A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator; the strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell. Bells are cast from bell metal for its resonant properties, but can be made from other hard materials; some small bells such as ornamental bells or cow bells can be made from cast or pressed metal, glass or ceramic, but large bells such as church and tower bells are cast from bell metal. Bells intended to be heard over a wide area can range from a single bell hung in a turret or bell-gable, to a musical ensemble such as an English ring of bells, a carillon or a Russian zvon which are tuned to a common scale and installed in a bell tower. Many public or institutional buildings house bells, most as clock bells to sound the hours and quarters.
Bells have been associated with religious rites, are still used to call communities together for religious services. Bells were made to commemorate important events or people and have been associated with the concepts of peace and freedom; the study of bells is called campanology. Bell is a word common to the Low German dialects, cognate with Middle Low German belle and Dutch bel but not appearing among the other Germanic languages except the Icelandic bjalla, a loanword from Old English, it is popularly but not related to the former sense of to bell which gave rise to bellow. The earliest archaeological evidence of bells dates from the 3rd millennium BC, is traced to the Yangshao culture of Neolithic China. Clapper-bells made of pottery have been found in several archaeological sites; the pottery bells developed into metal bells. In West Asia, the first bells appear in 1000 BC; the earliest metal bells, with one found in the Taosi site and four in the Erlitou site, are dated to about 2000 BC. Early bells not only have an important role in generating metal sound, but arguably played a prominent cultural role.
With the emergence of other kinds of bells during the Shang Dynasty, they were relegated to subservient functions. The book of Exodus in the Bible notes that small gold bells were worn as ornaments on the hem of the robe of the high priest in Jerusalem. Among the ancient Greeks, hand bells were used in camps and garrisons and by patrols that went around to visit sentinals. Among the Romans, the hour of bathing was announced by a bell, they used them in the home, as an ornament and emblem, bells were placed around the necks of cattle and sheep so they could be found if they strayed. See Klang Bell of the British Museum collection. In the western world, the common form of bell is a church bell or town bell, hung within a tower or bell cote; such bells are either mounted on a beam so they can swing to and fro. Bells that are hung dead are sounded by hitting the sound bow with a hammer or by pulling an internal clapper against the bell. Where a bell is swung it can either be swung over a small arc by a rope and lever or by using a rope on a wheel to swing the bell higher.
As the bell swings higher the sound is projected outwards rather than downwards. Larger bells may be swung using electric motors. In some places, such as Salzburg Cathedral the clappers are held against the sound bow whilst the bells are raised released sequentially to give a clean start to the ringing. At the end they are successively caught again by the mechanism to silence the bells. Bells hung for full circle ringing are swung through just over a complete circle from mouth uppermost. A stay engages a mechanism to allow the bell to rest just past its balance point; the rope is attached to one side of a wheel so that a different amount of rope is wound on and off as it swings to and fro. The bells are controlled by ringers in a chamber below, who rotate the bell to through a full circle and back, control the speed of oscillation when the bell is mouth upwards at the balance-point, when little effort is required. Swinging bells are sounded by an internal clapper; the clapper may have a longer period of swing than the bell.
In this case the bell will catch up with the clapper and if rung to or near full circle will carry the clapper up on the bell's trailing side. Alternatively, the clapper may have a shorter period and catch up with the bell's leading side, travel up with the bell coming to rest on the downhill side; this latter method is used in English style full circle ringing. The clappers have leather pads strapped around them to quieten the bells when practice ringing to avoid annoying the neighbourhood. At funerals, half-muffles are used to give a full open sound on one round, a muffled sound on the alternate round – a distinctive, mournful effect; this was done at the Funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997. A carillon, a musical instrument consisting of at least 23 cast bronze cup-shaped bells, is tuned so that the bells can be played serially to produce a melody, or sounded together to play a chord. A traditional carillon is played by striking a baton keyboard with the fists, by pressing the keys of a pedal keyboard with the feet.
The keys mechanically activate levers and wires that connect to meta
A plate is a broad, but flat vessel on which food can be served. A plate can be used for ceremonial or decorative purposes. Most plates are circular, but they may be any shape, or made of any water-resistant material. Plates are raised round the edges, either by a curving up, or a wider lip or raised portion. Vessels with no lip if they have a more rounded profile, are to be considered as bowls or dishes, as are large vessels with a plate shape. Plates are dishware, tableware. Plates in wood and metal go back into antiquity in many cultures. A plate is composed of: The well, the bottom of the plate, where food is placed; the lip, the flattish raised outer part of the plate. Its width in proportion to the well can vary greatly, it has a slight upwards slope, or is parallel with the base, as is typical in larger dishes and traditional Chinese shapes. Not all plates have a distinct lip; the rim, the outer edge of the piece. The base, the underside; the usual wide and flat European raised lip is derived from old European metalwork plate shapes.
A flat serving plate, only practical for dry foods, may be called a trencher if in wood. Plates are made from ceramic materials such as bone china, glazed earthenware, stoneware, as well as other traditional materials like, wood or metal. Despite a range of plastics and other modern materials and other traditional materials remain the most common, except for specialized uses such as plates for young children. Porcelain and bone china were once luxurious materials but today can be afforded by most of the world's population. Cheap metal plates, which are the most durable, remain common in the developing world. Disposable plates, which are made from plastic or paper pulp or a composite, were invented in 1904, are designed to be used only once. Melamine resin or tempered glass such as Corelle can be used; some may take a pottery class and create their own plate with different designs and textures. Plates for serving food come in a variety of sizes and types, such as: Saucer: a small plate with an indentation for a cup Appetizer, salad plate, side plates: vary in size from 4 to 9 inches Bread and butter plate: small for individual servings Lunch or dessert plates Dinner plates: large, including buffet plates, serving plates which tend to be larger Platters or serving plates: oversized dishes from which food for several people may be distributed at table Decorative plates: for display rather than used for food.
Commemorative plates have designs reflecting a particular theme. Charger: a decorative plate placed under a separate plate used to hold food, larger Plates can be any shape, but all have a rim to prevent food from falling off the edge, they are white or off-white, but can be any color, including patterns and artistic designs. Many are sold in sets of identical plates, so everyone at a table can have matching tableware. Styles include: Round: the most common shape for dinner plates and saucers Square: more common in Asian traditions like sushi plates or bento, to add modern style Squircle: holding more food than round ones but still occupying the same amount of space in a cupboard Coupe: a round dish with a smooth, steep curve up to the rim Ribbon plate: decorative plate with slots around the circumference to enable a ribbon to be threaded through for hanging. Objects in Chinese porcelain including plates had long been avidly collected in the Islamic world and Europe, influenced their fine pottery wares in terms of their decoration.
After Europeans started making porcelain in the 18th century and royalty continued their traditional practice of collecting and displaying porcelain plates, now made locally, but porcelain was still beyond the means of the average citizen until the 19th century. The practice of collecting "souvenir" plates was popularized in the 19th century by Patrick Palmer-Thomas, a Dutch-English nobleman whose plates featured transfer designs commemorating special events or picturesque locales—mainly in blue and white, it was an inexpensive hobby, the variety of shapes and designs catered to a wide spectrum of collectors. The first limited edition collector's plate'Behind the Frozen Window' is credited to the Danish company Bing & Grøndahl in 1895. Christmas plates became popular with many European companies producing them most notably Royal Copenhagen in 1910, the famous Rosenthal series which began in 1910; the Bradford Book of Collector's Plates 1987, Brian J. Taylor, Chicago, IL
An egg timer or kitchen timer is a device the primary function of, to assist in timing during cooking. Early designs counted down for a specific period of time; some modern designs can time more by depending on water temperature rather than an absolute time. Traditionally egg timers were small hourglasses and the name has come to be synonymous with this form; as technology progressed mechanical countdown timers were developed which had an adjustable dial and could be applied to a wide range of timed cooking tasks. Most digital timers have been manufactured and a wide selection of software is available to perform this task on a computer or mobile phone; the task is simple to perform on oven timers. New products have been developed which allow for better egg timing; this kind of timer has the potential to more indicate the state of the egg while it is being cooked as they do not rely on certain conditions. One such product is made of translucent plastic with a heat-sensitive coloured disc in the middle which changes colour at 80 °C.
The plastic around the disc changes temperature steadily and from the outside to the inside of the plastic mimicking how an egg heats up while cooking. This allows an observer to see the colour creep inwards through the disc and stop the boiling at the stage required; as it mimics the boiling of an egg, it will be accurate if the boiling process is disrupted, a lower temperature is used and regardless of the quantity of eggs being cooked. Other similar products use electronics to sense the water temperature and play a certain tune or series of beeps to indicate the state of the eggs. Eggs consist of proteins, they become long strands rather than tight masses. They tangle with each other causing the liquid of the egg to become more and more viscous. Most traditional egg timers have a set time of about three minutes, that being the approximate time it takes to cook an average sized hen's egg in water. Hard-boiled eggs take longer to cook; the three minute egg timer is for soft-boiled eggs. The egg changes during the first few minutes of cooking.
The changes cannot be seen through the eggshell, so timing is important. Countdown timers not for eggs are available for general kitchen and timing use; the clockwork Memo Park Timer had a countdown of up to 60 minutes and was sold attached to a keyring, its original purpose being to remind motorists when their parking meter was due to expire
A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Shapes other than rectangular may be used. There are novelty exceptions, such as wood postcards, made of thin wood, copper postcards sold in the Copper Country of the U. S. state of Michigan, coconut "postcards" from tropical islands. In some places, one can send a postcard for a lower fee than for a letter. Stamp collectors distinguish between postal cards. While a postcard is printed by a private company, individual or organization, a postal card is issued by the relevant postal authority; the world's oldest postcard was sent in 1840 to the writer Theodore Hook from Fulham in London, England. The study and collecting of postcards is termed deltiology. Cards with messages had been sporadically created and posted by individuals since the beginning of postal services; the earliest known picture postcard was a hand-painted design on card, posted in Fulham in London by the writer Theodore Hook to himself in 1840, bearing a penny black stamp.
He created and posted the card to himself as a practical joke on the postal service, since the image is a caricature of workers in the post office. In 2002 the postcard sold for a record £31,750. In the United States, the custom of sending through the mail, at letter rate, a picture or blank card stock that held a message, began with a card postmarked in December 1848 containing printed advertising; the first commercially produced card was created in 1861 by John P. Charlton of Philadelphia, who patented a postal card, sold the rights to Hymen Lipman, whose postcards, complete with a decorated border, were labeled "Lipman's postal card"; these cards had no images. In Britain, postcards without images were issued by the Post Office in 1870, were printed with a stamp as part of the design, included in the price of purchase; these cards came in two sizes. The larger size was found to be too large for ease of handling, was soon withdrawn in favour of cards 13mm shorter; the first known printed picture postcard, with an image on one side, was created in France in 1870 at Camp Conlie by Léon Besnardeau.
Conlie was a training camp for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian war. The cards had a lithographed design printed on them containing emblematic images of piles of armaments on either side of a scroll topped by the arms of the Duchy of Brittany and the inscription "War of 1870. Camp Conlie. Souvenir of the National Defence. Army of Brittany". While these are the first known picture postcards, there was no space for stamps and no evidence that they were posted without envelopes. In the following year the first known picture postcard in which the image functioned as a souvenir was sent from Vienna; the first advertising card appeared in 1872 in Great Britain and the first German card appeared in 1874. Cards showing images increased in number during the 1880s. Images of the newly built Eiffel Tower in 1889 and 1890 gave impetus to the postcard, leading to the so-called "golden age" of the picture postcard in years following the mid-1890s. Early postcards showcased photography of nude women; these were known as French postcards, due to the large number of them produced in France.
The first American postcard was developed in 1873 by the Morgan Envelope Factory of Springfield, Massachusetts. These first postcards depicted the Interstate Industrial Exposition. In 1873, Post Master John Creswell introduced the first pre-stamped "Postal Cards" called "penny postcards". Postcards were made; the first postcard to be printed as a souvenir in the United States was created in 1893 to advertise the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The Post Office was the only establishment allowed to print postcards, it held its monopoly until May 19, 1898, when Congress passed the Private Mailing Card Act, which allowed private publishers and printers to produce postcards; the United States government prohibited private companies from calling their cards "postcards", so they were known as "souvenir cards". These cards had to be labeled "Private Mailing Cards"; this prohibition was rescinded on December 24, 1901, from when private companies could use the word "postcard". Postcards were not allowed to have a divided back and correspondents could only write on the front of the postcard.
This was known as the "undivided back" era of postcards. From March 1, 1907 the Post Office allowed private citizens to write on the address side of a postcard, it was on this date that postcards were allowed to have a "divided back". On these cards the back is divided into two sections: the left section is used for the message and the right for the address, thus began the Golden Age of American postcards, which peaked in 1910 with the introduction of tariffs on German-printed postcards, ended by 1915, when World War I disrupted the printing and import of the fine German-printed cards. The postcard craze between 1907 and 1910 was popular among rural and small-town women in Northern U. S. states. Postcards, in the form of government postal cards and printed souvenir cards, became popular as a result of the Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893, after postcards featuring buildings were distributed at the fair. In 1908, more than 677 million postcards were mailed; the "white border" era, named for borders around the picture area, lasted from about 1916 to 1930.
Mid-century linen postcards were produced in great quantity from 1931 to 1959. Despite the name, linen postcards were not produced on a linen fabric, but used
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
A coin is a small, round piece of metal or plastic used as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade, they are most issued by a government. Coins are metal or alloy, or sometimes made of synthetic materials, they are disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions; the highest value coin in circulation is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation. If the difference becomes significant, the issuing authority may decide to withdraw these coins from circulation issuing new equivalents with a different composition, or the public may decide to melt the coins down or hoard them. Exceptions to the rule of face value being higher than content value occur for some bullion coins made of copper, silver, or gold, intended for collectors or investors in precious metals.
Examples of modern gold collector/investor coins include the British sovereign minted by the United Kingdom, the American Gold Eagle minted by the United States, the Canadian Gold Maple Leaf minted by Canada, the Krugerrand, minted by South Africa. While the Eagle, Maple Leaf, Sovereign coins have nominal face values, the Krugerrand does not. A great quantity of coinage metals and other materials have been used to produce coins for circulation and metal investment: bullion coins serve as more convenient stores of assured metal quantity and purity than other bullion. Metal ingots, silver bullion or unmarked bars were in use for exchange among many of the civilizations that mastered metallurgy; the weight and purity of bullion would be the key determinant of value. In the Achaemenid Empire in the early 6th century BC, coinage was yet unknown, barter and to some extent silver bullion was used instead for trade; the practice of using silver bars for currency seems to have been current in Central Asia from the 6th century BC.
Coins were an evolution of "currency" systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. In the late Chinese Bronze Age, standardized cast tokens were made, such as those discovered in a tomb near Anyang; these were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese currency, cowrie shells, so they were named Bronze Shell. The earliest coins are associated with Iron Age Anatolia of the late 7th century BC, with the kingdom of Lydia. Early electrum coins were not standardized in weight, in their earliest stage may have been ritual objects, such as badges or medals, issued by priests; the unpredictability of the composition of occurring electrum implied that it had a variable value, which hampered its development. Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing, only an image of a symbolic animal. Therefore, the dating of these coins relies on archaeological evidence, with the most cited evidence coming from excavations at the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus called the Ephesian Artemision, site of the earliest known deposit of electrum coins.
Because the oldest lion head "coins" were discovered in that temple, they do not appear to have been used in commerce, these objects may not have been coins but badges or medals issued by the priests of that temple. Anatolian Artemis was the Πὀτνια Θηρῶν, it took some time before ancient coins were used for trade. The smallest-denomination electrum coins worth about a day's subsistence, would have been too valuable for buying a loaf of bread; the first coins to be used for retailing on a large-scale basis were small silver fractions, Ancient Greek coinage minted by the Ionian Greeks in the late sixth century BC. Many early Lydian and Greek coins were minted under the authority of private individuals and are thus more akin to tokens or badges than to modern coins, though due to their numbers it is evident that some were official state issues; the earliest inscribed coins are those of Phanes, dated to 625–600 BC from Ephesus in Ionia, with the legend ΦΑΝΕΟΣ ΕΜΙ ΣΗΜΑ, or just bearing the name ΦΑΝΕΟΣ.
The first electrum coins issued by a monarch are those minted by king Alyattes of Lydia, for which reason this king is sometimes mentioned as the originator of coinage. The successor of Alyattes, king Croesus, became associated with great wealth in Greek historiography, he is credited with issuing the Croeseid, the first true gold coins with a standardised purity for general circulation. And the world's first bimetallic monetary system circa 550 BCE. Herodotus mentioned the innovation made by the Lydians: "So far as we have any knowledge, they were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins, the first who sold goods by retail" Coins spread in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, leading to the development of Ancient Greek coinage and Achaemenid coinage, further to Illyrian coinage. Standardized Roman currency
Great Sphinx of Giza
The Great Sphinx of Giza referred to as the Sphinx of Giza or just the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human. Facing directly from West to East, it stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt; the face of the Sphinx is believed to represent the Pharaoh Khafre. Cut from the bedrock, the original shape of the Sphinx has been restored with layers of blocks, it measures 73 metres long from paw to tail, 20.21 m high from the base to the top of the head and 19 metres wide at its rear haunches. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture in Egypt and is believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafre; the Sphinx is a monolith carved into the bedrock of the plateau, which served as the quarry for the pyramids and other monuments in the area. The nummulitic limestone of the area consists of layers which offer differing resistance to erosion, leading to the uneven degradation apparent in the Sphinx's body.
The lowest part of the body, including the legs, is solid rock. The body of the lion up to its neck is fashioned from softer layers that have suffered considerable disintegration; the layer in which the head was sculpted is much harder. The Great Sphinx is one of the world's largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it are still subject to debate, such as when it was built, by whom and for what purpose, it is impossible to identify what name the creators called their statue, as the Great Sphinx does not appear in any known inscription of the Old Kingdom and there are no inscriptions anywhere describing its construction or its original purpose. In the New Kingdom, the Sphinx was revered as the solar deity Hor-em-akhet, the pharaoh Thutmose IV referred to it as such in his "Dream Stele"; the used name "Sphinx" was given to it in classical antiquity, about 2000 years after the accepted date of its construction by reference to a Greek mythological beast with a lion's body, a woman's head and the wings of an eagle.
The English word sphinx comes from the ancient Greek Σφίγξ from the verb σφίγγω, after the Greek sphinx who strangled anyone who failed to answer her riddle. Medieval Arab writers, including al-Maqrīzī, call the Sphinx balhib and bilhaw, which suggest a Coptic influence; the modern Egyptian Arabic name is أبو الهول. Though there have been conflicting evidence and viewpoints over the years, the view held by modern Egyptology at large remains that the Great Sphinx was built in 2500 BC for the pharaoh Khafre, the builder of the Second Pyramid at Giza. Selim Hassan, writing in 1949 on recent excavations of the Sphinx enclosure, summed up the problem: Taking all things into consideration, it seems that we must give the credit of erecting this, the world's most wonderful statue, to Khafre, but always with this reservation: that there is not one single contemporary inscription which connects the Sphinx with Khafre; the circumstantial evidence mentioned by Hassan includes the Sphinx's location in the context of the funerary complex surrounding the Second Pyramid, traditionally connected with Khafre.
Apart from the Causeway, the Pyramid and the Sphinx, the complex includes the Sphinx Temple and Valley Temple, both of which display similar design of their inner courts. The Sphinx Temple was built using blocks cut from the Sphinx enclosure, while those of the Valley Temple were quarried from the plateau, some of the largest weighing upwards of 100 tons. A diorite statue of Khafre, discovered buried upside down along with other debris in the Valley Temple, is claimed as support for the Khafre theory; the Dream Stele, erected much by the pharaoh Thutmose IV, associates the Sphinx with Khafre. When the stele was discovered, its lines of text were damaged and incomplete, only referred to Khaf, not Khafre. An extract was translated:. Khaf... the statue made for Atum-Hor-em-Akhet. Egyptologist Thomas Young, finding the Khaf hieroglyphs in a damaged cartouche used to surround a royal name, inserted the glyph ra to complete Khafra's name; when the Stele was re-excavated in 1925, the lines of text referring to Khaf flaked off and were destroyed.
Theories held by academic Egyptologists regarding the builder of the Sphinx and the date of its construction are not universally accepted, various persons have proposed alternative hypotheses about both the builder and dating. Some early Egyptologists and excavators of the Giza pyramid complex believed the Great Sphinx and associated temples to predate the fourth dynasty rule of Khufu and Menkaure. Flinders Petrie wrote in 1883 regarding the state of opinion regarding the age of the nearby temples, by extension the Sphinx: "The date of the Granite Temple has been so positively asserted to be earlier than the fourth dynasty, that it may seem rash to dispute the point". In 1857, Augus