Soviet space program
The Soviet space program comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991. Over its 60-year history, this classified military program was responsible for a number of pioneering accomplishments in space flight, including the first intercontinental ballistic missile, first satellite, first animal in Earth orbit, first human in space and Earth orbit, first woman in space and Earth orbit, first spacewalk, first Moon impact, first image of the far side of the Moon and unmanned lunar soft landing, first space rover, first sample of lunar soil automatically extracted and brought to Earth, first space station. Further notable records included the first interplanetary probes: Venera 1 and Mars 1 to fly by Venus and Mars Venera 3 and Mars 2 to impact the respective planet surface, Venera 7 and Mars 3 to make soft landings on these planets; the rocket and space program of the USSR boosted by the assistance of captured scientists from the advanced German rocket program, was performed by Soviet engineers and scientists after 1955, was based on some unique Soviet and Imperial Russian theoretical developments, many derived by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, sometimes known as the father of theoretical astronautics.
Sergey Korolev was the head of the principal design group. Unlike its American competitor in the "Space Race", which had NASA as a single coordinating agency, the USSR's program was split among several competing design bureaus led by Korolev, Mikhail Yangel, Valentin Glushko, Vladimir Chelomei; because of the program's classified status, for propaganda value, announcements of the outcomes of missions were delayed until success was certain, failures were sometimes kept secret. As a result of Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of glasnost in the 1980s, many facts about the space program were declassified. Notable setbacks included the deaths of Korolev, Vladimir Komarov, Yuri Gagarin between 1966 and 1968, development failure of the huge N-1 rocket intended to power a manned lunar landing, which exploded shortly after lift-off on four unmanned tests. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukraine inherited the program. Russia created the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, now known as the Roscosmos State Corporation, while Ukraine created the National Space Agency of Ukraine.
The theory of space exploration had a solid basis in the Russian Empire before the First World War with the writings of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, who published pioneering papers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and in 1929 introduced the concept of the multistaged rocket. Practical aspects built on early experiments carried out by members of the reactive propulsion study group, GIRD in the 1920s and 1930s, where such pioneers as Sergey Korolev—who dreamed of traveling to Mars—and the German-Russian engineer Friedrich Zander worked. On August 18, 1933, GIRD launched the first Soviet liquid-fueled rocket Gird-09, on November 25, 1933, the first hybrid-fueled rocket GIRD-X. In 1940-41 another advance in the reactive propulsion field took place: the development and serial production of the Katyusha multiple rocket launcher. During the 1930s Soviet rocket technology was comparable to Germany's, but Joseph Stalin's Great Purge damaged its progress. Many leading engineers were killed, Korolev and others were imprisoned in the Gulag.
Although the Katyusha was effective on the Eastern Front during World War II, the advanced state of the German rocket program amazed Soviet engineers who inspected its remains at Peenemünde and Mittelwerk after the end of the war in Europe. The Americans had secretly moved most leading German scientists and 100 V-2 rockets to the United States in Operation Paperclip, but the Soviet program benefited from captured German records and scientists, in particular drawings obtained from the V-2 production sites. Under the direction of Dimitri Ustinov and others inspected the drawings. Helped by rocket scientist Helmut Gröttrup and other captured Germans until the early 1950s, they built a replica of the V-2 called the R-1, although the weight of Soviet nuclear warheads required a more powerful booster. Korolev's OKB-1 design bureau was dedicated to the liquid-fueled cryogenic rockets he had been experimenting with in the late 1930s; this work resulted in the design of the R-7 Semyorka intercontinental ballistic missile, tested in August 1957.
The Soviet space program was tied to the USSR's Five-Year Plans and from the start was reliant on support from the Soviet military. Although he was "single-mindedly driven by the dream of space travel", Korolev kept this a secret while working on military projects—especially, after the Soviet Union's first atomic bomb test in 1949, a missile capable of carrying a nuclear warhead to the United States—as many mocked the idea of launching satellites and manned spacecraft. Nonetheless, the first Soviet rocket with animals aboard launched in July 1951. Two months ahead of America's first such achievement and subsequent flights gave the Soviets valuable experience with space medicine; because of its global range and large payl
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest
The Soyuz programme is a human spaceflight programme, initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon. It was the third Soviet human spaceflight programme after the Voskhod programme; the programme consists of the Soyuz spacecraft and the Soyuz rocket and is now the responsibility of the Russian Roscosmos. Since the retirement of the American Space Shuttle in 2011, all human spaceflights to and from the International Space Station have been carried out using Soyuz; the launch vehicles used in the Soyuz expendable launch system are manufactured at the Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center in Samara, Russia. As well as being used in the Soyuz programme as the launcher for the manned Soyuz spacecraft, Soyuz launch vehicles are now used to launch unmanned Progress supply spacecraft to the International Space Station and commercial launches marketed and operated by TsSKB-Progress and the Starsem company.
Soyuz vehicles are launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northwest Russia and, since 2011, Soyuz launch vehicles are being launched from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana. The Spaceport’s new Soyuz launch site has been handling Soyuz launches since 21 October 2011, the date of the first launch; as of July 2014, 8 Soyuz launches had been made from French Guiana, all successful. The basic Soyuz spacecraft design was the basis for many projects, many of which never came to light, its earliest form was intended to travel to the moon without employing a huge booster like the Saturn V or the Soviet N-1 by docking with upper stages, put in orbit using the same rocket as the Soyuz. This and the initial civilian designs were done under the Soviet Chief Designer Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, who did not live to see the craft take flight. Several military derivatives took precedence in the Soviet design process, though they never came to pass. A Soyuz spacecraft consists of three parts: a spheroid orbital module a small aerodynamic reentry module a cylindrical service module with solar panels attachedThere have been many variants of the Soyuz spacecraft, including: Soyuz-A 7K-9K-11K circumlunar complex proposal Soyuz 7K manned spacecraft concept Soyuz 9K proposed booster Soyuz 11K proposed fuel tanker Soyuz 7K-OK Soyuz 7K-L1 Zond Soyuz 7K-L3 LOK Soyuz 7K-OKS Soyuz 7K-T or "ferry" Soyuz 7K-T/A9 7K-MF6 Soyuz 7K-TM Soyuz-T Soyuz-TM Soyuz-TMA Soyuz-ACTS Soyuz-TMA-M Soyuz MS Military Soyuz Soyuz P manned satellite interceptor proposal Soyuz R command-reconnaissance spacecraft proposal Soyuz 7K-TK Soyuz PPK revised version of Soyuz P Soyuz 7K-VI Zvezda space station proposal Soyuz OIS Soyuz OB-VI space station proposal Soyuz 7K-S military transport proposal Soyuz 7K-ST concept for Soyuz T and TM The Zond spacecraft was another derivative, designed to take a crew traveling in a figure-eight orbit around the Earth and the moon but never achieving the degree of safety or political need to be used for such.
The Progress series of unmanned cargo ships for the Salyut and Mir space laboratories used the automatic navigation and docking mechanism of Soyuz. While not a direct derivative, the Chinese Shenzhou spacecraft follows the basic template pioneered by Soyuz. See List of Soviet manned space missions and List of Russian manned space missions Shenzhou, a Chinese spacecraft influenced by Soyuz Space Shuttle Buran Space accidents and incidents
Gagarin's Start is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos. The launchpad for the world's first human spaceflight made by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 in 1961, the site was referred to as Site No.1 as the first one of its kind. It is sometimes referred to as NIIP-5 LC1, Baikonur LC1 or GIK-5 LC1. On 17 March 1954 the Council of Ministers ordered several ministries to select a site for a proving ground to test the R-7 rocket by 1 January 1955. A special reconnaissance commission considered several possible geographic regions and selected Tyuratam in the Kazakh SSR; this selection was approved on 12 February 1955 by the Council of Ministers, with a completion of construction targeted for 1958. Work on the construction of Site No.1 began on 20 July 1955 by military engineers. Day and night more than 60 powerful trucks worked at the site. During winter explosives were utilized. By the end of October 1956 all primary building and installation of infrastructure for R-7 tests was completed.
The Installation and Testing Building named "Site No.2" was built and a special railway completed from there to Site No.1 where the launch pad for the rocket was located. By April 1957 all remaining work was completed and the site was ready for launches; the R-7 missile made its maiden voyage from LC-1 on 15 May 1957. On 4 October 1957 the pad was used to launch the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Manned spaceflights launched from the site include Yuri Gagarin's flight, Valentina Tereshkova's flight, numerous other human spaceflight missions, including all Soviet and Russian manned spaceflights to Mir; the pad was used to launch Luna program spacecraft, Mars probe program spacecraft, Venera program spacecraft, many Cosmos satellites and others. From 1957 through 1966 the site hosted ready-to-launch strategic nuclear ICBMs in addition to spacecraft launches; the 500th launch from this site was of Soyuz TMA-18M on 2 September 2015. In 1961, the growing launch schedule of the Soviet space program resulted in the opening of a sister pad at Baikonur, LC-31/6.
LC-1 has been the primary facility for manned launches, with occasional Soyuz flights from LC-31/6. LC-1 was damaged several times by booster explosions during the early years; as of 2016, the most recent accident to occur on or around the pad was the attempted launch of Soyuz T-10-1 in September 1983 ended disastrously when the booster caught fire during prelaunch preparations and exploded, causing severe damage that left LC-1 inoperable for a year. According to the Russian State Owned Sputnik, Gagarin's Start is supposed to be decommissioned by the end of 2019 due to the upcoming decommission of the Soyuz-FG Launch Vehicle, but again according to the same article there could be some difficulties with the decommission, because LC-31/6 might not be able to handle all planned launches in 2020. Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 31 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 14, the equivalent for the United States' first manned spaceflights J. K. Golovanov, M. "Korolev: Facts and myths", Nauka, 1994, ISBN 5-02-000822-2.
ISBN 5-217-02942-0. I. Ostashev, Korolyov, 2001.. Korolev. Yangel." - M. I. Kuznetsk, Voronezh: IPF "Voronezh", 1997, ISBN 5-89981-117-X. Notes of a military engineer" - Rjazhsky A. A. 2004, SC. first, the publishing house of the "Heroes of the Fatherland" ISBN 5-91017-018-X. "Rocket and space feat Baikonur" - Vladimir Порошков, the "Patriot" publishers 2007. ISBN 5-7030-0969-3 "Unknown Baikonur" - edited by B. I. Posysaeva, M.: "globe", 2001. ISBN 5-8155-0051-8 "Bank of the Universe" - edited by Boltenko A. C. Kiev, 2014. Publishing house "Phoenix", ISBN 978-966-136-169-9
Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution were buried in mass graves at Red Square. It is centered on both sides of Lenin's Mausoleum built in wood in 1924 and rebuilt in granite in 1929–1930. After the last mass burial made in 1921, funerals on Red Square were conducted as state ceremonies and reserved as the last honor for notable politicians, military leaders and scientists. In 1925–1927 burials in the ground were stopped. Burials in the ground only resumed with Mikhail Kalinin's funeral in 1946; the practice of burying dignitaries at Red Square ended with the funeral of Konstantin Chernenko in March 1985. The Kremlin Wall Necropolis was designated a protected landmark in 1974; the eastern segment of the Kremlin wall, Red Square behind it, emerged on its present site in the 15th century, during the reign of Ivan III. The moat was lined with a secondary fortress wall, spanned by three bridges connecting the Kremlin to the posad.
From 1707–1708 Peter the Great, expecting a Swedish incursion deep into the Russian mainland, restored the moat around the Kremlin, cleared Red Square and built earthen fortifications around Nikolskaya and Spasskaya towers. From 1776–1787 Matvey Kazakov built the Kremlin Senate that today provides a backdrop for the present-day Necropolis. Throughout the 18th century the unused, neglected fortifications deteriorated and were not properly repaired until the 1801 coronation of Alexander I. In one season the moat with bridges and adjacent buildings was replaced with a clean span of paved square. More reconstruction followed in the 19th century; the stretch of Kremlin wall south from Senate Tower was badly damaged in 1812 by the explosion at the Kremlin Arsenal set off by the retreating French troops. Nikolskaya tower lost its gothic crown, erected in 1807–1808; the main structures of the towers were deemed sound enough to be left in place, were topped with new tented roofs designed by Bove. Peter's bastions were razed, The Kremlin wall facing Red Square was rebuilt shallower than before, acquired its present shape in the 1820s.
In July 1917, hundreds of soldiers of the Russian Northern Front were arrested for mutiny and desertion and locked up in Daugavpils fortress. 869 Dvinsk inmates were transported to Moscow. Here, the jailed soldiers launched a hunger strike. On September 22, 593 inmates were released; the released soldiers, collectively called Dvintsy, stayed in the city as a cohesive unit, based in Zamoskvorechye District and hostile to the ruling Provisional Government. After the October Revolution in Saint Petersburg, Dvintsy became the strike force of the Bolsheviks in Moscow. Late at night of October 27–28 a detachment of around two hundred men marching north to Tverskaya Street confronted the loyalist forces near the State Historical Museum on the Red Square. In the fighting 70 of the Dvintsy, including their company commander Sapunov, were killed at the barricades. On the following day the loyalists, led by Colonel Konstantin Ryabtsev, succeeded in taking over the Kremlin, they gunned down the surrendered Red soldiers at the Kremlin Arsenal wall.
More were killed as the Bolsheviks stormed the Kremlin taking control on the night of November 2–3. Street fighting settled down after having claimed nearly a thousand lives, on November 4 the new Bolshevik administration decreed their dead would be buried at Red Square next to the Kremlin Wall, where indeed most of them were killed. Voices reached us across the immense place, the sound of picks and shovels. We crossed over. Mountains of dirt and rock were piled high near the base of the wall. Climbing these we looked down into two massive pits, ten or fifteen feet deep and fifty yards long, where hundreds of soldiers and workers were digging in the light of huge fires. A young student spoke to us in German. “The Brotherhood Grave,” he explained. – John Reed, Ten Days that Shook the World. A total of 238 dead were buried in the mass graves between Senate and Nikolskaya towers in a public funeral on November 10; the youngest, Pavel Andreyev, was 14 years old. Of 240 pro-revolution martyrs of the October–November fighting only 20, including 12 of the Dvintsy, are identified in the official listing of the Moscow Heritage Commission.
As of March, 2009, three Moscow streets remain named after these individual victims, as well as Dvintsev Street named after the Dvintsy force. The loyalists secured a permit to publicly bury their dead on November 13; this funeral started at the old Moscow State University building near Kremlin. Mass and individual burials in the ground under the Kremlin wall continued until the funeral of Pyotr Voykov in June 1927. In the first years of the Soviet regime, the honor of being buried on Red Square was extended to ordinary soldiers, victims of the Civil War, Moscow militia men killed in clashes with anti-Bolsheviks. In January 1918, the Red Guards buried the victims of a terrorist bombing in Dorogomilovo. In the same
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He became the first human to journey into outer space when his Vostok spacecraft completed one orbit of the Earth on 12 April 1961. Gagarin became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, his nation's highest honour. Vostok 1 was his only spaceflight, but he served as the backup crew to the Soyuz 1 mission, which ended in a fatal crash. Gagarin served as the deputy training director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre outside Moscow, subsequently named after him. Gagarin died in 1968; the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale awards the Yuri A. Gagarin Gold Medal in his honour. Yuri Gagarin was born 9 March 1934 near Gzhatsk, his parents worked on a collective farm: Alexey Ivanovich Gagarin as a carpenter and bricklayer, Anna Timofeyevna Gagarina as a milkmaid. Yuri was the third of four children: older brother Valentin, older sister Zoya, younger brother Boris. Like millions of people in the Soviet Union, the Gagarin family suffered during Nazi occupation in World War II.
Klushino was occupied in November 1941 during the German advance on Moscow, an officer took over the Gagarin residence. The family was allowed to build a mud hut 3 by 3 metres inside, on the land behind their house, where they spent a year and nine months until the end of the occupation, his two older siblings were deported by the Germans to Poland for slave labour in 1943, did not return until after the war in 1945. In 1946, the family moved to Gzhatsk. In 1950, Gagarin entered into an apprenticeship at age 16 as a foundryman at the Lyubertsy Steel Plant near Moscow, enrolled at a local "young workers" school for seventh grade evening classes. After graduating in 1951 from both the seventh grade and the vocational school with honours in moldmaking and foundry work, he was selected for further training at the Saratov Industrial Technical School, where he studied tractors. While in Saratov, Gagarin volunteered for weekend training as a Soviet air cadet at a local flying club, where he learned to fly — at first in a biplane and in a Yak-18 trainer.
He earned extra money as a part-time dock labourer on the Volga River. He applied to attend the First Chkalov Air Force Pilot's School in Orenburg and was accepted as a cadet, he began his military training by flying Yak-18s. Gagarin was promoted to cadet-sergeant on 22 February 1956. Before he was permitted to fly a single-seat aircraft, he was required to show sufficient proficiency to a flight instructor. In one training incident, Gagarin was flying with an instructor, his takeoff and flight was acceptable, but while landing the instructor realized Gagarin was descending too and took over the controls. An identical incident occurred in another training flight two weeks later; this was grounds for Gagarin's dismissal from the flight school. The commander of the regiment saw Gagarin performing fitness training alone in the rain, they decided to give Gagarin another chance at landing. The instructor gave Gagarin a cushion to sit on. While the landing was still rough, it was within acceptable limits and Gagarin was permitted to solo.
He soloed in a MiG-15 in 1957. He became a lieutenant in the Soviet Air Forces on 5 November 1957 after he accumulated 166 hours and 47 minutes of flight time, he graduated the next day. After graduation, he was assigned to the Luostari airbase in Murmansk Oblast, close to the Norwegian border, where terrible weather made flying risky, his assignment there was for two years. Three months into his assignment, he became a military third class. On 6 November 1959, he received the rank of senior lieutenant. In 1960, after an extensive search and selection process, Gagarin was chosen with 19 other pilots for the Soviet space program. Gagarin was further selected for an elite training group known as the Sochi Six, from which the first cosmonauts of the Vostok programme would be chosen. Gagarin and other prospective candidates were subjected to experiments designed to test physical and psychological endurance. Gagarin experienced microgravity with the use of a drop tower, which allowed for 2–3 seconds of weightlessness.
The eventual choices for the first launch were Gagarin and Gherman Titov due to their performance during training sessions as well as their physical characteristics — space was limited in the small Vostok cockpit, both men were short. Gagarin was 1.57 metres tall. In August 1960, when Gagarin was one of 20 possible candidates, a Soviet Air Force doctor evaluated his personality as follows: Modest. Gagarin was a favoured candidate by his peers; when the 20 candidates were asked to anonymously vote for which other candidate they would like to see as the first to fly, all but t