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Southwestern Ontario

Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. It occupies most of the Ontario Peninsula bounded by Lake Huron, including Georgian Bay, to the north and northwest. To the east, on land, Southwestern Ontario is bounded by the Golden Horseshoe; the region had a population of 2,583,544 in 2016. It is sometimes further divided into "Midwestern Ontario" covering the eastern half of the area and the heart of Southwestern Ontario encompassing the western half of the region. Municipalities along the eastern side of Southwestern Ontario near the Grand River, which include Wellington County, the Region of Waterloo and Brant County are classified by the Government of Ontario as part the Greater Golden Horseshoe region that surrounds western Lake Ontario; some non-profit organizations, government bodies and news organizations classify a larger swath of the eastern side of Southwestern Ontario, the area from Huron County, Bruce County and Grey County in the north, southward through Dufferin County, Wellington County, the Waterloo Region, Perth County and Oxford County, sometimes south to Brant County and Norfolk County on Lake Erie as being "Midwestern Ontario."

This thereby places only the counties southwest of this in their definition of Southwestern Ontario, although in some cases Perth County is grouped in Southwestern Ontario. Southwestern Ontario was first settled by Europeans in the early 18th century, when it was part of the Royal Province of New France. One of the oldest continuous settlements in the region is Windsor, which originated as a southerly extension of the settlement of Fort Detroit in 1701. With the transfer of New France to British control in 1763, the region was part of the British Province of Quebec, 1774 to 1791. During the 19th century and early 20th century, the largest city in Southwestern Ontario was Windsor. Late in the 20th century the Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo metropolitan area became the most populous metropolitan area in southwestern Ontario surpassing the London-St. Thomas metropolitan area, serves as the anchor of Midwestern Ontario. Southwestern Ontario is a prosperous agricultural region whose chief crops are tobacco, sweet corn, winter wheat and tomatoes.

Dairy and beef farming and training of standardbred horses and wine growing and production are important industries. Its climate is among the mildest in Canada. Although brief periods of winter can be severe, summers are hot and humid with a longer growing season than in most of the country. A large section of Southwestern Ontario was part of the Talbot Settlement, the region has benefited from the settlement’s facilitation of agriculture and of trade in general, its economy is tied in with that of the midwestern United States, in particular the border state of Michigan. Auto manufacturing and parts, agriculture and hi-tech industries are key components of the region’s economy; the region provides important transportation routes for commercial trucking and tanker shipping from Detroit-Windsor and Port Huron, Michigan-Sarnia linking Canada with major markets in the eastern and midwestern United States. Today the largest cities in Southwestern Ontario, in order of population, are: London, Windsor, Cambridge, Brantford, Stratford, St. Thomas.

Chatham is a major population centre, but is not an independent municipality and is part of Chatham-Kent. Like other parts of southern Canada, the region brings warm or hot summers with normal thunderstorm occurrences; some of these storms are severe, with damaging winds and tornadoes all possible during peak season, May through September. The most areas for these kinds of weather events is within the Windsor - London corridor and north up to about Huron County. Winters are cold with less snowfall in the south towards Essex County and higher amounts north towards Bruce County. London receives 30% more snowfall than Windsor, owing to its relative position to Lake Huron and the resulting snowbelt in Bruce and Middlesex counties. Under the Köppen climate classification, much of this area has a humid continental climate; the southern portion of Southewestern Ontario is the most populated and industrialized section of the region. The southern portion is bisected by Highway 401 which runs through Windsor and past London to Woodstock and Waterloo-Wellington region.

Highway 402 runs from London to Sarnia. The region is serviced by major ports in Goderich on Lake Huron, Windsor on Lake Erie and just to the east Hamilton on Lake Ontario, major destination for regionally produced grain. Windsor and Kitchener-Waterloo have significant regional airports with some international flights; the accent in the region, Southwestern Ontario English is distinct, bearing similarity to the Midwestern USA accent for the areas adjacent to the Great Lakes. County of Brant Chatham-Kent Haldimand County Norfolk County City of Brantford City of Guelph City of London Pelee Township City of Sarnia Town of St. Marys City of St. Thomas City of Stratford City of Windsor City of Woodstock Town of Tillsonburg Oxford County Waterloo Region Bruce County Duf

Morava architectural school

Morava architectural school known as the Morava style, or as the Morava school, is an ecclesiastical architectural style that flourished in the Serbian Late Middle Ages, during the reign of the Lazarević and Branković dynasties. The churches and monasteries were built by the rulers Lazar Hrebeljanović, Stefan Lazarević and Đurađ Branković and their nobility; the first endowment was the royal tomb of Ravanica. The main achievement of the Morava School is the splendor of the sculptural elements; the decorative stone plastic of the Moravska School represents one of the most original artistic achievements of medieval Serbian art. Decorative elements characteristic of this artistic school consist of geometric arabesque with stylized floral ornaments, which include only scarce figurative details; as fragments of the plastic decoration from the completely destroyed Church of Saint Steven in village Milentija testify, this sculpture was painted, thus vivid in effect. The architecture in Serbia, from about 1370 until its fall to the Ottomans in 1459, was experimental.

During this time of adverse political circumstances, a remarkable flurry of building activity took place. Labeled the "Morava School" and declared a "national style" by Gabriel Millet, it awaits a proper assessment from aesthetic and other points of view; the katholikon of Ravanica Monastery, built in the 1370s, may be considered the inaugural statement of this style, which drew its characteristics from Mount Athos, from Serbian architecture itself of the 1340s and 1350s, from other still unclear sources. The appearance of lateral apses along the flanks of the Ravanica church suggests the growing importance of the Athonite monastic formula, juxtaposed here with the five-domed church scheme; the most perplexing aspect of this architecture however are its sculptural laments, whose sheer quantity and variety of motifs have defied explanations. Evident on a large number of buildings, from Lazarica in Kruševac to Naupara, Veluce and Milentija, the style of decoration displays affinities with Armenia and Georgia, the world of Islam, Venice and the West.

Its persistence into the fifteenth century, on church facades such as that of Kalenić Monastery, reveals the vitality of this new medium, which in its stages began to incorporate human and animal forms related to mythological themes drawn from manuscript illuminations. In the waning years of Serbia's independence, the imminent threat of Ottoman forces prompted major efforts in fortification architecture. Nor did this security-related phenomenon bypass religious settings; the Manasija Monastery in Serbia, for example, incorporates a system of massive walls, ten towers, a huge dungeon, all built in 1407-1418. Endowed by the Serbian despot Stefan Lazarević, the defended Manasija became not only his final resting place but the last major center of cultural activity in Serbia before its fall to the Ottomans in 1459. Architecture of Serbia Serbian Orthodox Church List of Serbian Orthodox monasteries Vojislav J. Đurić. Моравска школа и њено доба: Научни скуп у Ресави 1968. Filozofski fakultet, Odeljenje za istoriju umetnosti.

Velmans, Tania, "Infiltrations occidentales dans la peinture murale byzantine au XIVe et au début du XVe siècle", Моравска школа и њено доба: Научни скуп у Ресави 1968, pp. 37–48 Đurić, Vojislav J. "La peinture murale de Resava: Ses origines et sa place dans la peinture byzantine", Моравска школа и њено доба: Научни скуп у Ресави 1968, pp. 277–291 Slobodan Curcic: Some Uses of Griffins in Late Byzantine Art. In: Byzantine East, Latin West: Art-Historical Studies in Honor of Kurt Weitzmann, edited by Christopher Moss and Katherine Kiefer, pp. 597–604. Princeton, 1995. Slobodan Curcic: Religious Settings of the Late Byzantine Sphere. In: Byzantium: Faith and Power, edited by Helen C. Evans. Helen C. Evans, ed. Byzantium: Faith and Power, exh. cat. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. P. 658, 721 color ills. 146 b/w. Nadežda Katanić: Dekorativna kamena plastika Moravske škole'. Prosveta, Republički zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture, Beograd, 1988. ISBN 86-07-00205-8 Svetlana V. Mal’tseva: Historiography of the Morava Architecture: Controversial Points of the Study.

In: Actual Problems of Theory and History of Art: Collection of articles. Vol. 8. Edited by S. V. Mal’tseva, E. Iu. Staniukovich-Denisova, A. V. Zakharova. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg Univ. Press, 2018, pp. 742–756. ISSN 2312-2129 Morava School srpskikod.or


Holbrookia is a genus of earless lizards, known as the lesser earless lizards, in the family Phrynosomatidae. The genus contains six recognized species, which are found throughout the southwestern and central United States and northern Mexico, they are characterized by having no external ear openings to prevent sand from entering their bodies when they are digging. The generic name, Holbrookia, is in honor of John Edwards Holbrook. Lesser earless lizards grow to 2.0-2.5 inches snout-to-vent length, plus a tail 3-4 inches long. They are grey or tan in color, with black blotching; the males have blue patches on either side of their bellies, whereas the females do not. Females will change to have bright orange patches when gravid. Holbrookia species are diurnal, they spend the vast majority of their time sunning on rocks in the heat of the day, until the surface temperature reaches 104 °F, when they will retreat to a rock crevice or burrow. Lesser earless lizards are insectivorous; the genus Holbrookia contains six species.

Holbrookia approximans Baird, 1859 – speckled earless lizard Holbrookia elegans Bocourt, 1874 – elegant earless lizard Holbrookia lacerata Cope, 1880 – northern spot-tailed earless lizard Holbrookia maculata Girard, 1851 – lesser earless lizard Holbrookia propinqua Baird & Girard, 1852 – keeled earless lizard Holbrookia subcaudalis Axtell, 1956 – southern spot-tailed earless lizard Earless lizards are found in the southwestern and central United States, in the states of Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, Oklahoma, as far north as Nebraska, South Dakota, Wyoming. They are found in Mexico, in the states of Sonora, Coahuila, Durango, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas and Veracruz. Genus Cophosaurus, the greater earless lizards. Genus Holbrookia at The Reptile Database Colorado Herpetological Society: Lesser earless lizard Girard C. "On a New American Saurian Reptile". Proc. American Assoc. Adv. Sci. New Haven 4: 200-202

1658 in Sweden

Events from the year 1658 in Sweden Monarch – Charles X Gustav - Battle of Kobron. - Battle of Tybrindvig. February 6 – Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt in Denmark over frozen sea. February 26 – The peace between Sweden and Denmark is concluded in Roskilde by the Treaty of Roskilde, under which Denmark is forced to cede significant territory. - Swedish occupation of Bornholm. - Armistice between Sweden and Russia. - Sweden declares war on Denmark. - Swedish occupation of Valmiera. - Sweden invade Denmark. - Swedish Siege of Copenhagen. - Sweden invades Courland. - Swedish occupation of Kronborg. - Swedish occupation of Marienburg. - Sweden invades Norway. - Swedish occupation of Courland. - Sweden captures the Duke of Courland. - Sweden pillages Amager. - Battle of the Sound. The Siege of Copenhagen is over. - The end of the Swedish occupation of Jylland. - The end of the Swedish occupation of Als. - The end of the Swedish occupation of Bornholm. - The end of the Swedish occupation of Trondheim.

- The end of the Swedish occupation of Thorn. - Herkules by Georg Stiernhielm. - Thet Swenska Språketz Klagemål by Skogekär Bergbo. - Hedvig Eleonora Stenbock, courtier 8 December - Johan Printzensköld, army officer - Marketta Punasuomalainen, cunning woman and alleged witch

Chicago Cultural Alliance

The Chicago Cultural Alliance is a consortium of community-based ethnic museums, cultural centers, historical societies in the Chicago metropolitan area. Incorporated in 2006, the mission of the Alliance is to "effect social change and public understanding of cultural diversity through first voice perspectives"; the Alliance began through partnerships with ethnic and cultural organizations established at the Cultural Connections program at the Field Museum in The Center for Cultural Understanding and Change. The Alliance brings together ethnically grounded organizations in order to build relationships amongst the ethnic communities in Chicago, as well as asserting their existence to the wider public. Kerstin Lane, the first Alliance Board President, described the reasoning behind the creation of the organization: "a lot of people in Chicago have no idea there are little jewels of ethnic museums all over the city; when these museums can go out and tell the city and others,'We exist,' each of them will be strengthened."

The Core Members of the Chicago Cultural Alliance are: The Partner Institutions of the Chicago Cultural Alliance are: Former Partner Institutions of the Chicago Cultural Alliance Chicago 2016 Snapshot Chicago The Associate Members of the Chicago Cultural Alliance are: Center on Civic Reflection Changing Worlds National Public Housing Museum Pullman State Historic Site Read/Write Library The Alliance is working to develop collaborative programs and projects to provide organizational development assistance to its Core Members and establish cross-cultural creative opportunities for youth. The Alliance provides four areas of programming: capacity building for its members, cross-cultural public programs, education programs, advocacy and outreach; the advocacy and outreach work has included collaborating with several other Chicago-based arts and culture organizations in the Arts Power Chicago campaign to inform the 2011 Chicago mayoral candidates about the significant role that arts and culture plays in Chicago's neighborhoods and in its international image.

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William Jardine (merchant)

William Jardine was a Scottish physician and trader who co-founded the Hong Kong based conglomerate Jardine, Matheson & Co. Following his return to England from the Far East, between 1841 and 1843, he was Member of Parliament for Ashburton representing the Whig party. Educated in medicine at the University of Edinburgh, in 1802 Jardine obtained a diploma from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh; the next year, he became a surgeon's mate aboard the Brunswick belonging to the East India Company, set sail for India. In May 1817, he abandoned medicine for trade. Jardine was a resident in China from 1820 to 1839, his early success in Canton as a commercial agent for opium merchants in India led to his admission in 1825 as a partner in Magniac & Co. and by 1826 he controlled that firm's Canton operations. James Matheson joined him shortly afterwards with Magniac & Co. reconstituted as Jardine, Matheson & Co. in 1832. After Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu destroyed 20,000 cases of opium that the British smuggled into China in 1839, Jardine arrived in London that September to press Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston for a forceful response.

Jardine, one of seven children, was born in 1784 on a small farm near Lochmaben, Scotland. His father, Andrew Jardine, died. Though struggling to make ends meet, Jardine's older brother David provided him with money to attend school. Jardine began to acquire credentials at the age of sixteen. In 1800 he entered the University of Edinburgh Medical School where he took classes in anatomy, medical practice, obstetrics among others. While his schooling was in progress, Jardine was apprenticed to a surgeon who would provide housing and the essential acquaintance with a hospital practice, with the money his older brother, provided, he graduated from the Edinburgh Medical School on 2 March 1802, was presented a full diploma from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He chose to join the service of the British East India Company and in 1803, at the age of 19, boarded the East Indiaman Brunswick as a surgeon's mate in the East India Company’s Maritime Marine Service. Taking advantage of his employee's "cargo privilege", he traded in cassia and musk during his 14 years as a surgeon at the firm.

On his first voyage, Jardine met two men who would come to play a role in his future as a drug trafficking merchant. The first was Thomas Weeding, a fellow doctor, surgeon of the Glatton, one of the other ships in the convoy; the second was 26-year-old Charles Magniac who had arrived in Guangzhou at the beginning of 1801 to supervise his father's watch business in Canton in partnership with Daniel Beale. By leaving the East India Company in 1817, Jardine was able to exploit the opportunity afforded by the company's policy of not transporting opium but contracting the trade out to free traders. Jardine entered into partnership with retired surgeon Thomas Weeding and opium and cotton trader Framji Cowasji Banaji; the firm did well and established Jardine's reputation as an able and experienced private trader. One of Jardine's agents in Bombay, who would become his lifelong friend, was Parsee opium and cotton trader Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy. Both men were on the Brunswick. Jeejeebhoy long continued as a close business associate of Jardine and that a portrait of Jeejeebhoy hung in Jardines’ Hong Kong office in the 1990s was tribute to that.

In 1824, a important opportunity arose for Jardine. Magniac & Co. one of the two most successful agency houses in Canton, fell into disarray. Hollingworth Magniac, who succeeded his brother Charles Magniac after the latter's death in Paris, was in search of competent partners to join his firm as he was intent on leaving Asia, he was forced to have his brother, resign from the firm after marrying his Chinese mistress. In years, Jardine had helped Daniel by sending his young son Daniel Francis, his child by his Chinese wife, to Scotland for school. Magniac invited Jardine to join him in 1825 and, three years James Matheson joined the partnership. Magniac returned to England in the late 1820s with the firm in the hands of Matheson. Contrary to the practice at the time of retiring partners removing their capital from the firm, Magniac left his capital with the firm in trust to Jardine and Matheson; the firm carried on as Magniac & Co. until 1832 as the name Magniac was still formidable throughout China and India.

Magniac wrote of William Jardine: You will find Jardine a most conscientious and kind-hearted fellow liberal and an excellent man of business in this market, where his knowledge and experience in the opium trafficker and in most articles of export is valuable. He requires to be properly appreciated. James Matheson joined Co. from the firm Yrissari & Co where he was partner. After Francis Xavier de Yrissari's death, Matheson wound up the firm's affairs and closed shop. Yrissari, leaving no heir, had willed all his shares in the firm to Matheson; this created the perfect opportunity for Matheson to join in commerce with Jardine. Matheson proved a perfect partner for Jardine. James Matheson and his nephew, Alexander Matheson, joined the firm Magniac and Co. in 1827, but their association was advertised on 1 January 1828. Jardine was known as the planner, the tough negotiator and strategist of the firm and Matheson was known as the organization man, who handled the firm's correspondence, other complex articles including legal affairs.

Matheson was known to be behind many of the company's innovative practices. And both men were a study in contrasts, Jardine bein