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Soviet submarine K-222

K-222, Soviet designation Project 661 Anchar, was the Soviet Navy's nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine and the only submarine of the design. She was the world's fastest submarine and the first submarine constructed with a titanium hull. Named K-162, it was renamed K-222 in 1978; the boat is best known in the West by its NATO reporting name Papa class. The project was intentionally forced to be innovative by discouraging the reuse of prior technical solutions. While enforcing innovation, this slowed development. Project 661 began in 1959, with design task assigned to OKB-16, one of the two predecessors of the famous Malachite Central Design Bureau, which would become one of the three Soviet/Russian submarine design centers, along with Rubin Design Bureau and Lazurit Central Design Bureau. K-222 was designed as an fast attack submarine, was the first submarine built with a titanium hull, she was armed with 10 SS-N-7 Starbright missiles in individual tubes forward of the sail, between the inner and outer hulls, which were both of titanium alloy.

Similar in design to the Charlie class, K-222 was designed to intercept and attack aircraft carrier groups. Like the Charlie class and the Oscar class, her cruise missiles could only be reloaded in port, making her one of the Soviet Navy's "one shot" boats. K-222 had two light-water reactors, designed to be as compact as possible. Unusually, there were no diesel generators, with a powerful battery as the only emergency power source, she is regarded as a predecessor to the Alfa and Sierra-class submarines, may have tested technologies which were used in those classes. K-222 was commissioned on 31 December 1969, at Severodvinsk, she was assigned to the Soviet Red Banner Northern Fleet for the duration of her career. She was the world's fastest submarine, her unofficial maximum speed, reached 30 March 1971, is 44.85 knots. However, K-222's high speed came at the price of high costs during construction, both excessive noise and significant damage to external hull features when used. Though named, within the Soviet Navy the boat was referred to as the "Golden Fish", in reference to her cost of development and construction.

On 30 September 1980, one of K-222's nuclear reactors was damaged during maintenance in the shipyard. By 1988, she was placed in reserve at the Belomorsk Naval Base in Severodvinsk. Beginning on 5 March 2010 the boat was dismantled at Sevmash, the only facility capable of handling the titanium hull. In an unusual move, the scrapping was performed with the reactors and nuclear fuel still on board, as no provisions had been made in the design for the reactor's removal; the scrapping began before the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development chose an international consultant for the fuel's unloading. The sole Papa-class submarine is featured as participating in Soviet anti-convoy operations in the Atlantic in Red Storm Rising by Tom Clancy, causing both surprise and frustration to the escorts' commanders. Project 661 at Bellona.no Project 661 Anchar Fastest submarine of the world Papa class submarine K-222 scrapped March 4th, 2010. "Russia & CIS Defense Policy Blog " Papa class submarine K-222 scrapped".

Russiandefenseblog.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2011-02-24

Southdown Power Station

Southdown Power Station was a natural gas-fired combined cycle gas turbine cogeneration power station in Southdown, a suburb in southern Auckland City, New Zealand. When operational, it was New Zealand's northernmost power station with a capacity exceeding 50 MW; the plant was developed by the Southdown Cogeneration Joint Venture, a joint venture between TransAlta and Mighty River Power. The plant had two LM6000 gas turbines and one steam turbine, fueled on natural gas and producing 114MW; the plant was expected to emit about 410,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide annually. In 2000, Mighty River Power purchased 50% of the plant and purchased the remainder in 2002. A third LM6000 gas turbine was added in 2007; this was operated in open cycle mode. Southdown was owned and operated by electricity generator Mighty River Power, complemented the company's renewable hydroelectric and geothermal stations; the station, strategically located in the south-central Auckland urban area, provided voltage support for the city, helped to meet the peak demand requirements in the Auckland region.

Southdown was extensively used during dry periods, when there was insufficient water to run Mighty River Power's eight hydroelectric power stations on the Waikato River at full capacity. Apart from generating 170 MW of electricity for the wider Auckland area, Southdown provided steam to the local industrial area near the station. At full capacity, the station could provide 180 tonnes of steam per hour, piped from the station to consumers at pressures of 155 and 910 kilopascals. In the 2008 - 2009 financial year, Might River Power reported 249,407 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions from Southdown. In March 2015, Mighty River Power announced that it would decommission Southdown and sell the plant overseas. List of power stations in New Zealand Southdown - Mighty River Power Generation

Inter-city rail in the United Kingdom

In Great Britain, there are inter-city trains to numerous parts of the country. Most of these trains are high speed, some operate into France and Belgium. After the sectorisation of British Rail, inter-city trains were operated by InterCity. InterCity ran trains from London to Devon, Bristol, South Wales, the Cotswolds, the West Midlands, the East Midlands, North Wales, North West England and the Humber, North East England, East Anglia, London Gatwick Airport. There were numerous cross-country services, which were inter-city services that traversed several regions and avoided Greater London; the UK's longest direct rail service is operated by CrossCountry from Aberdeen to Penzance, takes 13 hours 23 minutes to complete. Inter-city trains from London operate out of the following London terminals: London Paddington — trains to Devon, Bristol, South Wales, the Cotswolds and the West Midlands; the following train operating companies operate inter-city trains in Great Britain: Avanti West Coast Caledonian Sleeper CrossCountry East Midlands Railway Eurostar* Great Western Railway Greater Anglia Grand Central* Hull Trains* London North Eastern Railway TransPennine Express Rail transport in the United Kingdom High-speed rail in the United Kingdom

Hadena

Hadena is a genus of moths of the family Noctuidae erected by Franz von Paula Schrank in 1802. About 15 species are native to North America, while over 100 are distributed in the Palearctic ecozone, their eyes are hairy. Palpi upturned and clothed with long hairs. Third joint short. Antennae of male ciliated. Thorax squarely flattened. Abdomen with dorsal tufts on proximal segments. Tibia lack spines. Wings are broad. Hindwings with veins 3 and 4 from cell or on a short stalk. Hadena larvae feed on the seeds of plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, the pinks, some of the adult moths are pollinators of Silene species. Hadena moths have hairy eyes. There are about 143 to 149 species in the genus. Zeteolyga was a genus of moths of the family Noctuidae. Savela, Markku. "Hadena Schrank, 1802". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved January 15, 2019. Pitkin, Brian & Jenkins, Paul. "Hadena Schrank, 1802". Butterflies and Moths of the World. Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved January 16, 2019

Merlin Hull

Merlin Gray Hull was a lawyer, a newspaper publisher, a member of the United States House of Representatives from Wisconsin. Born in Farina, Illinois to John and Adelia Hull, Merlin Hull was a graduate of Gale College, De Pauw University, Columbian University, he commenced practice in Black River Falls. He served as publisher of the Jackson County Journal from 1904–1926 and of the merged Banner-Journal for the rest of his life, he served as district attorney of Jackson County from 1907–1909. Hull was first elected to the Seventy-first Congress in 1928, he represented Wisconsin's 7th congressional district. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1930 and an unsuccessful independent candidate in 1932. In 1934, Hull was once again elected to the House of Representatives this time as part of the Seventy-fourth Congress, he was elected as a member of the Progressive Party and represented Wisconsin's 9th congressional district. He was reelected to this post for the succeeding nine congresses, as a member of the Progressive Party for the first six and after the disbanding of the Wisconsin Progressive Party, as a Republican to the other four, serving continuously from January 3, 1935, until his death from pulmonary complications following surgery in La Crosse, Wisconsin on May 17, 1953.

List of Secretaries of State of Wisconsin List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Merlin Hull". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

3rd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 3rd Infantry Brigade was a Regular Army infantry brigade of the British Army, part of the 1st Infantry Division. Formed in 1809, during the Peninsular War, the brigade had a long history, seeing action in the Second Anglo-Afghan War, during both World War I and World War II; the 1st Division was formed during the Peninsular War in Spain and Portugal, part of the army commanded by General Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke of Wellington. In 1814, the 3rd brigade took part in the Battle of New Orleans, commanded by Lt. Gen. John Keane, it took part in the Battle of Ali Masjid in November 1878 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. As the Second Boer War ended in 1902 the army was restructured, a 2nd Infantry division was established permanently as part of the 1st Army Corps, comprising the 3rd and 4th Infantry Brigades; the brigade saw service during the First World War as part of the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front. The 3rd Brigade was constituted as follows during the war: 1st Battalion, Queen's Royal Regiment 1st Battalion, South Wales Borderers 1st Battalion, Gloucestershire Regiment 2nd Battalion, Welsh Regiment 2nd Battalion, Royal Munster Fusiliers 1/4th Battalion, Royal Welch Fusiliers 1/6th Battalion, Welsh Regiment 1/9th Battalion, King's Regiment 3rd Trench Mortar Battery 3rd Machine Gun Company, Machine Gun Corps Between the wars the brigade, now redesignated 3rd Infantry Brigade, saw numerous changes in its battalions, including 2nd Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment, 1st Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1st King's Own Scottish Borderers and 1st Border Regiment.

However, these were all posted away by 1937, either to other divisions stationed in the United Kingdom or to different parts of the British Empire. From 1936–1938 the brigade was commanded by Arthur Floyer-Acland In 1938 they were replaced by 2nd Buffs, 2nd Cameronians and 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers. There was no fourth battalion as it was in this year that British infantry divisions were reduced from twelve to nine battalions, infantry brigades reducing from four to three; these battalions, were replaced in early 1939, by 2nd Sherwood Foresters returned from many years spent in British India and Guernsey, 1st Duke of Wellington's Regiment, returned to England from three years spent Malta, 1st King's Shropshire Light Infantry, which had returned to England in 1938 for the first time after having served in British India in 16 years. During the Second World War the brigade continued to be part of the 1st Infantry Division, would remain with it throughout the war, was sent to France on 25 September 1939, shortly after the outbreak of the war, served as part of the British Expeditionary Force in France.

The brigade was to remain in France, serving alongside the French Army on the Maginot Line on the Franco-Belgian border until May 1940 when the German Army invaded Holland and France and, during the fighting, forced the BEF to retreat to Dunkirk where the 3rd Brigade was evacuated to England, arriving on 1 June 1940. After the retreat from Dunkirk it remained in the United Kingdom on home defence against a German invasion until early 1943 when it was sent to North Africa to take part in the Campaign in Tunisia. On 11 June 1943 the 1st Infantry Division was sent to the Italian island of Pantelleria which they captured and occupied without casualties. In late 1943 the brigade, with the rest of the division, was sent to Italy to join the British Eighth Army fighting in Italy. However, they were soon transferred to command of the U. S. Fifth Army for the Anzio landings, where they landed at Anzio on 22 January 1944 and were destined to fight in some of the worst and most violent battles of the Italian campaign where, during a German counterattack on 3 February, the brigade was completely surrounded and was only saved from annihilation by a counterattack from the 1st Battalion, London Scottish of 168th Brigade.

The brigade continued to fight in numerous battles around Anzio and when not, were still subjected to constant artillery, mortar or small arms fire. The brigade fought in the breakout from Operation Diadem. In October 1944, while the 3rd Brigade was fighting on the Gothic Line with the Eighth Army, Private Richard Henry Burton of the 1st Battalion, Duke of Wellington's Regiment was awarded the Victoria Cross. In the same battle, Captain Arthur Burns was awarded the Distinguished Service Order; the brigade fought in Italy until 28 January 1945 when they were sent to Palestine as a garrison where they remained to the end of the war. The 3rd Infantry Brigade was constituted as follows during the war: 1st Battalion, Duke of Wellington's Regiment 1st Battalion, King's Shropshire Light Infantry 2nd Battalion, Sherwood Foresters 3rd Infantry Brigade Anti-Tank Company The following officers commanded 3rd Infantry Brigade during the war: Brigadier H. O. Curtis Lieutenant Colonel J. M. L. Grover Brigadier T.

N. F. Wilson Brigadier W. R. C. Penney Lieutenant Colonel R. Bryans Brigad