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Southern Rhodesia

The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa. It was the predecessor state of; the colony was established in 1923, having earlier been administered by the British South Africa Company. In 1953, it was merged into the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which lasted until 1963. Southern Rhodesia remained a de jure British colony until 1980. However, the white-minority government issued a Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965 and established Rhodesia, an unrecognised state. In 1979, it reconstituted itself under indigenous African rule as Zimbabwe Rhodesia, which failed to win overseas recognition. After a period of interim British control following the Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979, the country achieved internationally recognised independence as Zimbabwe in April 1980; the territory was referred to as "South Zambezia", a reference to the River Zambezi, until the name "Rhodesia" came into use in 1895. This was in honour of Cecil Rhodes, the British empire-builder and key figure during the British expansion into southern Africa.

In 1888 Rhodes obtained mineral rights from the most powerful local traditional leaders through treaties such as the Rudd Concession and the Moffat Treaty, signed by King Lobengula of the Ndebele people. "Southern" was first used in 1898 and dropped from normal usage in 1964, on the break-up of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. "Rhodesia" remained the name of the country until the creation of Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979. From the British perspective, the name Southern Rhodesia continued to be used until 18 April 1980, when the Republic of Zimbabwe was promulgated; the British government agreed that Rhodes' company, the British South Africa Company, would administer the territory stretching from the Limpopo to Lake Tanganyika under charter as a protectorate. Queen Victoria signed the charter in 1889. Rhodes used this document in 1890 to justify sending the Pioneer Column, a group of white settlers protected by well-armed British South Africa Police and guided by the big game hunter Frederick Selous, through Matabeleland and into Shona territory to establish Fort Salisbury.

In 1893–1894, with the help of their new Maxim guns, the BSAP defeated the Ndebele in the First Matabele War, a war which resulted in the death of King Lobengula and the death of most of the members of the Shangani Patrol. Shortly after the disastrous BSAP Jameson Raid into the Transvaal Republic, the Ndebele were led by their spiritual leader Mlimo against the white colonials and thus began the Second Matabele War which resulted in the extermination of nearly half the British settlers. After months of bloodshed, Mlimo was found and shot by the American scout Frederick Russell Burnham and soon thereafter Rhodes walked unarmed into the Ndebele stronghold in Matobo Hills and persuaded the impi to lay down their arms ending the revolt. A Legislative Council was created in 1899 to manage the company's civil affairs, with a minority of elected seats, through which the BSAC had to pass government measures; as the Company was a British institution in which settlers and capitalists owned most shares, local Black African tribal chiefs the remainder, the electorate to this council was limited to those shareholders, the electorate was exclusively white settlers.

Over time as more settlers arrived and a growing number had less than the amount of land required to own a share in the company or where in trades supporting the company as workers, successive activism resulted in first increasing the proportion of elected seats, allowing non-share holders the right to vote in the election. Prior to about 1918, the opinion among the electorate supported continued BSAC rule but opinion changed because of the development of the country and increased settlement. In addition, a decision in the British courts that land not in private ownership belonged to the British Crown rather than the BSAC gave great impetus to the campaign for self-government. In the resulting treaty government self-government, Crown lands which were sold to settlers allowed those settlers the right to vote in the self-governing colony; the territory north of the Zambezi was the subject of separate treaties with African chiefs: today, it forms the country of Zambia. The first BSAC Administrator for the western part was appointed for Barotseland in 1897 and for the whole of North-Western Rhodesia in 1900.

The first BSAC Administrator for the eastern part, North-Eastern Rhodesia, was appointed in 1895. The whites in the territory south of the river paid it scant regard though, used the name "Rhodesia" in a narrow sense to mean their part; the designation "Southern Rhodesia" was first used in 1898 in the Southern Rhodesia Order in Council of 20 October 1898, which applied to the area south of the Zambezi, was more common after the BSAC merged the administration of the two northern territories as Northern Rhodesia in 1911. As a result of the various treaties between the BSAC and the black tribes, Acts of Parliament delineating BSAC and Crown Lands, overlapping British colonial commission authority of both areas, the rights of the increasing number of British settlers and their descendants were given secondary review by authorities; this resulted in the formation of new movements for expanding the self-government of the Rhodesian people which saw BSAC rule as an impediment to further expansion.

The Southern Rhodesian Legislative Council election of 1920 returned a large majority of candidates of the Responsible Government Association and it became clear that BSAC rule was no longer practical. Opinion in the United Kingdom and South Africa favoured incorporation of Southern Rhodesia in the Union of

Michel Goemans

Michel Xavier Goemans is a Belgian-American professor of applied mathematics at MIT working in discrete mathematics and combinatorial optimization at CSAIL and MIT Operations Research Center. Goemans earned his doctorate in 1990 from MIT. Goemans is the "Leighton Family Professor" of Applied Mathematics at MIT and an adjunct professor at the University of Waterloo, he was a professor at the University of Louvain and a visiting professor at the RIMS of the University of Kyoto. In 1991 he received the A. W. Tucker Prize. From 1995 to 1997 he was a Sloan Fellow. In 1998 he was an Invited Speaker of the International Congress of Mathematicians in Berlin. For the academic year 2007–2008 he was a Guggenheim Fellow. Goemans is a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery, a fellow of the American Mathematical Society, a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. In 2000 he was awarded the MOS-AMS Fulkerson Prize for joint work with David P. Williamson on the semidefinite programming approximation algorithm for the maximum cut problem.

In 2012 Goemans was awarded the Farkas Prize. His hobby is sailing. Goemans has Belgian and US citizenship

1994 European Parliament election in Italy

The European Parliament election of 1994 in Italy was the election of the delegation from Italy to the European Parliament in 1994. It was the first continental election after the scandal of Tangentopoli which destroyed the traditional republican parties of Italy: all new parties contested the race; the pure party-list proportional representation was the traditional electoral system of the Italian Republic since its foundation in 1946, so it had been adopted to elect the Italian representatives to the European Parliament too. Two levels were used: a national level to divide seats between parties, a constituency level to distribute them between candidates. Italian regions were united in each electing a group of deputies. At national level, seats were divided between party lists using the largest remainder method with Hare quota. All seats gained by each party were automatically distributed to their local open lists and their most voted candidates; the new party Forza Italia, led by the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, won the election with 30.6% of the vote and 27 seats.

The second party was the Democratic Party of the Left, main heir of the Italian Communist Party, that gained 19.1% of the vote and 16 seats, while the third party was National Alliance, heir of the Italian Social Movement, that gained 12.5% of the vote and 11 seats. The Italian People's Party, main heir of Christian Democracy, gained only 10.0% of the vote and 8 seats. 1994 Italian general election