Maverick County, Texas
Maverick County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 54,258, its county seat is Eagle Pass. The county was created in 1856 and organized in 1871, it is named for Samuel Maverick and state legislator. The Eagle Pass, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Maverick County, it is east of the Mexican border. Prehistoric hunter-gatherer peoples were the first inhabitants, their artifacts have been found in various areas of the county. Lipan Apache and Coahuiltecan culture followed; the abandonment of Fort Duncan on March 20, 1861, during the Civil War, enabled the Indian population to gain control of the region. The fort was reoccupied in 1868. In early 1871, a number of Black Seminole Indians living along the border were organized into a company of scouts and brought to Fort Duncan; the last Indian raid in the county occurred in 1877. Three traders were mutilated by Lipan Apaches; the site of the incident, eight miles northeast of Eagle Pass, became known as Deadman's Hill.
The El Camino Real known as the Old San Antonio Road, that crosses the Rio Grande, begins in East Texas and crosses southern Maverick County. The trail was blazed by Alonso De León in 1690, is said to have been traversed by more early Spanish explorers and settlers than any other section of the state. In 1989, the legislature authorized the Old San Antonio Road Preservation Commission to coordinate the 1991 300th anniversary of the trail’s founding. Saltillo alcade Fernando de Azcué in 1665 pursued Indians into the county. In 1675, Fernando del Bosque traversed the area near Quemado, Franciscans with the expedition are said to have celebrated the first Mass on Texas soil. In 1688, Alonso De León followed the Camino Real across the county en route to Fort St. Louis. Domingo Terán de los Ríos, the first Governor of Spanish Texas, led an expedition through the county in 1691. Spanish Texas Governor Martín de Alarcón crossed the county in 1718 on the expedition that resulted in the founding of San Antonio.
Governor of the Mexican provinces of Coahuila and Texas, Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo, in 1720 passed through on an expedition that brought goats, 2800 horses and 6400 sheep, the onset of Spanish ranching in Texas. Pedro de Rivera y Villalón crossed the county in 1727 as part of an expedition to inspect the frontier defenses of New Spain. Antonio Rivas was the first known rancher on the land in 1765; the county still has a considerable ranching community. On March 27, 1849, Capt. Sidney Burbank established Fort Duncan known as Camp Eagle Pass, on a site two miles north of the ford at Adjuntos Pass. General William Leslie Cazneau, credited several years earlier with burying the Alamo casualties with full military honors, began ranching in the area around 1850, he partnered with Irish-born San Antonio banker and county settler John Twohig to lay out a plan of Eagle Pass in 1850. That same year, a Mexican garrison established Piedras Negras across the border. Freight operator Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Groos secured a contract to haul supplies for the army at Fort Duncan.
At his urging, several early settlers of Eagle Pass were emigres of the Mexican river villages and missions of San Juan Bautista, San José, Santo Domingo, San Nicolás, La Navaja, San Isidro. Emigres Refugio and Rita Alderete de San Miguel used the profits of their freighting business to establish a large-scale cattle and horse ranch on Elm Creek in 1853, they were joined in ranching operations by stranded pilgrims on the California Gold Rush trail and discharged Fort Duncan soldiers. Among these was Infantry veteran Jesse Sumpter, who worked at many odd jobs before becoming sheriff in the newly formed Maverick County. Landscape pioneer Frederick Law Olmsted visited Eagle Pass in 1854, noted the many slave hunters and runaway slaves residing in Piedras Negras, as well as the many saloons and gambling houses, which catered to Fort Duncan's soldiers and other unsavory characters. In 1855, Texas Governor Elisha M. Pease authorized a raid into Mexico. An international incident was brought about by James H. Callahan and William R. Henry, whose pursuit of Lipan Apache raiders and runaway slaves into Mexico ended in the looting and torching of Piedras Negras, after an encounter with Mexican forces at La Marama on the Río Escondido.
Maverick County was established from Kinney County and named for Samuel A. Maverick in 1856; the county was organized some years on September 4, 1871. The estimated population of the county in 1860 was 726. Eagle Pass voted 83-3 against secession from the Union. Fort Duncan was occupied by Confederate troops during the Civil War. Eagle Pass was chosen as a trade depot for the Military Board of Texas. Eagle Pass was a major terminus of the Cotton Road, custom house and Confederate port of entry into Mexico 1863-65. A cotton press was installed at Piedras Negras to handle the enormous quantities coming across the Rio Grande. At the close of the Civil War, General Joseph Orville Shelby’s brigade never surrendered, but hoped to continue their fight across the border. On July 4, 1865, Shelby stopped in the middle of the Rio Grande to bury the last Confederate flag to fly over his troops. To the sound of drum and bugle, he wrapped the flag around the plume of his hat, weighted it with a stone from the river bank, lowered it into the river.
Shelby’s unit became known as “The Undefeated” and was used as a basis for the 1969 John Wayne-Rock Hudson film by the same name. Saloons, gambling houses, smuggling operations proliferated in and around Eagle Pass during Reconstruction; the infamous J. King Fisher and his followers dominated the era in the region. Telegraph lines reac
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Crystal City, Texas
Crystal City is a city in and the county seat of Zavala County, United States. The population was 7,138 at the 2010 census, it was settled as a farming and ranching community and was a major railroad stop being 110 miles from San Antonio. Spinach became a major crop and the city has promoted itself as "Spinach Capital of the World." During World War II, a large internment camp was located here. The town is noteworthy in the history of Mexican American political self-determination for the founding of the La Raza Unida Party. Crystal City was settled by American farmers and ranchers producing cattle and various crops. Crystal City was a major stop along with San Antonio, Carrizo Springs, Corpus Christi on the defunct San Antonio and Gulf Railroad, which operated from 1909 until it was merged into the Missouri Pacific Railroad in 1956. From 1909 to 1912, the SAU&G was known as the Crystal Uvalde Railroad. There was an eastern link to Fowlerton near Cotulla in La Salle County; the remaining San Antonio-to-Corpus Christi route is now under the Union Pacific system.
The successful production of spinach evolved into a dominant industry. By March 26, 1937, the growers had erected a statue of the cartoon character Popeye in the town because his reliance on spinach for strength led to greater popularity for the vegetable, which had become a staple cash crop of the local economy. Early in its history, the area known as the "Winter Garden District" was deemed the "Spinach Capital of the World"; the first Spinach Festival was held in 1936. It was put on hold during World War II and years; the Festival was resumed in 1982. The Spinach Festival is traditionally held on the second weekend in November, draws former residents from Michigan, Minnesota, Washington State, beyond. During World War II, Crystal City was home to the largest of the World War II internment camps, having housed American civilians of German and Italian ancestry. With the stream of refugees fleeing the Mexican Revolution of 1910, added to by Mexican migrant workers lured by the local spinach industry, the demographics of the small rural city began to shift over the years since its 1910 incorporation, due to its proximity to the U.
S./Mexico border. By 1963, Crystal City experienced a tumultuous Mexican American electoral victory, as the swiftly emerging Mexican American majority elected fellow Mexican American to the city council, led by Juan Cornejo, a local representative of the Teamsters Union at the Del Monte cannery in Crystal City; the newly elected all Mexican American city council, the succeeding administration, had trouble governing the city because of political factions among the new officials. Cornejo was selected mayor from among the five new council members, his quest for control of the city government led to his loss of political support. Although these five elected officials known as "Los Cinco" only held office for two years, many consider this moment the "spark" or starting point of what became known as the Chicano Movement. A new group made up of both Anglos and Mexican Americans, the Citizens Association Serving All Americans, announced its plans to run candidates for countywide offices in 1964, won.
By the late 1960s, Crystal City would become the location of continued activism in the civil rights movement among its Mexican American majority population, the birthplace of the third party political movement known as La Raza Unida Party founded by three Chicanos, including José Ángel Gutiérrez over a conflict about the ethnicity of cheerleaders at Crystal City High School. 200 Mexican American students went out on strike with their parents' support. La Raza Unida, related organizations won election to most offices in Crystal City and Zavala County in the periods between 1969 and 1980, when the party declined at the local level. In the 1970s, following protests of charges on the part of La Raza Unida, Crystal City's natural gas supply was shut off by its only supplier. Crystal City residents were forced to resort to wood burning stoves and individual propane gas tanks for cooking. To this day, there is no natural gas supplier in the Crystal City area, although most residents purchase propane from the city.
In 1976, eleven officials in Crystal City were indicted on various counts. Angel Noe Gonzalez, the former Crystal City Independent School District superintendent who worked in the United States Department of Education in Washington, D. C. upon his indictment retained the San Antonio lawyer and mayor, Phil Hardberger. Gonzalez was charged with paying Adan Cantu for doing no work. Hardberger, documented to the court specific duties that Cantu had performed and disputed all the witnesses called against Cantu; the jury unanimously acquitted Gonzalez. Many newspapers reported on the indictments but not on the acquittal. John Luke Hill, the 1978 Democratic gubernatorial nominee, had sought to weaken La Raza Unida so that he would not lose general election votes to a third party candidate. Victory, went not to Hill but narrowly to his successful Republican rival, Bill Clements. Compean received only 15,000 votes, or 0.6 percent, just under Clements's 17,000-vote plurality over Hill. In February 2016 every top official of the city was arrested under a federal indictment accusing them of taking bribes from contractors and providing city workers to assist an illegal gambling operator, Ngoc Tri Nguyen.
Mayor Ricardo Lopez, city attorney William Jonas, Mayor Pro Tem Rogelio Mata, council member Roel Mata. and former council member Gilbert Urrabazo. A second councilman, Marco Rodriguez was charged in a s
Eagle Pass, Texas
Eagle Pass is a city in and the county seat of Maverick County in the U. S. state of Texas. The population was 26,255 as of the 2010 census. Eagle Pass borders the city of Piedras Negras, Mexico, to the southwest and across the Rio Grande; the Eagle Pass-Piedras Negras Metropolitan Area is one of six binational metropolitan areas along the United States-Mexican border. As of January 2008, according to the US census, the Eagle Pass Metropolitan Area's population was 48,401 people, the Piedras Negras Metropolitan Area's population was 169,771. Eagle Pass was the first American settlement on the Rio Grande. Known as Camp Eagle Pass, it served as a temporary outpost for the Texas militia, ordered to stop illegal trade with Mexico during the Mexican-American War. Eagle Pass is so named because the contour of the hills through which the Rio Grande flows bore a fancied resemblance to the outstretched wings of an eagle. General William Leslie Cazneau founded the Eagle Pass townsite in the 1840s. In 1850, Rick Pawless opened.
In 1871, Maverick County was established, Eagle Pass was named the county seat. During the remainder of the 19th century and churches opened, the mercantile and ranching industries grew, a railway was built; the United States Army established the permanent Fort Duncan on March 27, 1849, a few miles upstream from Camp Eagle Pass. Captain Sidney Burbank supervised the construction of Fort Duncan, named after Colonel James Duncan, who had fought in the Mexican War. After the Mexican-American War, trade flourished under the protection of the fort; the fort was near the trail of westward immigration to California. It served as an outpost against hostile Apache, it was reopened several times. In March 1860, it served as the base of operations against the border assaults arranged by Juan N. Cortina. Fort Duncan was held by the Confederacy during the American Civil War. On July 4, 1865, General Joseph O. Shelby, en route to offer his troops' service to Maximilian in Mexico, stopped at Fort Duncan and buried in the Rio Grande the last Confederate flag to have flown over his men.
After several decades of deactivation, Fort Duncan was activated as a training camp during World War I. In 1938, the City of Eagle Pass acquired the fort and still operates a museum and a children's library at the site; the rancher and gunfighter King Fisher lived in Eagle Pass until his ambush and murder in San Antonio in 1884. During World War I, Camp Eagle Pass was established as a post of the U. S. Army; the 3rd Infantry Regiment was patrolled the Mexican border. The City of Eagle Pass was sued by the US government in 2008 to gain access to the land and construct a fence on the United States-Mexico border. Eagle Pass and Maverick County have been the subject of several state and federal criminal investigations which have gained state and national media attention. An ongoing public corruption, bid-rigging, kickback investigation by the FBI and Texas Department of Public Safety has resulted in the arrest and imprisonment of all four Maverick County Commissioners, one Justice of the Peace, multiple local government employees and businessmen since October 2012, making it the largest public criminal probe in Eagle Pass and Maverick County history.
On February 20, 2015, a federal grand jury in Del Rio indicted a County Commissioner and a former County Justice of the Peace in connection with an alleged bribery and bid-rigging scheme, all related to the ongoing public corruption investigation. On February 23, 2015, former Maverick County Commissioner Rodolfo Heredia was sentenced to 10 years in federal prison followed by three years of supervised release and ordered to perform 1,200 hours of community service after completing his prison term, he was ordered to pay a maximum of $56,003.88 in restitution to Maverick County. On August 8, 2012, a federal grand jury in the U. S. District Court in Del Rio indicted five Eagle Pass residents, including a former Public Works Department employee, in connection with an estimated $70,000 credit card fraud scheme. According to the indictment, during 2011, City of Eagle Pass employee Edgar Aguilar obtained five city of Eagle Pass-owned “Fuelman” credit cards designated for fuel purchases for Public Works department vehicles and distributed them to his accomplices to purchase fuel for their own vehicles and to purchase fuel for others at the city’s expense.
In some instances, defendants charged individuals a reduced rate for fuel purchased using the city’s credit card and pocketed the cash. On November 29, 2012, Aguilar entered a guilty plea for the charges of theft and fraud and on May 15, 2013, was sentenced to 42 months in federal prison and ordered to pay $68,373.87 in restitution for his role in the fraudulent scheme. On March 30, 2017, Hector Chavez, Sr. the former Eagle Pass city manager, pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI regarding a bribery scheme involving public contracts in Maverick County. Chavez, with the company Chace Management, was charged with receiving $20,000 from the owner of the engineering firm Hejl and Associates to bribe a county commissioner to procure a $270,000 contract for the engineering firm. Chavez admitted to having given false information in 2015. Chavez was sentenced to 42 months in federal prison and three years' supervised release on August 21, 2017; the city and surrounding area is home to a variety of businesses in retail, food manufacturing, freight forwarding/transportation.
The Eagle Pass Industrial Park hosts a number of larger companies including the O. F. Mossberg & Sons firearms manufacturing plant. Eagle Pass has a hot semi-arid climate, typical o
Texas House of Representatives
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Texas Legislature. It consists of 150 members; as of the 2010 Census, each member represents about 167,637 people. There are no term limits, with the most senior member, Tom Craddick, having been elected in 1968; the House meets at the State Capitol in Austin. The Speaker of the House is highest-ranking member of the House; the Speaker's duties include maintaining order within the House, recognizing members during debate, ruling on procedural matters, appointing members to the various committees and sending bills for committee review. The Speaker pro tempore is a ceremonial position, but does, by long-standing tradition, preside over the House during its consideration of local and consent bills. Unlike other state legislatures, the House rules do not formally recognize majority or minority leaders; the unofficial leaders are the Republican Caucus Chairman and the Democratic House Leader, both of whom are elected by their respective caucuses.
†Representative was first elected in a special election. Eligio De La Garza, II, first Mexican-American to represent his region in the US House and the second Mexican-American from Texas to be elected to Congress. Ray Barnhart, Federal Highway Administrator Anita Lee Blair, first blind woman elected to a state legislature Jack Brooks, U. S. House of Representatives Dolph Briscoe, Governor of Texas Frank Kell Cahoon, Midland County oilman and representative from 1965 to 1969. S. Representative Tom DeLay, U. S. Representative and House Majority Leader John Nance Garner, U. S. Representative, Speaker of the House, Vice President of the United States O. H. "Ike" Harris, Dallas County representative from 1963–1965. Kay Bailey Hutchison, U. S. Senator Ray Hutchison, husband of Kay Bailey Hutchison Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. father of President Lyndon B. Johnson Dan Kubiak, representative from Rockdale known for his support of public education Mickey Leland, U. S. House of Representatives, died in a plane crash.
Charles Henry Nimitz Born in Bremen. In 1852, built the Nimitz Hotel in Fredericksburg, which now houses the National Museum of the Pacific War. Grandfather of United States Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz. Elected to the Texas Legislature 1890. Rick Perry, longest serving Governor of Texas, current U. S. Secretary of Energy. Colonel Alfred P. C. Petsch Lawyer, civic leader, philanthropist. Veteran of both World War I and World War II. Sam Rayburn, U. S. Representative and longest served Speaker of the House Coke R. Stevenson, Governor of Texas Sarah Weddington, attorney for "Jane Roe" for the 1973 Roe v. Wade case in the U. S. Supreme Court Ferdinand C. Weinert, coauthored bill to establish the Pasteur Institute of Texas, authored resolution for humane treatment of state convicts, coauthored the indeterminate sentence and parole law. Served as Texas Secretary of State Charles Wilson, U. S. House of Representatives, subject of the book and film Charlie Wilson's War The Speaker of the House of Representatives has duties as a presiding officer as well as administrative duties.
As a presiding officer, the Speaker must enforce and interpret the rules of the House, call House members to order, lay business in order before the House and receive propositions made by members, refer proposed legislation to a committee, preserve order and decorum, recognize people in the gallery and hold votes on questions, vote as a member of the House, decide on all questions to order, appoint the Speaker Pro Tempore and Temporary Chair, adjourn the House in the event of an emergency, postpone reconvening in the event of an emergency, sign all bills, joint resolutions, concurrent resolutions. The administrative duties of the Speaker include having control over the Hall of the House, appointing chair, vice-chair, members to each standing committee, appointing all conference committees, directing committees to make interim studies; the Chief Clerk is the head of the Chief Clerk's Office which maintains a record of all authors who sign legislation and distributes membership information to current house members, forwards copies of legislation to house committee chairs.
The Chief Clerk is the primary custodian of all legal documents within House. Additional duties include keeping a record of all progress on a document, attesting all warrants and subpoenas, receiving and filing all documents received by the house, maintaining the electronic information and calendar for documents; when there is a considerable update of the electronic source website, the Chief Clerk is responsible for noticing House members via email. Agriculture and Livestock AppropriationsSubcommittee on Articles I, IV & V Subcommittee on Article II Subcommittee on Article III Subcommittee on Articles VI, VII & VIII Subcommittee on Budget Transparency & Reform Business & Industry Calendars Corrections County Affairs Criminal Jurisprudenc
Zavala County, Texas
Zavala County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,677, its county seat is Crystal City. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1884. Zavala is named for Lorenzo de Zavala, Mexican politician, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, first vice president of the Republic of Texas. Radiocarbon assays indicate the county’s Tortuga Flat Site was used in the 15th and 16th centuries by Pacuache. Archeologist T. C. Hill of Crystal City conducted excavations in 1972-1973 at uncovering artifacts. More than 100 archeological sites have been identified by researchers of the University of Texas at San Antonio at the Chaparrosa Ranch. Coahuiltecan, Lipan Apache and Mescalero Apache and Comanche have inhabited the area after the Pacuache; the area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River, which included Zavala County, became disputed territory known as the Wild Horse Desert, where neither the Republic of Texas nor the Mexican government had clear control.
Ownership was in dispute until the Mexican–American War. The area became filled with lawless characters. An agreement signed between Mexico and the United States in the 1930s put the liability of payments to the descendants of the original land grants on Mexico. According to a list of Spanish and Mexican grants in Texas, Pedro Aguirre owned 51,296 acres in Zavala County, while Antonio Aguirre had 34,552. Seven other people (including two women—Juana Fuentes and Maria Escolastica Diaz—each had 4,650 acres. Zavala County was established in 1858 and named for Lorenzo de Zavala, a Mexican colonist and one of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence; the county was organized with an error putting an additional "L" in the county. The mistake was not corrected until 1929. Batesville became the county seat. Crystal City won a 1928 election to become the new county seat. Grey White and the Vivian family settled Cometa circa 1867, they were joined by the Ramón Sánchez and Galván families in 1870 and by J. Fisher in 1871.
Murlo community was settled about the same time. Ranching dominated the county until overgrazing destroyed the grasslands. Zavala became the first county in Texas to grow flax commercially. Ike T. La Pryor advertised the land for farming; the community that sprang up was named La Pryor. Developers E. J. Buckingham and Carl Groos purchased all 96,101 acres of the Cross S Ranch in 1905, platted the town of Crystal City, sold the rest as sections divided into 10-acre farms. Zavala, Frio and LaSalle counties are considered the Winter Garden Region of Texas. Irrigation and mild winter climate has made the area ideal for year-round vegetable farming. During the winter of 1917–18 spinach was introduced to Zavala; the first annual Spinach Festival was introduced in 1936, halted during World War II, but resumed in 1982. Cartoonist E. C. Segar who created the spinach-eating Popeye received a letter of appreciation from the Winter Garden Chamber of Commerce, thanking him for his support of Spinach in the American diet.
Segar's written response appeared in two newspapers exhorting children everywhere to enjoy Segar’s favorite vegetable. He approved a 1937 statue of Popeye to be erected in Crystal City, dedicated "To All The Children of the World". Bermuda onions became a major crop. Spinach and cotton were the three biggest crops; the principal crops grown in Zavala County in 1989 were spinach, pecans and onions. The Crystal City, Texas Family Internment Camp began as a migrant labor camp in the 1930s. By the time it closed, it had held German and Japanese combatants and their families, Latin Americans and at least one Italian Latin American family, as well as German- and Japanese-American families. There were 100 acres for security measures. An additional 190 acres were for farming and personnel residences; the first internees, of German ethnicity, arrived on December 12, 1942, were expected to work on construction, being paid 10 cents an hour. A 70-bed hospital was built in 1943. Internees ran nursery kindergartens.
From its inception through June 30, 1945, the Crystal City camp held 4,751 internees and saw 153 births. The camp closed in 1948; the Mexican Revolution that began in 1910 resulted in thousands of laborers flowing across the border to cultivate vegetable crops. By 1917 and 1918 Pancho Villa was sending banditos across the Rio Grande. Crystal City organized home guards for protection against Villa's associates. By 1930 Crystal City was overwhelmingly composed of Hispanic Americans; that year, Zavala County had the highest percentage of laborers and the lowest percentage of tenants of all counties in South Texas. Owner-operators were Anglo, whereas sharecroppers and farm laborers were Hispanic. By the late 1950s a majority of those graduating from high school in the county were Hispanic American. In 1990, 89.4 percent of the county population of 12,162 were Hispanic. Juan Cornejo of the Teamsters Union and The Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations organized the Hispanic population among cannery workers and farm laborers of Crystal City in 1962–63 and succeeded in electing an all Latino city council.
The feat became known as the Crystal City Revolts. The Raza Unida Party was established in 1970 in Crystal City and Zavala County to bring greater self-determination among Tejanos. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,302 square miles, of which 1,297 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 57
Dallas County Community College District
The Dallas County Community College District is a network of seven community colleges in Dallas County, Texas. It is headquartered at 1601 S. Lamar St. in Dallas. The Colleges of the DCCCD serve more than 70,000 students annually in academic, continuing education and adult education programs; the Colleges of Dallas County Community College District offer associate degree and career/technical certificate programs in more than 100 areas of study, including one- and two-year certificates and degrees. DCCCD is one of the largest community college systems in Texas; the Dallas County Community College District was founded as the Dallas County Junior College District in 1965, became known by its current name in 1972. The first college, El Centro College in downtown Dallas, was established in 1966. Dr. Bill J. Priest served as the founding chancellor from 1965 until his retirement in 1981; as defined by the Texas Legislature, the official service area of DCCCD includes the following: all of Dallas County, all territory included in the Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District.
The Colleges of the DCCCD maintain an "open-door" admissions policy regarding new students, allowing many people to attend college who otherwise might not be able to do so. The seven colleges in the Dallas County Community College District, with the years they opened, are: Brookhaven College Cedar Valley College Eastfield College El Centro College Mountain View College North Lake College Richland College In addition to the seven colleges, several other campuses operate based on the needs of the local community: DCCCD Bill J. Priest Institute DCCCD R. Jan LeCroy Center Eastfield College – Pleasant Grove Campus El Centro College – West Campus El Centro College - Mockingbird Campus North Lake College – North Campus North Lake College – South Campus North Lake College – West Campus Richland College – Garland Campus The Dallas County Community College District Board of Trustees consists of seven members who are entrusted with governing the district; the board defines the vision of the district, serves as a liaison between the district and the community, approves annual budgets and sets policies, among other responsibilities.
Board members are elected officials. Official website