John C. Breckinridge
John Cabell Breckinridge was an American lawyer and soldier. He represented Kentucky in both houses of Congress and became the 14th and youngest-ever vice president of the United States, serving from 1857 to 1861, he was a member of the Democratic party. He served in the U. S. Senate during the outbreak of the American Civil War, but was expelled after joining the Confederate Army, he was appointed Confederate secretary of war in 1865. Breckinridge was born near Kentucky to a prominent local family. After non-combat service during the Mexican–American War, he was elected as a Democrat to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1849, where he took a states' rights position against interference with slavery. Elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1850, he allied with Stephen A. Douglas in support of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. After reapportionment in 1854 made his re-election unlikely, he declined to run for another term, he was nominated for vice-president at the 1856 Democratic National Convention to balance a ticket headed by James Buchanan.
The Democrats won the election, but Breckinridge had little influence with Buchanan and, as presiding officer of the Senate, could not express his opinions in debates. He joined Buchanan in supporting the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas, which led to a split in the Democratic Party. In 1859, he was elected to succeed Senator John J. Crittenden at the end of Crittenden's term in 1861. After Southern Democrats walked out of the 1860 Democratic National Convention, the party's northern and southern factions held rival conventions in Baltimore that nominated Douglas and Breckinridge for president. A third party, the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John Bell; these three men split the Southern vote, while more anti-slavery Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln won all but three electoral votes in the North, allowing him to win the election. Breckinridge carried most of the Southern states. Taking his seat in the Senate, Breckinridge urged compromise to preserve the Union. Unionists were in control of the state legislature, gained more support when Confederate forces moved into Kentucky.
Breckinridge fled behind Confederate lines. He was commissioned a brigadier general and expelled from the Senate. Following the Battle of Shiloh in 1862, he was promoted to major general, in October he was assigned to the Army of Mississippi under Braxton Bragg. After Bragg charged that Breckinridge's drunkenness had contributed to defeats at Stone River and Missionary Ridge, after Breckinridge joined many other high-ranking officers in criticizing Bragg, he was transferred to the Trans-Allegheny Department, where he won his most significant victory in the 1864 Battle of New Market. After participating in Jubal Early's campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley, Breckinridge was charged with defending supplies in Tennessee and Virginia. In February 1865, Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed him Secretary of War. Concluding that the war was hopeless, he urged Davis to arrange a national surrender. After the fall of Richmond, Breckinridge ensured the preservation of Confederate records, he escaped the country and lived abroad for more than three years.
When President Andrew Johnson extended amnesty to all former Confederates in 1868, Breckinridge returned to Kentucky, but resisted all encouragement to resume his political career. War injuries sapped his health, he died in 1875. Breckinridge is regarded as an effective military commander. Though well-liked in Kentucky, he was reviled by many in the North as a traitor. John Cabell Breckinridge was born at Thorn Hill, his family's estate near Lexington, Kentucky on January 16, 1821; the fourth of six children born to Joseph "Cabell" Breckinridge and Mary Clay Breckinridge, he was their only son. His mother was the daughter of Samuel Stanhope Smith, who founded Hampden–Sydney College in 1775, granddaughter of John Witherspoon, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Having served as Speaker of the Kentucky House of Representatives, Breckinridge's father had been appointed Kentucky's Secretary of State just prior to his son's birth. In February, one month after Breckinridge's birth, the family moved with Governor John Adair to the Governor's Mansion in Frankfort, so that his father could better attend to his duties as Secretary of State.
In August 1823, an illness referred to as "the prevailing fever" struck Frankfort, Cabell Breckinridge took his children to stay with his mother in Lexington. On his return, both he and his wife fell ill. Cabell Breckinridge died, his assets were not enough to pay his debts, his widow joined the children in Lexington, supported by her mother-in-law. While in Lexington, Breckinridge attended Pisgah Academy in Woodford County, his grandmother taught him the political philosophies of her late husband, John Breckinridge, who served in the U. S. Senate and as Attorney General under President Thomas Jefferson; as a state legislator, Breckinridge had introduced the Kentucky Resolutions in 1798, which stressed states' rights and endorsed the doctrine of nullification in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. After an argument between Breckinridge's mother and grandmother in 1832, he, his mother, his sister Laetitia moved to Danville, Kentucky, to live with his sister Frances and her husband, president of Centre College.
Breckinridge's uncle, William Breckinridge, was on the faculty there, prompting him to enroll in November 1834. Among his schoolmates were Beriah Magoffin, William Birney, Theodore O'Hara, Thomas L. Crittenden and Jeremiah Boyle. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree in September 1838, he spent the following winter as a "resident graduate" at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton Univers
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department
Texas in the American Civil War
The U. S. state of Texas declared its secession from the United States of America on February 1, 1861, joined the Confederate States on March 2, 1861, after it replaced its governor, Sam Houston, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy. As with those of other States, the Declaration was not recognized by the United States government at Washington; some Texan military units fought in the Civil War east of the Mississippi River, but Texas was most useful for supplying soldiers and horses for Confederate forces. Texas' supply role lasted until mid-1863, after which time Union gunboats controlled the Mississippi River, making large transfers of men, horses or cattle impossible; some cotton was sold in Mexico, but most of the crop became useless because of the Union naval blockade of Galveston and other ports. In the late winter of 1860, Texan counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession; the convention adopted an "Ordinance of Secession" by a vote of 166 to 8, ratified by a popular referendum on February 23.
Separately from the Ordinance of Secession, considered a legal document, Texas issued a declaration of causes spelling out the rationale for declaring secession. The document specifies several reasons for secession, including its solidarity with its "sister slave-holding States," the U. S. government's inability to prevent Indian attacks, slave-stealing raids, other border-crossing acts of banditry. It accuses northern abolitionists of committing a variety of outrages upon Texans; the bulk of the document offers justifications for slavery saying that remaining a part of the United States would jeopardize the security of the two. The declaration includes this extract praising slavery, in which the Union itself is referred to as the "confederacy": We hold as undeniable truths that the governments of the various States, of the confederacy itself, were established by the white race, for themselves and their posterity. At this time, African Americans comprised around 30 percent of the state's population, they were overwhelmingly enslaved.
According to one Texan, keeping them enslaved was the primary goal of the state in joining the Confederacy: Independence without slavery, would be valueless... The South without slavery would not be worth a mess of pottage. Following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860, public opinion in the cotton states of the Lower South swung in favor of secession. By February 1861, the other six states of the sub-region had separately passed ordinances of secession. However, events in Texas were delayed due to the resistance of Southern Unionist governor, Sam Houston. Unlike the other "cotton states"' chief executives, who took the initiative in secessionist efforts, Houston refused to call the Texas Legislature into special session to consider the question, relenting only when it became apparent citizens were prepared to act without him. In early December 1860, before South Carolina seceded, a group of State officials published via newspaper a call for a statewide election of convention delegates on January 8, 1861.
This election was irregular for the standards of the day. It relied on voice vote at public meetings, although "viva voce" voting for popular elections had been used since at least March 1846, less than three months after statehood. Unionists were discouraged from attending or chose not to participate; this resulted in lopsided representation of secessionists delegates. The election call had stipulated for the delegates to assemble in convention on January 28. Houston called the Legislature into session, hoping that the elected body would declare the unauthorized convention illegal. Though he expressed reservations about the election of Abraham Lincoln, he urged the State of Texas to reject secession, citing the horrors of war and a probable defeat of the South; the convention removed Houston from the governorship promoted the Lieutenant Governor, Edward Clark. However, the Texas Legislature voted the delegates' expense money and supplies and—over Houston's veto—made a pledge to uphold the legality of the Convention's actions.
The only stipulation was. With gubernatorial forces routed, the Secession Convention convened on January 28 and, in the first order of business, voted to back the legislature 140–28 in that an ordinance of secession, if adopted, be submitted for statewide consideration; the following day, convention president Oran Roberts introduced a resolution suggesting Texas leave the Union. The ordinance was read on the floor the next day, citing the failures of the federal government to protect the lives and property of Texas citizens and accusing the Northern states of using the same as a weapon to "strike down the interests and prosperity" of the Southern people. After the grievances were listed, the ordinance repealed the one of July 4, 1845, in which Texas approved annexation by the United States and the Constitution of the United States, revoked all powers of, obligations to, allegiance to, the U. S. federal government and the U. S. Constitution. In the interests of historical significance and posterity, the ordinance was written to take effect on March 2, the date of Texas Declaration of Independence.
On February 1, members of the Legislature, a huge crowd of private citizens, packed the House galleries and balcony to watch the final vote on the question of secession. Seventy
Texas Hill Country
The Texas Hill Country is a geographic region located in the Edwards Plateau at the crossroads of West Texas, Central Texas, South Texas. Given its location, climate and vegetation, the Hill Country can be considered the border between the American Southwest and Southeast; the region is notable for tall rugged hills of limestone or granite. Many of the hills rise to a height of 400-500 feet above the surrounding plains and valleys, with Packsaddle Mountain rising to a height of 800 feet above the Llano River in Kingsland; the Hill Country includes the Llano Uplift and the second-largest granite dome in the United States, Enchanted Rock. The terrain throughout the region is punctuated by a thin layer of topsoil and a large number of exposed rocks and boulders, making the region dry and prone to flash flooding. Native vegetation in the region includes various yucca, prickly pear cactus, desert spoon, wildflowers in the Llano Uplift; the predominant trees in the region are Texas live oak. Bound on the east by the Balcones Escarpment, the Hill Country reaches into the far northern portions of San Antonio and the western portions of Austin.
As a result of springs discharging water stored in the Edwards Aquifer, several cities such as Austin, San Marcos, New Braunfels were settled at the base of the Balcones Escarpment. The region's economy is one of the fastest growing in the United States. According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the following 25 counties are included in the Hill Country Wildlife District: During the American Civil War, due to its large, pro-Union, German immigrant population, the Texas Hill Country was opposed to Texas seceding from the Union. Subsequently, in the three quarters of a century following Reconstruction, the core of the Hill Country provided the solitary support base for the Republican Party in what became a one-party Democratic state; when there were no Republicans in the Texas Legislature during the 1930s and 1940s, Gillespie and Kendall Counties backed every Republican Presidential nominee barring Herbert Hoover’s failed 1932 re-election campaign, Republicans continued to control local government.
Guadalupe and Comal Counties were less Republican, but still did not vote for Democratic nominees outside the 1912, 1932, 1936 and 1964 landslides. The region was the only one in antebellum slave states to back the insurgent candidacy of Robert La Follette in 1924: in fact Comal was La Follette’s top county in the nation with 73.96 percent of the vote, it and Gillespie were the only counties south of the Mason-Dixon Line to give a plurality to his “Progressive” ticket. Because of its karst topography, the area features a number of caverns, such as Inner Space Caverns, Natural Bridge Caverns, Bracken Cave, Longhorn Cavern State Park, Cascade Caverns, Caverns of Sonora and Cave Without a Name; the deeper caverns of the area form several aquifers which serve as a source of drinking water for the residents of the area. Wonder Cave in San Marcos was formed by an earthquake along the Balcones Fault. Several tributaries of the Colorado River of Texas — including the Llano and Pedernales rivers, which cross the region west to east and join the Colorado as it cuts across the region to the southeast – drain a large portion of the Hill Country.
The Guadalupe, San Antonio, Frio and Nueces rivers originate in the Hill Country. This region is a dividing line for certain species occurrence. For example, the California Fan Palm is the only species of palm tree, native to the continental United States west of the Hill Country's Balcones Fault; the region has hot summers in July and August, the nighttime temperatures remain high, as the elevation is modest despite the hilly terrain. Winter temperatures are sometimes as much as ten degrees cooler than in other parts of Texas to the east; the area is unique for its fusion of Spanish and German influences in food, beer and music that form a distinctively "Texan" culture separate from the state's Southern and Southwestern influences. For example, the accordion was popularized in Tejano music in the 19th century due to cultural exposure to German settlers. Devil's Backbone is an elevated, winding stretch of Route 32 between San Marcos and Wimberley, continuing through Blanco, that has long been the subject of ghost stories.
Folklore about it appeared in a 1996 episode of NBC's Robert Stack anthology series Unsolved Mysteries, featuring apparitional Spanish monks, Comanche as well as Lipan Apache tribes, Confederate soldiers on their horses, a spirit of a wolf. It re-aired when this series was hosted by Dennis Farina; the region has emerged as the center of the Texas wine industry. Three American Viticultural Areas are located in the areas: Texas Hill Country AVA, Fredericksburg in the Texas Hill Country AVA, Bell Mountain AVA; the Hill Country is known for its tourism. In 2008, The New York Times listed the Hill Country in an article about North American vacation destinations. Hill Country has made Texas second to Florida as the most popular retirement destination in the United States; the region has attracted Baby Boomers as they near retirement age. Frederick Day, a demographer with Texas State University, said that the Hill Country life-style reminds one of the small towns of the recent past. "Like old America... cost of living is pretty low.
To people who have spent their work life in Houston or Dallas, the Hill Country is attractive." Adelsverein Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge Cherry Springs Dance Hall German Texan List of geographical regions in Texas Mount Bonnell Revolutions of 1848 Enchanted Rock Hill Country from the Handbook of Texas Online Boerne Directory "Heart of The Hill C
Louisiana in the American Civil War
Antebellum Louisiana was a slave state, where enslaved African Americans had comprised the majority of the population during the eighteenth century French and Spanish colonial period. By the time the United States acquired the territory and Louisiana became a state, the institution of slavery was entrenched. By 1860, 47% of the state's population were enslaved, though the state had one of the largest free black populations in the United States. Much of the white population in the cities, supported southern states' rights and slavery, while pockets of support for the U. S. and its government existed in the more rural areas. Louisiana declared that it had seceded from the Union on January 26, 1861. New Orleans, the largest city in the South, was strategically important as a port city due to its southernmost location on the Mississippi River and its access to the Gulf of Mexico; the U. S. War Department early on planned for its capture; the city was taken by U. S. Army forces on April 25, 1862; because a large part of the population had Union sympathies, the U.
S. government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana under U. S. control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U. S. Congress. For the latter part of the war, both the U. S. and the Confederacy recognized their own distinct Louisiana governors. On January 8, 1861, Louisiana Governor Thomas Overton Moore ordered the Louisiana militia to occupy the U. S. arsenal at Baton Rouge and the U. S. forts guarding Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip. A wealthy planter and slave holder, Moore acted aggressively to engineer the secession of Louisiana from the Union by a convention on January 23. Only five percent of the public were represented in the convention, the state's military actions were ordered before secession had been established—in defiance of the state constitution, which called for a popular referendum to establish a convention. Moore attempted to justify these actions, saying: "I do not think it comports with the honor and self-respect of Louisiana as a slave-holding state to live under the government of a Black Republican president", using an epithet for Republicans used by many Democrats at the time.
The strategies advanced to defend Louisiana and the other Gulf states of the Confederacy were first, the idea of King Cotton. The second was a privateer fleet established by the issue of letters of marque and reprisal by President Jefferson Davis, which would sweep the sea clear of U. S. naval and commercial ships, at the same time sustain Louisiana's booming port economy. The third was a reliance on the ring of pre-war masonry forts of the Third System of American coastal defense, combined with a fleet of revolutionary new ironclads, to safeguard the mouth of the Mississippi from the U. S. Navy. All of these strategies were failures. In March 1861, George Williamson, the Louisianan state commissioner, addressed the Texan secession convention, where he called upon the slave states of the U. S. to declare secession from the Union in order to continue practicing slavery: With the social balance wheel of slavery to regulate its machinery, we may fondly indulge the hope that our Southern government will be perpetual...
Louisiana looks to the formation of a Southern confederacy to preserve the blessings of African slavery... One Louisianan artillery soldier gave his reasons for fighting for the Confederacy, stating that "I never want to see the day when a negro is put on an equality with a white person. There is too many free niggers... now to suit me, let alone having four millions." The Union's response to Moore's leveraged secession was embodied in U. S. President Abraham Lincoln's realization that the Mississippi River was the "backbone of the Rebellion." If control of the river were accomplished, the largest city in the Confederacy would be taken back for the Union, the Confederacy would be split in half. Lincoln moved to back Admiral David Dixon Porter's idea of a naval advance up the river to both capture New Orleans and maintain Lincoln's political support; the U. S. Navy would become both a formidable invasion force and a means of transporting Union forces, along the Mississippi River and its tributaries.
This strategic vision would prove victorious in Louisiana. A number of notable leaders were associated with Louisiana during the Civil War, including some of the Confederate army's senior ranking generals, as well as several men who led brigades and divisions. Antebellum Louisiana residents P. G. T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, Richard Taylor all commanded significant independent armies during the war. Taylor's forces were among the last active Confederate armies in the field. Henry Watkins Allen led a brigade during the middle of the war before becoming the Confederate Governor of Louisiana from 1864 to 1865. Randall L. Gibson, another competent brigade commander, became a postbellum U. S. Senator as a Democrat. Other brigadiers of note included Alfred Mouton, Harry T. Hays, Chatham Roberdeau Wheat, Francis T. Nicholls. St. John Lidell was a prominent brigade commander in the Army of Tennessee. Henry Gray, a wealthy plantation owner from Bienville Parish, was a brigadier general under Richard Taylor before being elected to the Second Confederate Congress late in the war.
Leroy A. Stafford was among a handful of Louisian
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti