SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Soweto uprising

The Soweto uprising was a series of demonstrations and protests led by black school children in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976. Students from numerous Sowetan schools began to protest in the streets of Soweto in response to the introduction of Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in local schools, it is estimated. They were met with fierce police brutality; the number of protesters killed by police is given as 176, but estimates of up to 700 have been made. In remembrance of these events, 16 June is now a public holiday in South Africa, named Youth Day. Black South African high school students in Soweto protested against the Afrikaans Medium Decree of 1974, which forced all black schools to use Afrikaans and English in a 50–50 mix as languages of instruction; the Regional Director of Bantu Education, J. G. Erasmus, told Circuit Inspectors and Principals of Schools that from 1 January 1975, Afrikaans had to be used for mathematics and social studies from standard five, according to the Afrikaans Medium Decree.

Indigenous languages would only be used for religious instruction and physical culture. The association of Afrikaans with apartheid prompted black South Africans to prefer English; the Bantustan regimes chose English and an indigenous African language as official languages. In addition, English was gaining prominence as the language most used in commerce and industry; the 1974 decree was intended to forcibly reverse the decline of Afrikaans among black Africans. The Afrikaner-dominated government used the clause of the 1909 Union of South Africa Act that recognised only English and Dutch as official languages as the pretext to do so. While all schools had to provide instruction in both Afrikaans and English as languages, white South African students learned other subjects in their home language. Punt Janson, the Deputy Minister of Bantu Education at the time, was quoted as saying: "A Black man may be trained to work on a farm or in a factory, he may work for an employer, either English-speaking or Afrikaans-speaking and the man who has to give him instructions may be either English-speaking or Afrikaans-speaking.

Why should we now start quarrelling about the medium of instruction among the Black people as well?... No, I have not consulted them and I am not going to consult them. I have consulted the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa …"The decree was resented by the black populace. Desmond Tutu, bishop of Lesotho and Dean of Johannesburg, stated that Afrikaans was "the language of the oppressor". Teacher organisations, such as the African Teachers Association of South Africa, objected to the decree. A change in language of instruction forced the students to focus on understanding the language instead of the subject material; this made critical analysis of the content discouraged critical thinking. The resentment grew until 30 April 1976, when children at Orlando West Junior School in Soweto went on strike, refusing to go to school, their rebellion spread to many other schools in Soweto. Black South African students protested because they believed that they deserved to be treated and taught to white South Africans.

A student from Morris Isaacson High School, Teboho "Tsietsi" Mashinini, proposed a meeting on 13 June 1976 to discuss what should be done. Students formed an Action Committee, which organised a mass rally for 16 June, to make themselves heard. On the morning of 16 June 1976, between 10,000 and 20,000 black students walked from their schools to Orlando Stadium for a rally to protest against having to learn through Afrikaans in school. Many students who participated in the protest arrived at school that morning without prior knowledge of the protest, yet agreed to become involved; the protest was planned by the Soweto Students' Representative Council's Action Committee, with support from the wider Black Consciousness Movement. Teachers in Soweto supported the march after the Action Committee emphasised good discipline and peaceful action. Tsietsi Mashinini led students from Morris Isaacson High School to join up with others who walked from Naledi High School; the students began the march only to find out that police had barricaded the road along their intended route.

The leader of the action committee asked the crowd not to provoke the police and the march continued on another route ending up near Orlando High School. The crowd of between 3,000 and 10,000 students made their way towards the area of the school. Students sang and waved placards with slogans such as, "Down with Afrikaans", "Viva Azania" and "If we must do Afrikaans, Vorster must do Zulu"; the police set their trained dog on the protesters. The police began to shoot directly at the children. Among the first students to be shot dead were 15 year old Hastings Ndlovu and 13 year old Hector Pieterson, who were shot at Orlando West High School; the photographer Sam Nzima took a photograph of a dying Hector Pieterson as he was carried away by Mbuyisa Makhubo and accompanied by his sister, Antoinette Sithole. The photograph became the symbol of the Soweto uprising; the police attacks on the demonstrators continued and 23 people died on the first day in Soweto. Among them was Dr Melville Edelstein, who had devoted his life to social welfare among blacks.

He was stoned to death by the mob and left with a sign around his neck proclaiming "Beware Afrikaans is the most dangerous drug for our fut

Santa Caterina del Monte di Pietà, Alcamo

This article is a translation of the article it:Ex Chiesa di Santa Caterina del Monte di Pietà in the Italian Wikipedia. Santa Caterina del Monte di Pietà was a Catholic church in Alcamo, in the province of Trapani; the original church of this name was built in 1518 by the local Confraternity of the mount of piety at the western side of the town's principal church. The confraternity's rectors decided to construct a new and better church on the main street, Corso 6 Aprile, opposite the present Church of the Holy Guardian Angel known as the Church of the Riparate; the church on Corso 6 Aprile owed its importance to being the seat of this confraternity, which assisted the poor in cases of need or illness. It has been deconsecrated; the confraternity's original church, which it abandoned, was in 1619 aggregated by the bishop of Mazara del Vallo to Holy Trinity Parish. It ended up being given in 1634 to the town's principal church for use as a courtyard leading to the sacristy; the interior of the church had a single nave with paintings.

One of the paintings, now in the Sacred Art Museum of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Assumption, is of Saint Catherine of Alexandria. It is attributed to Giuseppe Carrera or Giacomo Lo Verde; the rather handsome façade with a simple portal and four noteworthy pilasters on tall bases is of 1608. The Confraternity was in existence in 1430 and had its seat in the town's principal church. In 1635, the Confraternity of the Holy Mount of Piety became the Company of the Holy Mount of Piety; the members of the Confraternity, "nobility and men of standing", wore as their ceremonial habit sackcloth, baize cloaks and dark grey felt hats and a badge representing Jesus in the tomb. After 1635, the members of the Company wore white sackcloth and visors, with the emblem of Our Lord of Piety on their backs, their duties were: to celebrate the feast of Saint Catherine of Alexandria on 25 November to help the poor with alms. to participate every Monday and during the octave of 2 November in Requiem Mass in Saint Catherine's Church for the dead on Holy Monday to go in procession with priests to the church of Saint Hippolytus for the victims of the 1575 plague who were buried thereThis cemetery was given to the Confraternity in 1581 for them to build there to build a church dedicated to God and the Virgin Mary, to the protectors from plague Saint Roch and Saint Sebastian.

The Company was still active in 1924, but no longer exists. Carlo Cataldo, Guida storico-artistica dei beni culturali di Alcamo-Calatafimi-Castellammare Golfo p. 61, Sarograf, 1982. Carlo Cataldo, La conchiglia di S. Giacomo p. 76, Campo, 2001

Department of Mines and Petroleum

The Department of Mines and Petroleum was a department of the Government of Western Australia until it was superseded by the Department of Mines, Industry Regulation and Safety on 1 July 2017. The department was formed on 1 January 2009, out of the former Department of Industry and Resources and Department of Consumer and Employment Protection, which were split into three new departments, the Department of Mines and Petroleum, the Department of State Development and the Department of Commerce, its focus is the resources sector, maintaining a mining and petroleum regulatory role and incorporating the resources safety responsibilities from the former Department of Consumer and Employment Protection. It oversees the Geological Survey of Western Australia; the department operates the MINEDEX website, a continuously updated database containing information on mines, mineral deposits and prospects in Western Australia. The original Department of Mines was created on 1 January 1894 and ceased in that name on 1 July 1992 when it became the Department of Minerals and Energy.

During the 1894 - 1992 era, the department was divided into branches: Registration Accounts Correspondence Drafting Government Geologist. Before the change of 1992, the branches had become divisions: Geological Survey Mining Engineering Petroleum Government Chemical Laboratories Corporate Services Explosives and Dangerous Goods Mining Registration Surveys & Mapping On 1 July 2001 Department of Minerals and Energy and the Department of Resources Development were merged to form the Department of Mineral and Petroleum Resources. Further to a review in 2003 the Department was merged with the Department of Industry and Technology to form the Department of Industry and Resources on 3 February 2003; this department was divided into business groups: Mineral and Petroleum Resources Business and Trade Services Investment ServicesThe Department was changed again on 1 January 2009 and three new departments were formed: Department of Mines and Petroleum Department of State Development Department of Commerce Mining in Western Australia Regions of Western Australia State Batteries in Western Australia Western Australia Atlas of mineral deposits and petroleum fields Government of Western Australia website Department of Mines and Petroleum website