Southwark is a district of Central London situated in the northwestern portion of the London Borough of Southwark. Centred 1 1⁄2 miles east of Charing Cross, it fronts the River Thames and the City of London to the north, it was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain, providing a crossing from Londinium, for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area, until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles to the west. It was a 1295-enfranchised borough in the county of Surrey created a burh in 886, containing various parishes by the high medieval period succumbing to City attempts to constrain its free trade and entertainment, its entertainment district, in its heyday at the time of Shakespare's Globe Theatre has revived in the form of the Southbank which overspills imperceptibly into the ancient boundaries of Lambeth and commences at the post-1997 reinvention of the original theatre, Shakespeare's Globe, incorporating other smaller theatre spaces, an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon.
After the 18th-century decline of Southwark's small wharves, the borough grew in population and saw the growth of great docks, printing/paper, goods yards, small artisan and other low-wage industries and Southwark was among many such inner districts to see slum clearance and replacement with social housing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority. At its heart is the area known as Borough, which has an eclectic covered and semi-covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard. Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral, a priory parish church, created a cathedral in 1905, noted for its Merbecke Choir; the area has three main tube stations: Borough, Southwark nearby and one close to the river, combined with a major railway station above, London Bridge. The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey".
Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name is formed from the Old English sūþ and weorc; the southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. In Old English, Surrey means “southern district ”, so the change from “southern district work” to the latter “southern work” may be an evolution based on the elision of the single syllable ge element, meaning district; until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current London Borough of Southwark. The ancient borough of Southwark was known as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area; the medieval heart of Southwark was referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City and as an aldermanry until 1978.
Southwark is sited on a once marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity. Much of the district was, in pre-Roman years, a series of tidal islands in the Thames, formalised into ditches such as the so-called River Neckinger; this formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is underlain by a featureless soil called the Dark Earth which represents an urban area abandoned.
Southwark appears to recover only during the time of his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied, it was fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north. This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke William the Conqueror, he failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England. Southwark appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors, its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery and the tideway, which still exists as St Mary Overie dock. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark was owned by the church – the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral the priory of St Mary Overie. During
Marah is one of the locations which the Torah identifies as having been travelled through by the Israelites, during the Exodus. The liberated Israelites set out on their journey in the desert, somewhere in the Sinai Peninsula, it becomes clear. Reaching Marah, the place of a well of bitter water and murmuring, Israel receives a first set of divine ordinances and the foundation of the Shabbat; the shortage of water there is followed by a shortness of food. Moses throws a log into the bitter water. God sends manna and quail; the desert is the ground. The'murmuring motifi' is a recurring perspective of the wandering Jewish people. Marah - bitterness - a fountain at the sixth station of the Israelites whose waters were so bitter that they could not drink them. On this account they murmured against Moses, under divine direction, cast into the fountain "a certain tree" which took away its bitterness, so that the people drank of it; this was the'Ain Hawarah, where there are still several springs of water that are "bitter," distant some 47 miles from'Ayun Mousa.
The narrative concerning Marah in the Book of Exodus states that the Israelites had been wandering in the desert for three days without water. In the text, when the Israelites reach Marah they complain about the undrinkability, so Moses complains to Yahweh, Yahweh responds by showing Moses a certain piece of wood, which Moses throws into the water, making it sweet and fit to drink; some biblical scholars see the narrative about Marah as having originated as an aetiological myth seeking to justify its name.citation needed The text goes on to state that in this location, a decree and a law were made by Yahweh for the Israelites, that Yahweh tested them. However, according to textual scholars following the documentary hypothesis, the narrative concerning the bitter water comes from the Jahwist account, while the mention of law and testing is part of the Elohist account; the Talmud argues that the text is referring to three additional laws being added to the Noahide laws, namely that tribunals should be created, children should obey parents, that the Sabbath should be observed.
In the biblical text, Yahweh states that he would not bring any diseases upon the Israelites if they obey Yahweh's decrees. According to the Book of Exodus, the Israelites reached Marah after travelling in the Wilderness of Shur, while according to the stations list in the Book of Numbers, the Israelites had reached Marah after travelling in the Wilderness of Etham. Textual scholars regard the geographic information as deriving from two different versions of the same independent list of stations, one version being the list which takes up a chapter of the Book of Numbers, the other version being slotted around the Marah narrative and around other narratives in the Book of Exodus and Book of Numbers, as appropriate; the exact location of Marah is uncertain, as are the positions of Etham and Elim. Traditionally, Sinai was equated with one of the mountains at the south of the Sinai Peninsula leading to the identification of Marah as Ain Hawarah, a salty spring 47 miles southeast from Suez. However, the majority of both scholars and religious authorities believe that this traditional identification of Sinai is inaccurate, with the suggested alternatives being in the north and centre of the Sinai peninsula.
Some scholars have proposed to identify Marah as Ain Naba, a brackish fountain located just 10 miles southeast of Suez, while others have proposed to identify Marah as the Small Bitter Lake located about 20 miles north of Suez. In the classic 1970 mystical film, El Topo, by Alejandro Jodorowsky, the protagonist and his female companion approach a river and the woman attempts to drink from it, only to find out that it is bitter in taste; the protagonist tells her that Moses found water in the desert but that the people were unable to drink it because it was bitter and so they called the water Marah. The protagonist stirs the water with a tree branch, the woman drinks again and this time it is sweet, he tells her, "I shall call you Marah, because you are bitter like water". Massah Meribah "The Torah - A Mo
Rainy River Community College is a public community college in International Falls, Minnesota. It is part of the Minnesota State Universities System. RRCC offers the Associate in Arts degree, Associate in Science degree, certificate programs, it provides several programs shared with other colleges. Total enrollment is around 350; the student to faculty ratio is 15:1. Breakdown of students include 8% Native American, 2% Hispanic, 15% African American, 1% Asian American or Pacific Islander, 7% international, 54% are 25 years of age or older. RRCC operates on a semester type of calendar, has an open admission policy. There is academic remediation for students entering the program, an ESL program, services for students that are learning disabled, advanced placement courses, honors programs, independent study, summer session courses taken for credit, a part-time degree program and continuing education programs, co-op programs and internships. Students are considered a first year student if they have 31 or fewer credits, a second year student if they have 32 or more credits, a full-time student if they take 12 or more credits a semester.
RRCC has an Anishinaabe Student Coalition, Student Senate, Black Student Association. They hold different events during the year including Awareness Week, Diversity Week. Athletic teams consist of women's volleyball, club hockey, softball. RRCC is a member of the National Junior College Athletic Association and the American Collegiate Hockey Association and competes in the Minnesota Community College Conference; the RRCC Library has an online public access catalog available 24 hours a day. The computer labs have 70 computers available on campus for general student use. There is a staffed computer lab on campus that provides training of computers, technology and the Internet. Official website