her father, Eugene Shellworth was mayor. A 1962 graduate of Boise High, she raced for Bogus Basin, the University of Colorado, the U. S. Ski Team. Shellworth won the Roch Cup downhill in Aspen in 1967, was the 1967 U. S. Champion in giant slalom at Missoula, but broke her leg hours training for the downhill. Shellworth was the first woman from CU to participate in the Olympics, her best finish in a World Cup event was 12th in the downhill at Schruns, Austria, in January 1967. From 1948 through 1980, the alpine skiing events at the Winter Olympics served as the World Championships, held every two years. – Olympic results – Sandy Shellworth

Cherokee history

Cherokee history is the written and oral lore and historical record maintained by the living Cherokee people and their ancestors. The Cherokee people are those enrolled in one of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, The Cherokee Nation, The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, who live predominantly in North Carolina and Oklahoma; the Cherokee people have extensive written records, including detailed genealogical records, preserved in the Cherokee language, the Cherokee syllabary, in the English language. The Cherokee were members of the Iroquois language-family of North American Indigenous Peoples those of the Southeastern Woodlands; the Cherokee were first encountered by European colonists in the southeastern United States. They speak the Cherokee language, which has its own form of writing, the Cherokee syllabary. In 1540, at the time of the Hernando de Soto expedition, the Southeastern Woodlands region was inhabited by several mound-building cultures that are described in detail in the expedition records.

These Indigenous peoples were the Coosa and a chiefdom owing allegiance to Tuskaloosa, who were both part of the future Muscogee Creek confederacy of tribes. Described were the mound-building Chicsa or Yuchi; the expedition described the mound town of Joara, which may have been Muscogee Creek, as well. Though the Cherokee were well established at the southern end of the Great Appalachian Valley by the 1720s, having displaced the Muscogee Creek and other tribes, other Indigenous settlements, in addition to the Cherokee, were still present in Eastern Tennessee as late as the Long Hunter expeditions of the 1760s, who encountered Yuchi and Siouan traders and villages. Several Mississippian sites have been misattributed to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds but are in fact Muscogee Creek. Pisgah Phase sites nave some similarities with Cherokee culture, historic Cherokee villages featured artifacts with iconography from the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, but this is most due to the assimilation of the survivors of the Cherokee expansion.

Corn is traditionally central to the religious ceremonies of the Cherokee the Green Corn Ceremony, a tradition shared with other Iroquois-language tribes, as well as the Creek, Choctaw and Seminole. A Cherokee myth recorded in the late 18th century speaks of a "Moon-eyed people" who had lived in the Cherokee regions before they arrived; the group was described in 1797 by Colonel Leonard Marbury to Benjamin Smith Barton. According to Marbury, when the Cherokee arrived in the area they had encountered a "moon-eyed" people who could not see in the day-time. Much of what is known about pre-19th century Cherokee culture and society comes from the papers of American writer John Howard Payne; the Payne papers describe the account by Cherokee elders of a traditional societal structure in which a "white" organization of elders represented the seven clans. According to Payne, this group, hereditary and described as priestly, was responsible for religious activities such as healing and prayer. A second group of younger men, the "red" organization, was responsible for warfare.

Warfare was considered a polluting activity, which required the purification of the priestly class before participants could reintegrate into normal village life. This hierarchy had disappeared long before the 18th century; the reasons for the change have been debated, with the origin of the decline located with a revolt by the Cherokee against the abuses of the priestly class known as the Ani-kutani. Ethnographer James Mooney, who studied the Cherokee in the late 1880s, first traced the decline of the former hierarchy to this revolt. By the time of Mooney, the structure of Cherokee religious practitioners was more informal, based more on individual knowledge and ability than upon heredity. Another major source of early cultural history comes from materials written in the 19th century by the didanvwisgi, Cherokee medicine men, after Sequoyah's creation of the Cherokee syllabary in the 1820s. Only the didanvwisgi used these materials, which were considered powerful; the writings were adopted by the Cherokee people.

Unlike most other Indians in the American southeast at the start of the historic era, the Cherokee spoke an Iroquoian language. Since the Great Lakes region was the core of Iroquoian language speakers, scholars have theorized that the Cherokee migrated south from that region. However, some argue that the Iroquois migrated north from the southeast, with the Tuscarora breaking off from that group during the migration. Linguistic analysis shows a large difference between Cherokee and the northern Iroquoian languages, suggesting a split in the distant past. Glottochronology studies suggest the split occurred between about 1,500 and 1,800 B. C; the ancient settlement of Kituwa on the Tuckasegee River next to and now part of Qualla Boundary, is cited as the original Cherokee settlement in the Southeast. The first known Cherokee contact with Europeans was in late May 1540, when a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto passed through Cherokee country near present-day Embreeville, which the Spaniards referred to as Guasili.

De Soto's expedition visited many of the Georgia and Tennessee villages identified as Cherokee, but recorded them as ruled by the Coosa chiefdom, while a Chalaque nation was recorded as living around the Keowee River where North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia meet. Diseases brought by the Spaniards and th