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Southern Rocky Mountains

The Southern Rocky Mountains are a major subregion of the Rocky Mountains of North America located in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Wyoming, the central and western portions of Colorado, the northern portion of New Mexico, extreme eastern portions of Utah. The Southern Rocky Mountains are commonly known as the Southern Rockies, since the highest peaks are located in the State of Colorado, they are sometimes known as the Colorado Rockies, although many important ranges and peaks rise in the other three states; the Southern Rockies include the highest mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains and include all 30 of the highest major peaks of the Rockies. The Southern Rocky Mountains are divided from the Western Rocky Mountains by the Green River and the Colorado River below the Green River; the Southern Rockies are divided from the Central Rocky Mountains by South Pass in Wyoming and the drainage running east from the pass down the Sweetwater River and the North Platte River. This divide between the Southern Rockies and the Central Rockies provided the lowest elevation traverse of the Rocky Mountain region for the historic Oregon Trail, the Mormon Trail, the California Trail.

The southern end of the Rocky Mountains are considered to be the Jemez Mountains and the Southern Sangre De Cristo mountains of New Mexico. Mountains south of here in N. M. are classified as the Arizona/New Mexico Mountains using the EPA Level III Ecoregions System. This article defines a significant summit as a summit with at least 100 meters of topographic prominence, a major summit as a summit with at least 500 meters of topographic prominence. An ultra-prominent summit is a summit with at least 1500 meters of topographic prominence. All elevations in this article include an elevation adjustment from the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. For further information, please see this United States National Geodetic Survey note; the following table lists the mountain ranges and subranges of the Southern Rocky Mountains with their highest summit. The following sortable table lists the 57 mountain peaks of the Southern Rocky Mountains with at least 4,000 meters of topographic elevation and at least 500 meters of topographic prominence.

The following sortable table lists the three ultra prominent summits of the Southern Rocky Mountains The following sortable table lists the 15 most topographically isolated peaks of the Southern Rocky Mountains with a topographic isolation of at least 50 kilometers and a topographic prominence of at least 500 meters. The following sortable table lists progressively the easternmost Rocky Mountain summits of their respective elevation; the following sortable table lists the paved mountain passes and highway summits of the Southern Rocky Mountains. Lists of mountains Mountain peaks of the Rocky Mountains National Geodetic Survey NGS Datasheets NGVD 29 to NAVD 88 online elevation converter @ NGS Geodetic Glossary @ NGS United States Geological Survey Rocky Mountains @ Southern Rocky Mountains @ World Mountain Encyclopedia @

Mary Kirtley Waters

Mary Kirtley Waters is the Director of the United Nations Information Centre in Washington, D. C, she served as Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs from 2017 to 2018. Waters was a cabinet confirmation team leader for the presidential transition of Donald Trump, she has served as president of the North American Millers' Association, vice president for corporate relations with the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation, assistant secretary for congressional relations at the United States Department of Agriculture. She spent 15 years as senior director and legislative counsel at ConAgra.. Mary Kirtley Waters, U. S. Department of StateMary Kirtley Waters, United Nations


The Gunfoundry known as Top ka Sancha was a cannonball factory set up by the second Nizam of Hyderabad, Nawab Mir Nizam Ali Khan at Fateh Maidan in Hyderabad, India. The historic Aliya High School for Boys; the Gunfoundry was one of the several cannon and cannonball factories set up in 1786 AD by the French general, Michel Joachim Marie Raymond, in the service of Nawab Mir Nizam Ali Khan, the second Nizam of Hyderabad. This is the only surviving gunfoundry established in the Hyderabad State; the original brick walls of the Gunfoundry are 50 feet high with a tapered portion commencing above 25 feet. Due to poor maintenance, the tapered walls were reduced to 25 to 30 feet; the lower portion was plastered with lime. The shape of the bricks used in the construction of the structure is square with less thickness; the binding material used is lime mortar. The wall surfaces were covered with lime mortar on the interior; the walls have joints of square iron rods. In the lower portions, brick arches were made in semi-circular shape, where the smelting was carried out under the supervision of General Raymond.

Malcolm's History of India, referred to the foundry in 1798

1913 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1913 in Australia. Monarch – George V Governor-GeneralThomas Denman, 3rd Baron Denman Prime Minister – Andrew Fisher Joseph Cook Chief JusticeSamuel Griffith Premier of New South WalesJames McGowen William Holman Premier of QueenslandDigby Denham Premier of South AustraliaArchibald Peake Premier of TasmaniaAlbert Solomon Premier of VictoriaWilliam Watt George Elmslie Premier of Western AustraliaJohn Scaddan Governor of New South WalesFrederic Thesiger, 3rd Baron Chelmsford Gerald Strickland Governor of QueenslandWilliam MacGregor Governor of South AustraliaDay Bosanquet Governor of TasmaniaHarry Barron William Ellison-Macartney Governor of VictoriaJohn Fuller Governor of Western Australia – Gerald Strickland Harry Barron 2 January – Australian philately proper begins in early 1913 with the Kangaroo and Map series of stamps, featuring a kangaroo standing on a map of Australia, inscribed "AUSTRALIA POSTAGE".

12 March – Canberra is named by Gertrude Denman 1 May – The first national banknotes were introduced in denominations of 10 shillings, 1, 5, 10 pounds. 31 May – 1913 Australian referendum contained six questions: Trade and Commerce, Industrial Matters, Monopolies, Railway Disputes. None of these were carried. 21 June – HMAS Australia, commissioned at Portsmouth and sailed to Australia to become the Australian flagship. Royal Commission appointed to inquire into certain charges against Henry Chinn. Royal Commission on Northern Territory railways and ports Royal Commission on powellised timber Golden Fleece Company established by HC Sleigh. From 1859 until 1913, a squadron of the Royal Navy was maintained in Australian waters. Norfolk Island Act 1913 meant that Norfolk Island became an Australia Territory under the authority of the Australian Commonwealth. Amalgamation took place between Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd and the Australian Wireless Company forming Amalgamated Wireless Australasia Limited.

The first totalisator, an mechanical system invented by the Australian George Julius of Julius Poole & Gibson Pty Ltd, was installed at Ellerslie Racecourse in New Zealand. Moondyne Australia Calls, Raymond Longford's last film for Cozens Spencer was released. Frank Hurley's actuality film, The Home of the Blizzard, about the Douglas Mawson expedition to Antarctica, was released; the 1913 VFL Premiership was won by Fitzroy The 1913 NSWRFL Premiership is won by Eastern Suburbs Posinatus wins the Melbourne Cup South Australia wins the 1912–13 Sheffield Shield The Australian cricket team toured USA and Canada in June to August, playing five matches, four in Philadelphia and one in Toronto. 24 January – Ray Stehr, rugby league footballer 20 February – Mary Durack and historian 5 March - Darby Munro, jockey 6 March – Ken Kennedy, ice speed skater 4 April – Dave Brown, rugby league footballer 2 October – Roma Mitchell, Australia's first female QC, first female judge.

Lila Acheson Wallace

Lila Bell Wallace was an American magazine publisher and philanthropist. Wallace co-founded Reader's Digest with her husband Dewitt Wallace, publishing the first issue in 1922. Born as Lila Bell Acheson in Virden, Canada, her father was a Presbyterian minister who brought his family to the United States when she was a child, she grew up in Park River, North Dakota. In 1917, she graduated from the University of Oregon, located in Eugene, taught at schools for two years, worked for the Young Women's Christian Association, she studied at Ward–Belmont College in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1921, she married DeWitt Wallace in New York; the couple co-founded the Reader's Digest magazine, with the first publication in 1922. For many years, Reader's Digest was the best-selling consumer magazine in the United States. In her lifetime, she made philanthropic contributions estimated at $60 million, she died from age 94, in Mount Kisco, New York. The Lila Wallace Reader's Digest Writers Award was given in her memory from 1990 to 2000.

On January 28, 1972, she was presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon. In 1992, she was posthumously awarded the National Medal of Arts. List of people from New York List of Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients List of University of Oregon alumni Media related to Lila Acheson Wallace Gift at Wikimedia Commons


The Kayapo people are indigenous peoples in Brazil who inhabit a vast area spreading across the states of Pará and Mato Grosso, south of the Amazon River and along Xingu River and its tributaries This pattern has given rise to the nickname the Xingu tribe. They are one of the various subgroups of the great Mebêngôkre nation; the term "Kayapo" is used by neighbouring groups rather than the Kayapo themselves. They refer to outsiders as "Poanjos"; the type of sweet potato that forms an important part of the Kayapó diet is sometimes named "caiapo", after the tribe. It is cultivated under that name in Japan, has been found to have health benefits; the Kayapo tribe lives alongside the Xingu River in the most east part of the Amazon Rainforest, in the Amazon basin, in several scattered villages ranging in population from one hundred to one thousand people in Brazil. Their land consists of tropical rainforest savannah and is arguably the largest tropical protected area in the entire world, covering 11,346,326 hectares of Neotropical forests and scrubland containing many endangered species.

They have small hills scattered around their land and the area is criss-crossed by river valleys. The larger rivers feed into numerous creeks, most of which don't have official names. In 2010, there was an estimated 8,638 Kayapo people, an increase from 7,096 in 2003. Subgroups of the Kayapo include the Xikrin, Gorotire and Metyktire, their villages consist of a dozen huts. A centrally located hut serves as a meeting place for village men to discuss community issues; the term Kayapo spelled Caiapó or Kaiapó, came from neighboring peoples in the early 19th century and means "those who look like monkeys". This name is based on a Kayapó men's ritual involving monkey masks; the autonym for one village is Mebêngôkre, which means "the men from the water hole." Other names for them include Gorotire, Kararaô, Kuben-Kran-Krên, Kôkraimôrô, Mekrãgnoti and Xikrin. The Kayapo use, they believe that their ancestors learned their social skills from insects, so they paint their bodies to mimic them and to better communicate with the Spirit that exists everywhere.

The black body paint allows them to blend into their surroundings when hunting in the forests. To help find their way through the forest, the Kayapo paint their legs with red pigment that rubs off on the surrounding terrain; the colors that a Kayapo wears is representative of their tribe's colors. Older generations of Kayapo men wear disks in their lower lips, but the practice is less common among younger Kayapo men; the men adorn themselves with radiating feathers, in their hair. Kayapo men can be seen with rope in their hair, to represent the rope which the first Kayapo used to arrive from the sky. Traditionally, Kayapo men cover their lower bodies with sheaths. Due to increased contact with outside cultures, contemporary Kayapo wear Western-style clothing such as shorts. Kayapo chiefs wear; the feathers used in their headdresses are from birds native to their area such as hyacinth macaw and crested oropendola. The birds found in the Amazon are bright-colored. Kayapo children wear beaded bands with colors representing their tribes.

These bands are tied below the waist or crisscrossed around the torso. When the child become of age, they go through a naming ceremony in which they wear large yellow headdresses. Kayapo women can be distinguished by the V shape shaved into their hair, they speak the Kayapo language. The Kayapo are split into many groups; the Kayapo value oratory calling themselves those who speak beautifully when compared to other indigenous groups. Beauty is valued in the Kayapo culture. A beautiful name is seen as a sign of wealth; the tribe will move and re-construct their camp in order to find the materials required to undertake the naming ceremony eg. Sufficient food sources for celebration must be gathered and presented to the father of the new-born. During certain occasions, Kayapo men may speak; the Kayapo possess varying knowledge of Portuguese, depending on the individual groups and their history of contact with outsiders.– The Kayapo have incorporated a great deal of traditional myth and cosmology into their practices honouring the importance of the earth's relationship with the people.

Threats to the forest home of the Kayapo have been an area of extreme concern in the last 30 years, beginning with mining and logging enterprises which threatened to destroy the rainforest, thus the Kayapos' way of life. In the village of Gorotire, the Kayapo made a deal with prospectors that mining could take place as long as they received a percentage of the mining proceeds and had their territory demarcated; the gold mining operation was seen as a positive development, which brought money into the local economy. With money filtering into the economy, better housing, improved education and a resulting level of health were achieved. However, the initial benefits of mining resulted in high levels of pollution in the area which seeped into water ways and nearby river banks and decimated local fish populations with high quantities of mercury. In addition to striking environmental threats, social habits began to change with the introduction of outside influences in the area. Men began to spend more time in town drinking, engaging in "conspicuous consumption and womanising."

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