In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Robert Thomas Christgau is an American essayist and music journalist. One of the earliest professional rock critics, he spent 37 years as the chief music critic and senior editor for The Village Voice, during which time he created and oversaw the annual Pazz & Jop poll, he has covered popular music for Esquire, Newsday, Rolling Stone, Billboard, NPR, MSN Music, was a visiting arts teacher at New York University. Christgau is known for his terse, letter-graded capsule album reviews, first published in his "Consumer Guide" columns during his tenure at The Village Voice from 1969 to 2006, he has authored three books based on those columns, including Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies and Christgau's Record Guide: The'80s, along with two collections of essays. He continued writing reviews in this format for MSN Music and Noisey—Vice's music section—where they are published in his "Expert Witness" column. Christgau was born in Greenwich Village and grew up in Queens, the son of a fireman.
He has said he became a rock and roll fan when disc jockey Alan Freed moved to the city in 1954. After attending a public school in New York City, he left New York for four years to attend Dartmouth College, graduating in 1962 with a B. A. in English. While at college his musical interests turned to jazz, but he returned to rock after moving back to New York. Christgau has said that Miles Davis' 1960 album Sketches of Spain initiated in him "one phase of the disillusionment with jazz that resulted in my return to rock and roll", he was influenced by New Journalism writers such as Gay Talese and Tom Wolfe. "My ambitions when I went into journalism were always, to an extent, literary", Christgau said. Christgau wrote short stories, before giving up fiction in 1964 to become a sportswriter, a police reporter for the Newark Star-Ledger, he became a freelance writer after a story he wrote about the death of a woman in New Jersey was published by New York magazine. Christgau was among the first dedicated rock critics.
He was asked to take over the dormant music column at Esquire, which he began writing in June 1967. After Esquire discontinued the column, Christgau moved to The Village Voice in 1969, he worked as a college professor. From early on in his emergence as a critic, Christgau was conscious of his lack of formal knowledge of music. In a 1968 piece he commented: I don't know anything about music, which ought to be a damaging admission but isn't... The fact is that pop writers in general shy away from such arcana as key signature and beats to the measure... I used to confide my worries about this to friends in the record industry, they didn't know anything about music either. The technical stuff didn't matter, I was told. You just gotta dig it. In early 1972, he accepted a full-time job as music critic for Newsday. Christgau returned to the Village Voice in 1974 as music editor, he remained there until August 2006, when he was fired shortly after the paper's acquisition by New Times Media. Two months Christgau became a contributing editor at Rolling Stone.
Late in 2007, Christgau was fired by Rolling Stone, although he continued to work for the magazine for another three months. Starting with the March 2008 issue, he joined Blender, where he was listed as "senior critic" for three issues and "contributing editor". Christgau had been a regular contributor to Blender, he continued to write for Blender until the magazine ceased publication in March 2009. In 1987, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in the field of "Folklore and Popular Culture" to study the history of popular music. Christgau has written for Playboy and Creem, he appears about the Replacements. He taught during the formative years of the California Institute of the Arts; as of 2007, he was an adjunct professor in the Clive Davis Department of Recorded Music at New York University. In August 2013, Christgau revealed in an article written for Barnes & Noble's website that he is writing a memoir. On July 15, 2014, Christgau debuted a monthly column on Billboard's website. Christgau is best known for his "Consumer Guide" columns, which have been published more-or-less monthly since July 10, 1969, in the Village Voice, as well as a brief period in Creem.
In its original format, the "Consumer Guide" consisted of 18 to 20 single-paragraph album reviews, each of, given a letter grade ranging from A+ to E−. These reviews were collected and extensively revised in a three-volume book series, the first of, published in 1981 as Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. In his original grading system from 1969 to 1990, albums were given a grade ranging from A+ to E-. Under this system, Christgau considered a B+ or higher to be a personal recommendation, he noted. In 1990, Christgau changed the format of the "Consumer Guide" to focus more on the albums. B+ records that Christgau deemed "unworthy of a full review" were given brief comments and star marks ranging from three down to one, denoting an honorable mention", records which Christgau believed may be of interest to their own target audience. Lesser albums were filed under categories such as "Neither" and "Duds" (which indicated bad records and were listed without fur
Songs (Regina Spektor album)
Songs is the second album by singer-songwriter Regina Spektor. The album was recorded in its entirety on Christmas Day of 2001. Copies of the self-released album were sold at Spektor's early live shows; the album is still sold at shows, is available for purchase periodically at the independent CD retailer CDBaby.com. All tracks written by Regina Spektor. A different version of the song "Samson" can be found as the third track of her album Begin to Hope. A new version of the song "Ne Me Quitte Pas" can be found on her album What We Saw From The Cheap Seats. Regina Spektor - vocals, piano Chelsea Horenstein - photography Ryan B Curtis - layout design RyanBCurtis.com
"Fidelity" is a song by American singer-songwriter Regina Spektor, released as the second single from her fourth album Begin to Hope. The song marked Spektor's first and only Billboard 100 entry and is her most successful track to date. Despite a release date of September 25, the song did not hit the charts until December; the song was released in the UK as a two-part single on March 12, 2007. The song making it Spektor's highest-charting single across the world. Spektor wrote the song while watching the movie High Fidelity, based on a book by Nick Hornby; the single was certified gold by the RIAA for sales of 500,000 copies. And single released from her album Begin to Hope, her most successful single in United States; as of 2009 the single has sold 716,000 copies in United States. It is directed by Marc Webb; the video features Spektor in a black and white dress in an abstract environment enjoying tea alone. The room and decor are black and white; as the video progresses, an empty suit is shown, which Spektor converses with as though it were a real companion.
Near the end of the video, Spektor drops a heart pendant on the ground, revealing colored dust. A man appears in the suit, the two play with the dust, join hands as the video ends. UK CD 1"Fidelity" "Music Box"UK CD 2"Fidelity" "Music Box" "December" "Fidelity" UK digital download/AUS CD"Fidelity" "Music Box" "December" "Fidelity" made an appearance on the Billboard Bubbling Under chart at #8 on December 6. Two weeks Spektor made her first appearance in her career on the Billboard Hot 100 as "Fidelity" entered at #98, it climbed for the following two weeks before disappearing and reappearing at #58 on the Billboard Hot 100 and #36 on the Billboard Hot Digital Songs in early 2007. Fidelity debuted on the New Zealand RIANZ charts at #16, because digital downloads had been added in the week of its debut; this song would have achieved a higher placing if digital downloads had been included earlier, as shown by the single's concurrent top ranking at the New Zealand iTunes Store. In 2009, the popularity of Spektor's single "Laughing With" has caused a revival in sales of Fidelity, bringing it to #55 on the Alternative Songs Chart on US iTunes.
In 2009, the song was used with permission as accompaniment to the video, "Don't divorce us", released by the Courage Campaign against Proposition 8. The video was viewed over 500,000 times in a week. In the 2010 20th Century Fox film Love & Other Drugs, directed by Edward Zwick, the song can be heard as the film's credits are rolled; the song was used in Veronica Mars, Brothers & Sisters, A Favorita, Grey's Anatomy, Secret Diary of a Call Girl, 27 Dresses, Love & Other Drugs, Las Vegas. Fidelity video on MySpaceTV
Far is the fifth studio album by American alternative singer-songwriter Regina Spektor, released in Europe through Sire Records on June 22, 2009 and North America on June 23, 2009 The album's first single, "Laughing With", was uploaded to Spektor's MySpace page on May 8 and was released as a digital download on May 18 in the United States and parts of Europe, along with the b-side "Blue Lips". Two viral videos for "Dance Anthem of the 80s" and "Eet" were released on Spektor's MySpace account; the official music video for "Laughing With" was released on iTunes on May 26, 2009. A special edition of the album was released with two bonus tracks and a DVD, which included four music videos. Spektor decided to work with multiple producers on the album, she has compared composing an album to taking a class, as such, she wanted to have "multiple professors". She felt the multiple producers would allow them not to worry what the single or big hit would be; the most notable producers include David Kahne, who produced her last album Begin to Hope, Jeff Lynne, former member of Electric Light Orchestra and The Traveling Wilburys.
Although Lynne has an expansive musical background, Spektor did not know of his work when she met him."Regina's songs are like literature," said Lynne, who doesn't work with new artists, but said that Spektor's demo tapes blew him away. "It hits you right in the face how brilliant it is," he said. Lynne produced four songs for the album. All tracks written by Regina Spektor. Bevan of Spin said that Spektor, in "The Calculation", "purrs a scenario of love and hurt that plays out in the breakfast nook..." Powers of the LA Times said of "Eet": "It's not just cute." Maerz of EW praised the album's quirkiness. He said of "Folding Chair" that she "literally sings like a dolphin" and that "Wallet" is the "best song inspired by a Blockbuster card." Dolan of Rolling Stone said that "Laughing With" is a song that "ends collapsing in an existential freakout over a soft beat and weeping cello." MacKay of NME said "Human of the Year" has "a Spektorian conceit" and her "remarkable, gutsy voice vaults to the rafters of heartbreak."
Skinner of Insounds called "Genius Next Door" a "spiralling Gothic narrative that comes on with all the otherworldly beauty of a Haruki Murakami story." The album does not aim "at ideas above its station" nor does it "flounder in search of unity." Regarding "Man of a Thousand Faces", Neibaur of Frequency said that the "pathos of the lyrics is still strong enough to make the Incredible Hulk tear up a bit". Blacklow of Access Hollywood called the album a "wonderful soothing summer sound". Lewis of the Cord Weekly said "Spektor delivers gloomy tales of turmoil, complemented by slow, haunting piano notes that could just as accompany a horror film." Snyder of the New Haven Advocate said that, Spektor has "redirected some of that freaky stuff and perfected it, to a new place where it fits better" and that the songs are "sometimes kind of serious." Neibaur of Frequency states that "Far pleases every auditory appetite."Far scored 74 on Metacritic, which signifies "generally favorable reviews". According to Neibaur, "The stark contradictions of critics relating to Spektor exemplify a larger problem in modern music criticism—very few writers analyze music from an artistic perspective any longer."
In a June 24, 2009 interview, Spektor remarked that: "I mean, in this book, it's music criticism from the 19th century, they're ripping Tchaikovsky a new asshole, but the thing that gets me is that it's written so beautifully. It's nasty reviews in beautiful language, that's what I want," she says. "My dad will forward me some of the stuff people write about me, I think it's all bullshit. It's all,'Oh, this sucks, that sucks, blah.' I don't want that. I want you to write poetically about how bad I suck." Four music videos can be viewed on her MySpace. These videos, all directed by Tom Petty's daughter Adria Petty, are available on a bonus DVD included with the deluxe version of the album. "Laughing With" "Eet" "Dance Anthem of the'80s" "Man of a Thousand Faces" Far entered the official UK Albums Chart at number 30 It sold 50,000 copies in its first week, entering the US Billboard 200 number three. In the Canadian Albums Chart, Far debuted at number 16; the album has spent nineteen weeks on the Billboard 200.
Far at Metacritic Regina Spektor — Regina Spektor official website "Regina Spektor Finds Strength in Numbers". Rolling Stone. March 20, 2009