A bank engine or helper engine or pusher engine is a railway locomotive that temporarily assists a train that requires additional power or traction to climb a gradient. Helpers/bankers are most found in mountain divisions, where the ruling grade may demand the use of greater motive power than that required for other grades within the division. Helpers/bankers were most used during the age of steam in the American West, where significant grades are common and trains are long; the development of advanced braking systems and diesel-electric or electric locomotives has eliminated the everyday need for bankers/helpers in all but a few locations. With the advent of dynamic brakes on electric or diesel-electric locomotives, helpers/bankers can be used to provide more braking force on long downhill gradients. Bankers or helpers were positioned at the rear of the train, in which case they protected against wagons or coaches breaking away from the train and running back downhill. In a pusher role, it was possible for the helper/banker to separate once the train had crested the grade.
Once separated, the banker would return to a siding or stub so as to clear the mainline and get ready for the next train. A common practice with knuckle couplers was to remove the knuckle from the front coupler; the locomotive would be brought up behind the last car of the train while the train was moving slowly. The air brake hose would not be coupled; when the train no longer required assistance, the helper/pusher would slow reverse and coast back down the grade to its siding at the bottom of the grade. This practice was outlawed in North America after the end of the steam era. Special constructed cabooses were sometimes used in helper areas. Ordinary cabooses were built as as practical and might be crushed by the helper/pusher's force, which could be as much as 90 tons; the heavy cabooses allowed crews to avoid the time-consuming procedure of splitting the train just ahead of the caboose. Pushers/helpers were designed to provide extreme power for short runs, but if it could push enough to get the train to the top of the grade it could build up pressure while coasting back down and while waiting for the next train to come along.
This practice was common in Europe. Since it was not possible to remotely control a steam locomotive, each helper had to have a full crew on board. Careful coordination was required between engine crews to assure that all locomotives were operated in a consistent manner. Standard whistle signals were employed to tell the helper crew when to apply drift or brake. A misunderstanding of signals by a pusher locomotive crew could result in a major wreck if the lead locomotive applied brakes while the bank engine was still applying power; the usual result was that the train would experience a violent run-in, resulting in the derailment of part or all of the train. The town of Helper, Utah was named after these engines, as it was where helper engines were kept to assist on the climb to Soldier Summit. Nowadays helpers/bankers are controlled by coded radio signals from the locomotive at the head end of the train, allowing one engineer to control the helper and the train being helped. If radio operation is not possible, electrical control might be used, by way of cables running the length of the train, or else the helpers are manually controlled, still the norm for bank engines at the end of freight trains in Europe.
In the UK, an engine, temporarily attached to the front of a train to assist with the ascent of an incline was called a pilot locomotive. This differentiated it from the train engine, provided to power the train to its destination. A train with one or more helper locomotives attached to the front may be referred to as a "double header", "triple header", etc. depending on the number of helpers/bankers. These terms fell out of general usage as diesel locomotives replaced steam power. In countries where buffers-and-chain couplers are used, bank engines cannot be added to the front of the train due to the limited strength of the couplers. Adding locomotives in the middle of the train has the distinct advantage of applying the helper power to only part of the train, thus limiting the maximum drawbar pull applied to the first car of the train to a safe level; the narrow gauge portions of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, in particular, used "swing helpers", which meant the helper locomotives were placed mid-train at a point where they were pushing and pulling an equal amount of tonnage, said location being referred to as the train's "swing point".
This was done to balance out the "slack" in the train between the locomotives, the swing helpers, the end train helpers just in front of the caboose. However, this arrangement requires splitting the train in order to add or remove the helper engine, which can be a time-consuming maneuver. However, on some American railroads it was necessary to an extent because operating rules required end of train helpers to be added at the end of the train, but in front of the caboose; this was done for the safety of the train crew riding inside
San Joaquin Valley
The San Joaquin Valley is the area of the Central Valley of the U. S. state of California that lies south of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and is drained by the San Joaquin River. It comprises seven counties of Northern and one of Southern California, including, in the north, all of San Joaquin and Kings counties, most of Stanislaus and Fresno counties, parts of Madera and Tulare counties, along with a majority of Kern County, in Southern California. Although a majority of the valley is rural, it does contain cities such as Fresno, Stockton, Turlock, Porterville, Visalia and Hanford. San Joaquin Valley was inhabited by the Yokuts and Miwok peoples; the first European to enter the valley was Pedro Fages in 1772. The San Joaquin Valley extends from the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta in the north to the Tehachapi Mountains in the south, from the various California coastal ranges in the west to the Sierra Nevada in the east. Unlike the Sacramento Valley, the river system for which the San Joaquin Valley is named does not extend far along the valley.
Most of the valley south of Fresno, drains into Tulare Lake, which no longer exists continuously due to diversion of its sources. The valley's primary river is the San Joaquin, which drains north through about half of the valley into the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta; the Kings and Kern Rivers are in the southern endorheic basin of the valley, all of which have been diverted for agricultural uses and are dry in their lower reaches. The San Joaquin Valley began to form about 66 million years ago during the early Paleocene era. Broad fluctuations in the sea level caused various areas of the valley to be flooded with ocean water for the next 60 million years. About 5 million years ago, the marine outlets began to close due to uplift of the coastal ranges and the deposition of sediment in the valley. Starting 2 million years ago, a series of glacial episodes periodically caused much of the valley to become a fresh water lake. Lake Corcoran was the last widespread lake to fill the valley about 700,000 years ago.
At the beginning of the Holocene there were three major lakes remaining in the southern part of the Valley, Tulare Lake, Buena Vista Lake and Kern Lake. In the late 19th and in the 20th century, agricultural diversion of the Kern River dried out these lakes. Today, only a fragment of Buena Vista Lake remains as two small lakes Lake Webb and Lake Evans in a portion of the former Buena Vista Lakebed The San Joaquin Valley has hot, dry summers and has enjoyed cool rainy winters characterized by dense tule fog, its rainy season runs from November through April, but since 2011 when a drought became evident it received minimal to no rain at all. The drought was still extant by mid-August 2014 with scientists saying it would continue indefinitely, for anywhere from several years to several decades to come; as of February 2017 the majority of the Valley experienced a reprieve from the drought. However, as of February 2018, much of the Valley appears to be headed back into drought along with much of the rest of the State.
In August 2015, the Director of the California Department of Water Resources stated, "Because of increased pumping, groundwater levels are reaching record lows—up to 100 feet lower than previous records." Research from NASA shows that parts of the San Joaquin Valley sank as much as 8 inches in a four-month period, land near Corcoran sank 13 inches in 8 months. The sinking has destroyed thousands of groundwater well casings and has the potential to damage aqueducts, roads and flood-control structures. In the long term, the subsidence caused by extracting groundwater could irreversibly reduce the underground aquifer's water storage capacity, although immediate and short term needs are given higher priority and sense of urgency than long term sustainability; the National Weather Service Forecast Office for the San Joaquin Valley is located in Hanford and includes a Doppler weather radar. Weather forecasts and climatological information for the San Joaquin Valley are available from its official website.
The total population of the eight counties comprising the San Joaquin Valley at the time of the 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates by United States Census Bureau reported a population of 4,080,509. The racial composition of San Joaquin Valley was 2,775,074 White, 193,694 Black or African American, 40,911 American Indian and Alaska Native, 310,557 Asian, 13,000 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2,048,280 Hispanic or Latino; the educational attainment of high school graduate or higher is 72.7%. By some estimates, federal restrictions on shallow well irrigation systems threaten the productivity of the San Joaquin Valley, which produces the majority of the 12.8% of the United States' agricultural production that comes from California. Grapes—table, to a lesser extent wine—are the valley's highest-profile product, but important are cotton, nuts and vegetables; the San Joaquin Valley has been called "The food basket of the world", for the diversity of its produce. Walnuts, peaches, tangerines, kiwis, hay and numerous other crops have been harvested with great success.
DeRuosi Nut, a large walnut processing plant in Escalon, has been in the valley since 1947. Certain places are identified quite with a given crop: Stockton produces the majority of the domestic asparagus consumed in the United States, Fresno is the largest produ
Lima Locomotive Works
Lima Locomotive Works was an American firm that manufactured railroad locomotives from the 1870s through the 1950s. The company took the most distinctive part of its name from its main shop's location in Ohio; the shops were located between the Baltimore & Ohio's Cincinnati-Toledo main line and the Nickel Plate Road main line and shops. The company is best known for producing the Shay geared logging-steam locomotive, developed by Ephraim Shay, for William E. Woodard's "Super Power" advanced steam locomotive concept – exemplified by the prototype 2-8-4 Berkshire, Lima demonstrator A-1. In World War II the Lima plant produced the M4A1 version of the M4 Sherman tank. In 1878 James Alley contracted the Lima Machine Works to build a steam locomotive that Ephraim Shay had designed. In April 1880, Lima rebuilt Ephraim Shay's original design, using vertically side-mounted pistons mounted on the right, connected to a drive line on the outside of the trucks; the Shay was geared down to provide more slow-moving, pulling ability for use in the lumber industry.
The first Shay locomotive was built in 1880. To accommodate the new demand for the locomotive, Shay licensed the right to build his locomotive to the Lima Machine Works, which expanded and began to ship Shay locomotives to lumbermen across the frontier. Two years locomotives were the main product being produced by the Lima Machine Works, which would produce over 300 locomotives during the next ten years. After a serious fire, a new shop was opened in 1902 and Shay production continued. With initial demand for low-speed geared locomotives well on the way to being sated, the new facilities in place, Lima moved into the heavy railroad locomotive field. Success returned to Lima in the 1920s with the new concept of "Super Power" developed by Lima's mechanical engineer William E. Woodard. By making a number of significant changes to maximize a steam locomotive's capacity to generate and utilize steam, Woodard was able to make such locomotives more powerful and faster, he did this by starting in 1922 with the H-10 experimental heavy 2-8-2 design for the New York Central and applying both new science, every efficiency-enhancing tool available – a larger firebox, increased superheat, a feedwater heater, improved draughting, higher boiler pressure, streamlined steam passages and a trailing-truck booster engine, by applying limited cutoff to prevent locomotive engineers from using excessive steam at starting.
The 2-8-2 thus produced was demonstrated to be 26% more efficient overall than its immediate predecessor, the NYC bought 301 locomotives. A large increase in firebox area, characteristic of his work, necessitated adding another axle to the trailing truck, thus creating the 2-8-4 wheel arrangement. Built in the spring of 1925, the first Berkshire was dubbed the A-1. In addition to supporting the large firebox and grate, the four-wheeled trailing truck carried the ash pan. For this purpose, the truck was redesigned as an articulated extension of the locomotive frame; the result was an ash pan which could hold more ash, allowing the locomotive to travel farther between cleanings. For roads which burned coal, this was a significant innovation, but it was not without tradeoffs. The articulated frame reduced weight on the driving wheels; the locomotives so configured had more difficulty staying on the rails in reverse through yard trackwork like switch frogs. The locomotive proved to be 26-30% more efficient than the New York Central H-10.
After a successful series of tests in the mid-1920s it was sent around the country to make the idea of "Super Power" known. The first forty-five were purchased by New York Central's subsidiary Boston & Albany following initial road testing across the summit of the Berkshire Hills, so the 2-8-4 wheel arrangement came to be known as the "Berkshire" on most railroads; the prototype itself was sold to the Illinois Central as part of an order for 50 similar locomotives. Woodard summed up "Super Power" by defining it as "horsepower at speed". Previous design principles emphasized tractive effort rather than speed. By 1949 some 613 Berkshires had been constructed for North American service, of which twenty are preserved – at least two in operating condition, both Lima products. There were at least three successive waves of "Super Power"; the first began with NYC 8000 and the A-1, included Missouri Pacific 2-8-4s and Texas & Pacific 2-10-4s. These locomotives had conventional 63" driving wheels. In 1927, the Erie Railroad took delivery of a "second-phase" Berkshire with 70" driving wheels, capable not only of great power but higher speed.
The "third-phase" of the 1930s and war years can be identified with locomotives such as the homebuilt N&W 2-6-6-4s, C&O/Virginian 2-6-6-6 and all American 4-8-4s. Boiler pressures rose as high as 310 lbs/sq.in.. And the "Super Power" concept had extended to other builders such as Baldwin; the four-wheel trailing truck became the standard for large locomotives, though the articulated main frame did not
An adhesion railway relies on adhesion traction to move the train. Adhesion traction is the friction between the steel rail; the term "adhesion railway" is only used when there is need to distinguish adhesion railways from railways moved by other means, e.g. by a stationary engine pulling on a cable attached to the cars, by railways which are moved by a pinion meshing with a rack, etc. This article focuses on the technical detail of what happens as a result of friction between the wheels and rails in what is known as the wheel-rail interface or contact patch. There are the good forces, e.g. the traction force, the braking forces, the centering forces, all of which contribute to stable running. There are the bad forces which increase costs by requiring more fuel consumption and increasing maintenance, needed to address fatigue damage, wear on rail heads and on the wheel rims, rail movement from traction and braking forces; the interface between the wheel and the rail is a specialist subject with continual research being done.
Traction or friction is reduced when the top of the rail is wet or frosty or contaminated with grease, oil or decomposing leaves which compact into a hard slippery lignin coating. Leaf contamination can be removed by applying "Sandite" from maintenance trains, using scrubbers and water jets, can be reduced with long-term management of railside vegetation. Locomotives and streetcars/trams use sand to improve traction. Adhesion is caused by friction, with maximum tangential force produced by a driving wheel before slipping given by: Fmax= coefficient of friction × Weight on wheelUsually the force needed to start sliding is greater than that needed to continue sliding; the former is concerned with static friction or "limiting friction", whilst the latter is dynamic friction called "sliding friction". For steel on steel, the coefficient of friction can be as high as 0.78, under laboratory conditions, but on railways it is between 0.35 and 0.5, whilst under extreme conditions it can fall to as low as 0.05.
Thus a 100-tonne locomotive could have a tractive effort of 350 kilonewtons, under the ideal conditions, falling to a 50 kilonewtons under the worst conditions. Steam locomotives suffer badly from adhesion issues because the traction force at the wheel rim fluctuates and, on large locomotives, not all wheels are driven; the "factor of adhesion", being the weight on the driven wheels divided by the theoretical starting tractive effort, was designed to be a value of 4 or higher, reflecting a typical wheel-rail friction coefficient of 0.25. A locomotive with a factor of adhesion much lower than 4 would be prone to wheelslip, although some 3-cylinder locomotives, such as the SR V Schools class, operated with a factor of adhesion below 4 because the traction force at the wheel rim do not fluctuate as much. Other factors affecting the likelihood of wheelslip include wheel size and the sensitivity of the regulator/skill of the driver; the term all-weather adhesion is used in North America, refers to the adhesion available during traction mode with 99% reliability in all weather conditions.
The maximum speed a train can proceed around a turn is limited by the radius of turn, the position of the centre of mass of the units, the wheel gauge and whether the track is superelevated or canted. Toppling will occur when the overturning moment due to the side force is sufficient to cause the inner wheel to begin to lift off the rail; this may result in loss of adhesion - preventing toppling. Alternatively, the inertia may be sufficient to cause the train to continue to move at speed causing the vehicle to topple completely. For a wheel gauge of 1.5 m, no canting, a centre of gravity height of 3 m and speed of 30 m/s, the radius of turn is 360 m. For a modern high speed train at 80 m/s, the toppling limit would be about 2.5 km. In practice, the minimum radius of turn is much greater than this, as contact between the wheel flanges and rail at high speed could cause significant damage to both. For high speed, the minimum adhesion limit again appears appropriate, implying a radius of turn of about 13 km.
In practice, curved lines used for high speed travel are superelevated or canted so that the turn limit is closer to 7 km. During the 19th century, it was believed that coupling the drive wheels would compromise performance and was avoided on engines intended for express passenger service. With a single drive wheelset, the Herzian contact stress between the wheel and rail necessitated the largest diameter wheels that could be accommodated; the weight of locomotive was restricted by the stress on the rail and sandboxes were required under reasonable adhesion conditions. It may be thought. However, close examination of a typical railway wheel reveals that the tread is burnished but the flange is not—the flanges make contact with the rail and, when they do, most of the contact is sliding; the rubbing of a flange on the track dissipates large amounts of energy as heat but including noise and, if sustained, would lead to excessive wheel wear. Centering is accomplished through shaping of the wheel.
The tread of the wheel is tapered. When the train is in the centre of the track, the region of the wheels in contact with the rail traces out a circle which has the same diameter for both wheels; the velocities of the two wheels are equal, so the train moves in a straight line. If, the wheelset is displaced to one side, the
Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific was an American Class I railroad network that existed from 1865 to 1998 that operated in the Western United States. The system was operated by various companies under the names Southern Pacific Railroad, Southern Pacific Company and Southern Pacific Transportation Company; the original Southern Pacific began in 1865 as a land holding company. The last incarnation of the Southern Pacific, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, was founded in 1969 and assumed control of the Southern Pacific system; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and merged with their Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific Transportation Company was the surviving railroad as it absorbed the Union Pacific Railroad and changed its name to "Union Pacific Railroad"; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company is now the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad. The Southern Pacific legacy founded hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson and elsewhere.
In the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This telecommunications network became part of Sprint, a company whose name came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony; the original Southern Pacific, Southern Pacific Railroad, was founded as a land holding company in 1865 acquiring the Central Pacific Railroad through leasing. By 1900, the Southern Pacific system was a major railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgan's Louisiana and Texas Railroad, it extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco and Sacramento. Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. Other subsidiaries included the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, the Northwestern Pacific Railroad at 328 miles, the 1,331-mile Southern Pacific Railroad of Mexico, a variety of 3 ft narrow gauge routes.
The SP was the defendant in the landmark 1886 United States Supreme Court case Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, interpreted as having established certain corporate rights under the Constitution of the United States; the Southern Pacific Railroad was replaced by the Southern Pacific Company and assumed the railroad operations of the Southern Pacific Railroad. In 1929, Southern Pacific/Texas and New Orleans operated 13,848 route-miles not including Cotton Belt, whose purchase of the Golden State Route circa 1980 nearly doubled its size to 3,085 miles, bringing total SP/SSW mileage to around 13,508 miles. In 1969, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was established and took over the Southern Pacific Company. By the 1980s, route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles due to the pruning of branch lines. In 1988, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company was taken over by Rio Grande Industries, the parent company that controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Rio Grande Industries did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad together, but transferred direct ownership of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad to the Southern Pacific Transportation Company, allowing the combined Rio Grande Industries railroad system to use the Southern Pacific name due to its brand recognition in the railroad industry and with customers of both the Southern Pacific Transportation Company and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad.
A long time Southern Pacific subsidiary, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway was marketed under the Southern Pacific name. Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, the total length of the D&RGW/SP/SSW system was 15,959 miles. Rio Grande Industries was renamed Southern Pacific Rail Corporation. By 1996, years of financial problems had dropped Southern Pacific's mileage to 13,715 miles; the financial problems caused the Southern Pacific Transportation Company to be taken over by the Union Pacific Corporation. The Union Pacific Corporation merged the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, the St. Louis Southwestern Railway and the SPCSL Corporation into their Union Pacific Railroad, but did not merge the Southern Pacific Transportation Company into the Union Pacific Railroad. Instead, the Union Pacific Corporation merged the Union Pacific Railroad into the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1998; the Southern Pacific Transportation Company became the current incarnation of the Union Pacific Railroad.
Like most railroads, the SP painted most of its steam locomotives black during the 20th century, but after 1945 SP painted the front of the locomotive's smokebox silver (almost
A steam whistle is a device used to produce sound with the aid of live steam, which acts as a vibrating system. The whistle consists of the following main parts, as seen on the drawing: the whistle bell, the steam orifice or aperture, the valve; when the lever is pulled, the valve lets the steam escape through the orifice. The steam will alternately compress and rarefy in the bell; the pitch, or tone, is dependent on the length of the bell. Some locomotive engineers invented their own style of whistling. Steam whistles were used in factories, similar places to signal the start or end of a shift, etc. Railway locomotives, traction engines, steam ships have traditionally been fitted with a whistle for warning and communication purposes. Large diameter steam whistles were used on light houses beginning in the 1850s; the earliest use of steam whistles was as boiler low-water alarms in the 18th century and early 19th century. During the 1830s, whistles were adopted by railroads and steamship companies.
Steam warning devices have been used on trains since 1833 when George Stephenson invented and patented a steam trumpet for use on the Leicester and Swannington Railway. Period literature makes a distinction between a steam whistle. A copy of the trumpet drawing signed May 1833 shows a device about eighteen inches high with an ever-widening trumpet shape with a six-inch diameter at its top or mouth, it is said that George Stephenson invented his trumpet after an accident on the Leicester and Swannington Railway where a train hit either a cart, or a herd of cows, on a level crossing and there were calls for a better way of giving a warning. Although no-one was injured, the accident was deemed serious enough to warrant Stephenson’s personal intervention. One account states that Weatherburn had `mouthblown his horn' at the crossing in an attempt to prevent the accident, but that no attention had been paid to this audible warning because it had not been heard. Stephenson subsequently called a meeting of directors and accepted the suggestion of the company manager, Ashlin Bagster, that a horn or whistle which could be activated by steam should be constructed and fixed to the locomotives.
Stephenson visited a musical instrument maker on Duke Street in Leicester, who on Stephenson's instructions constructed a ‘Steam Trumpet’, tried out in the presence of the board of Directors ten days later. Stephenson mounted the trumpet on the top of the boiler's steam dome, which delivers dry steam to the cylinders; the company went on to mount the device on its other locomotives Locomotive steam trumpets were soon replaced by steam whistles. Air whistles were used on some Diesel and electric locomotives, but these employ air horns. An array of steam whistles arranged to play music is referred to as a calliope. In York, Pennsylvania, a variable pitch steam whistle at the New York Wire Company has been played annually on Christmas Eve since 1925 in what has come to be known as "York's Annual Steam Whistle Christmas Concert". On windy nights, area residents report hearing the concert as far as 12 to 15 miles away; the whistle, in the Guinness Book of World Records, was powered by an air compressor during the 2010 concert due to the costs of maintaining and running the boiler.
Plain whistle – an inverted cup mounted on a stem, as in the illustration above. In Europe, railway steam whistles were loud, single-note plain whistles. In the UK, locomotives were fitted with only one or two of these whistles, the latter having different tones and being controlled individually to allow more complex signalling. On railroads in Finland, two single-note whistles were used on every engine, they were used for different signaling purposes. The Deutsche Reichsbahn of Germany introduced another whistle design in the 1920s called "Einheitspfeife", conceived as a single-note plain whistle which had a deep-pitched and loud sound, but if the whistle trigger is just pulled down half of its way an lower tone like from a chime-whistle could be caused; this whistle is the reason for the typical "long high - short low - short high" signal sound of steam locomotives in Germany. Chime whistle – two or more resonant bells or chambers that sound simultaneously. In America, railway steam whistles were compact chime whistles with more than one whistle contained within, creating a chord.
In Australia the New South Wales Government Railways after the 1924 re-classification many steam locomotives either had 5 chimes whistles fitted (this include many locomotives from the pre 1924 re-classification, or were built new with 5 chime whistles. 3-chimes were popular, as well as 5-chimes, 6-chimes. In some cases chime whistles were used in Europe. Ships such as the Titanic were equipped with chimes consisting of three separate whistles; the Japanese National Railways used a chime whistle that sounds like a deep single-note plain whistle, because the chords where just accessed in a simple parallel circuit if the whistle trigger is pulled down. Organ whistle – a whistle with mouths cut in the side a long whistle in relation to diameter, hence the name; these whistle were common on steamships those manufactured in the UK. Gong – two whistles facing in opposite directions on a common axis; these were popular as factory whistles. Some were composed of three whistle chimes. Variable pitch whistle – a whistle containing an internal piston available for ch
The Coast Daylight known as the Daylight Limited, was a passenger train on the Southern Pacific Railroad between Los Angeles and San Francisco, via SP's Coast Line. It was advertised as the "most beautiful passenger train in the world," carrying a particular red and black color scheme; the train operated from 1937 until 1974, one of the few passenger trains retained by Amtrak in 1971. Amtrak merged it with the Coast Starlight in 1974. Southern Pacific introduced the Daylight Limited on April 28, 1922; the train operated on a 13-hour schedule between the Third and Townsend Depot in San Francisco and Central Station in Los Angeles, running on Fridays and Saturdays only. In 1922 and 1923 the train ran seasonally, ending in November. Daily operation began in July 1923; the SP shortened the running time to 12 hours for the 1924 season. Until the late 1920s it made no intermediate stops, the longest nonstop run in the world at that time, its 12-hour schedule was two hours better than any other train on its route.
The streamlined Daylight began on March 21, 1937, pulled by GS-2 steam locomotives on a 9 3⁄4-hour schedule. It was the first of the Daylight series that included the San Joaquin Daylight, Shasta Daylight, Sacramento Daylight, Sunbeam. By June 30, 1939, the streamlined Daylights had carried 268.6 million passenger-miles on 781,141 train-miles for an average occupancy of 344 passengers. The Coast Daylight ran behind steam until January 7, 1955, long after most streamliners had been powered by diesel. A second train, the Noon Daylight, ran the same route 1940-42 and 1946-49 with a suspension during World War II; the original Coast Daylight became the Morning Daylight during this time. In 1949 the Noon Daylight was replaced by the overnight Starlight using the same equipment. In 1956 coaches from the Starlight were added to the all-Pullman Lark and the Starlight was discontinued in 1957. Amtrak revived the name for its Los Angeles to Seattle service known as the Coast Starlight. A 1966 study by the Stanford Research Institute found that it cost the Southern Pacific $18.41 to transport a passenger on the Coast Daylight between Los Angeles and San Francisco twice that of air or bus service.
Reasons given included the labor-intensiveness of rail service, the fact that a single consist could make only one trip per day. Amtrak took over intercity passenger service in the United States on May 1, 1971; the Coast Daylight was retained as an unnamed train, with its northern terminus changed to Oakland, California where it connected with the California Zephyr Three days per week, it was extended to a San Diego–Seattle train. On November 14, Amtrak extended the Oakland–Los Angeles train to San Diego, renumbered it to #12/13, renamed it Coast Daylight; the Seattle–San Diego train became the Coast Daylight/Starlight northbound and Coast Starlight/Daylight southbound. Both trains were cut back from San Diego to Los Angeles in April 1972, replaced by a third San Diegan. On June 10, 1973, Amtrak began running the combined Coast Daylight/Starlight daily for the summer months. Positive response led to Amtrak to retain this service, the Coast Daylight name was dropped on May 19, 1974. Amtrak has worked on plans for resuming Coast Daylight service from San Francisco to Los Angeles since the late 1990s.
It may be merged with the existing Pacific Surfliner route. More specific plans have been made in the last few years; the latest review of the possibility of service restoration was made on August 14, 2014, the San Luis Obispo Council of Governments organized and hosted a meeting between the Los Angeles – San Diego – San Luis Obispo Rail Corridor Agency and the Coast Rail Coordinating Council, where substantial progress was made toward identifying which specific policy initiatives would be given priority so that restoration of the Coast Daylight service might be effectuated before the end of the decade. The heavyweight Daylight Limited debuted in 1922 with a dining car. American Car and Foundry delivered new 90-seat coaches in 1923. 4-6-2 "Pacific" steam locomotives hauled the train up and down the coast. 4-8-2 "Mountain" locomotives displaced the Pacifics in the early 1930s. The Southern Pacific removed the observation cars in 1931. Pullman-Standard delivered two complete sets of equipment for the 1937 Coast Daylight.
Each consisted of a 44-seat baggage-coach. Each consist cost $1 million, the most expensive passenger trains built in the United States to date. In the articulated coaches restrooms were split, with the men's restroom in the odd-numbered car and the women's restroom in the even-numbered car. Seating was 2×2, with a center aisle down the middle. Luggage storage was located adjacent to the vestibule; the coffee shop-tavern had two seating areas. At one end of the car was the coffee shop, with 24 individual stools arrayed around a counter. At the other end was the tavern, with booth seating for 18. Between the two areas was a kitchen; the dining car could seat 40 patrons at 10 tables. The parlor-observation car seated 10 in the rear, rounded-off observation area and a further 23 in the adjoining parlor section. Prior to the full reequipping in 1940 the Southern Pacific made several changes to augment capacity. In 1938 it replaced the coffee shop-tavern cars with individual coffee shop cars; the original cars were assigned to the Los Angeles -- New Orleans Argonaut.